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SIXTY-THIRD 

ANNUAL REPORT 

$lATEiDABD IF EDUCATION 

OF FiARYLAND 

3 929 



Maryland Room 
^Jmnwiiy of Marylaiid X^VMOtrf 
G>lie«e Park. Md. 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 




DC EOT CIRCOLATE 



% 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/report00nnary_58 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Sixty-Third Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1929 

LIBRARY, UNwrRStiy OF MARV^ 




TWENTIETH CENTURY PRINTING COMPANY. 
BALTIMORE. MI). 



2.6825 



STATE OF MARYLAND 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

DR. HENRY M. FITZHUGH, President Westminster 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretai-y- Treasurer Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU- Sharon 

EMORY L. COBLENTZ Frederick 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY Baltimore 

TASKER G. LOWNDES Cumberland 

E. W. McMASTER Pocomoke City 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 
2014 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

SAMUEL M. NORTH Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

W. K. KLINGAMAN (Hagerstown) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

J. D. BLACKWELL Director of Vocational Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics 

JOHN J. SEIDEL. Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation 

THOMAS L. GIBSON Supervisor of Music 

DR. WILLIAM BURDICK Director of Physical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

HELEIN DODSON Assistant Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

CLARA McDONAGH SIMERING Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY Stenographer 

FRANCES BELL Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Clerk 

PRINCIPALS OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS 

LIDA LEE TALL Maryland State Normal School Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Normal School Fro.stburg 

WILLIAM J. HOLLOWAY Salisbury Normal School Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES Maryland Normal and Industrial School 

(for Colored Students) Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 
2002 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

JOHN M. DENNIS State Treasurer, Chairman and Treasurer 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vioe-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MARGARET BARKLEY Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING 



AND HELPING TEACHERS 
1929-1930 



County 



Address 



County 



Address 



ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt., S. T, 
Anna B. Hi^jKins. S. T. 
Winifretl Greene, S. T. 
Loretto McGeady. S. T. 
James E. Spitznas, High School 
Supervisor 

ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 

George Fox, Supt. 
Davis S. Jenkins, Asst. Supt. 
Ruth Parker, S. T.^ 
M. Clarice Bersch. S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhai't, High School 
Supervisor 

BALTIMORE— Towson 

C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
John T. Hershner, Asst. Supt. 
M. Annie Grace, S. T.- 
Amy C. Crewe, S. T.- 
Jennie E. Jessop, S. T.^ 
Emma A. Boettner, S. T.- 

E. Height Hill. S. T.- 
Nellie V. Gray, S. T.^ 
Mary Grogan, S. T.- 

M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Sui>ervisor2 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty. S. T. 

CAROLINE— Denton 

Edward M. Noble. Supt. 

CARROLL— Westminster 
M. S. H. Unger, Supt, 
Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T. 
Gertrude M. Shinley. H. T 
Ruth DeVore, S. T. 
Grace Alder, H. T. 

CECII^Elkton 

Howard T. Ruhl. Supt. 
Lula H. Crim, S. T. 
Olive Reynolds, S. T. 

CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie. H. T. 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
James B. Noble, Supt. 
Ha;el Fisher, S. T. 
Evelyn Johnson, H. T. 

FREDERICK— Frederick 

G. Lloyd Palmer. Supt. 
James C. Biehl. Asst. Supt. 
Angel ine Sunday. S. T. 
Helen Woodley, S. T. 

Hal Lee T. Ott. H. T. 
Virginia Harwood, S. T. 

' Glen Bumie 
^ 300 Park Ave., Baltimore 



GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Grace Shatzer, S. T. 
Kate Bannatyne, H. T.'' 
Flossie Skid more, S. T. 
Gladys B. Hamill, H. T. 

HARFORD— Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 
Mary L. Grau, S. T.' 

HOWARD— Ell icott City 
W. C. Phillips, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 

KENT— Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson. Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison. S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 

E. W. Broome. Supt. 
Hulda Brust. S. T. 
Kristin Nilsson. S. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Thomas W. Pyle, High School 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
J. A. Miller. Asst. Sunt. 
Maude A. Gibbs, S. T. 
Mai-y Kemp, S. T. 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
T. Gordon Bennett, Supt. 
Tempe Dameron, S. T. 

ST. MARY'S— Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young. H. T. 

SOMERSET— P rincess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson, H. T. 

TALBOT— Easton 

Eugene W. Pruitt. Supt. 
William F. Phipps, S. T. 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 

B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Grace B. Downin. S. T. 
Katharine L. Healy, S. T. 
Anne Richardson, H. T. 
Kathleen Saville, S. T. 

WICOMICO Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 

C. Nettie Holloway, S. T. 
Bessie Brown, S. T. 

WORCESTERr-Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy. S. T. 
Nellie Collins Post, H. T. 



' 2(»3 Burke Ave., Towson 
' Grantsville 
H. T. -Helping Teacher 



Havre de Grace 

S. T. Supervising Teacher 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Letter of Transmittal 5 

State Public School Budget 1930 and 1931; 1929 Legislation 6 

The 1928 School Census in the Counties _ 11 

White Enrollment, Attendance, Days in Session „ _ 16 

White Elementary Schools: 

Attendance, Late Entrants, and Withdrawals _ 19 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions _ 30 

Tests Given; Special Classes _ 44 

Teacher Certification, Turnover, Experience _ 50 

Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries, Men Teaching 66 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Consolidation 75 

White High Schools: 

Junior High Schools 92 

Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 93 

Enrollment, Failures, Teachers, Distributed by Subjects 108 

Results of English Tests 125 

Clerks; Certification, Turnover, Experience, Sex of Teachers 132 

Number and Size of High Schools 144 

Size of Class, Salaries 149 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, 
Health _ 153 

Colored Schools: 

Census, Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants 

Withdrawals _ _ 164 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions 174 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore 180 

Teacher Certification and Experience, Size of Class, Salaries 185 

Cost Per Pupil, Buildings, Rosenwald Fund, Value of School 

Property 195 

Size of School, Transportation, P. T. A.'s, Physical Education 200 

Bowie Normal School 205 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland 209 

Baltimore City Summer and Evening Schools _ 219 

Certification _ _ 222 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil..... „ 225 

Financing the Vocational Education Program 238 

Transportation of Pupils and Consolidation of Schools 240 

Capital Outlay, Standard Schools, and Bond Issues _ _ 246 

County Budgets, Assessments, and Tax Rates for 1929-30 „ 256 

Administration and Supervision, Department Bulletins 268 

Parent-Teacher Associations 280 

The Maryland State Normal Schools — Towson, Frostburg, Salis- 
bury 286 

Teachers' Retirement System - 301 

List of Financial Statements and Statistical Tables _ 304 

Index ~ 358 



March 1.',, 1930. 

Honorable Albert C. Ritchie, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Md. 

Mij dear Governor Ritchie: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws of Maryland, 
the sixty-third "annual report, covering all operations of the State -Depart- 
ment of Education and the support, condition, progress, and needs of educa- 
tion throughout the State" for the school year ending in June, 1929, and 
considerable data for the current school year 1929-30, is herewith presented 
to you. 

Reference to the Table of Contents on the preceding page will show the 
rather complete study which is made of the measurable activities in our 
school program. The report shows uninterrupted progress in practically all 
phases of school work. Note, however, must be taken of the slight setback 
in school attendance in the white schools resulting from the unusual amount 
of sickness prevalent during the school year 1928-29. 

At the beginning of the report is included a statement regarding the 
State Public School Budgets for 1930 and 1931 and the legislation of 1929 
affecting the schools. You will be interested in the indications that the 
requests for funds in the State Public School budget have not increased in 
proportion to the increase in the State's taxable wealth. (See pages 6 and 
7.) 

The percentage of trained and experienced teachers working under com- 
petent supervision continues to increase making possible more efficient 
instruction of the State's children; in fact, we are reliably informed that 
the percentage of teachers with standard training in all of our schools, 
rural and urban, white and colored, probably leads the country; this is made 
possible by our program for teacher training in our noiTnal schools, largely 
at State expense, and by our equalization program, which makes it pos- 
sible for even our least wealthy communities to employ teachers with stand- 
ard training as vacancies occur, without increasing local tax rates for school 
maintenance beyond the average for the counties of the State in 1922, when 
the equalization fund was first established. More and more boys and girls 
are entering high school and successfuly completing the high school course. 
Additional provision for transportation of pupils to larger graded and high 
schools continues to result in the abandonment of one-teacher schools which 
are handicapped in many ways in giving children an adequate school train- 
ing. 

The progress shown in this report was made possible by the enthusiastic 
cooperation received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance officers, 
supervisors, and superintendents, who have in most cases been given the 
whole-hearted moral and financial support of their patrons and county com- 
missioners. The improvement would not have occurred without your splen- 
did interest and that of the Legislature in the Maryland education program. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry M. Fitzhugii, President 
Thomas H. Chambers 
Emory L. Coblentz 
J. M. T. Finney 
Taskf]r G. Lowndes 
Edgar W. McMaster 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Albert S. Cook, 

Secretan/-Tren.'iu.}'er 
State Board of Education. 



5 



STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGET NOT INCREASED IN PROPORTION 
TO INCREASE IN STATE ASSESSABLE BASIS TAXABLE 

AT FULL STATE RATE 

The Governor's recommendations for the State public school 
budget for 1930 and 1931 as approved by the 1929 legislature 
were substantially the amounts requested by the State Board of 
Education. They include $4,768,178 for 1930 and $4,867,547 for 
1931, exclusive of fees from normal school students. These 
amounts mean an increase of $740,959 over the 1929 appropria- 
tion and of $99,369 over the 1930 appropriation, respectively. 
Funds necessary for carrying into effect the financial provisions 
of the Teachers' Retirement System established by the legisla- 
ture of 1927 account for $647,047 of the first increase noted and 
for $41,826 of the second increase. (See Table A.) 

TABLE A 



Taxable Basis for 
Year Ending State Purposes Pay- 



Sept. 30 ing Full State Rate 

1923 $1,452,168,762 

1924 1,622,679,038 

1925 1,741,321,993 

1926 1,871,966,540 

1927 1,993,278,325 

1928 2,117,302,582 

1929 *2,293,208,840 

1930 *2,413,000,000 

1931 *2,533,000,000 



* Estimated. 



State Public School Rate for 

Budget Excluding Schools on 

Normal School Fees Each $100 

$3,477,000 $ .239 

3,507,000 .216 

3,629,745 .208 

3,742,600 .200 

3,826,681 .192 

3,916,111 .185 

4,027,219 .176 

4,768,178 *.198 

4,867,547 *.192 



Appropriations for public school purposes in the State public 
school budget are not increasing in proportion to the increase in 
the assessable basis taxable at the full rate for State purposes. 
Between 1923 and 1929, if the entire State public school budget 
had been provided for by a direct tax on State property assess- 
able at the full rate for State purposes, the rate for public school 
purposes would have decreased from 23.9 cents in 1923 to 17.6 
cents in 1929. There has been an increase in the corresponding 
estimated rates for 1930 and 1931 to 19.8 cents and 19.2 cents, 
respectively, to provide for the establishment of the new State 
Teachers' Retirement System. Even this, however, does not 
bring the rates as high as they were from 1923 to 1926, inclu- 
sive. In other words, the State's appropriations toward its pub- 
lie school system have not kept pace with the increase in the tax- 
able ivealth of the State. 



6 



State Public School Budget for 1930 and 1931 



7 



Duiing the same period the number of children in the pubHc 
elementary and secondary schools has been gradually increasing. 
The average State appropriation for each child enrolled in public 
elementary and secondary schools in 1923 was, on the average, 
$14.80. The average State appropriation per pupil has increased 
slightly each year from 1923 to 1929 so that it was one dollar 
more per pupil in the latter year or $15.84. This does not mean 
that this amount of State aid per pupil was distributed to the 
counties and Baltimore City, as the public school budget also pro- 
vides for the cost of administration of the schools through the 
State Department of Education, the cost of training of teachers 
in the State normal schools, and the State's part of the cost of 
the Teachers' Retirement System. 

TABLE B 

Average Number of Public Average State Appro- 



Year Ending Elementary and Secondary priation Per Average 

Sept. 30 School Pupils Enrolled Pupil Enrolled 

1923 234,914 $14.80 

1924 235,218 14.91 

1925 _ 239,392 15.16 

1926 - _ 241,961 15.47 

1927 - 246,113 15.55 

1928 251,701 15.56 

1929 - 254,196 15.84 

1930 „ *257,410 *18.52 

1931 - „ *260,624 *18.68 



* Estimated. 

In addition to adequate provision for the Teachers' Retirement 
System, the 1930 budget contains new appropriations of $10,000 
for the instruction of physically handicapped children, and of 
$5,000 for vocational rehabilitation. These appropriations were 
included as a result of the 1929 legislation providing for special 
training and guidance for physically disabled persons in Mary- 
land. (See Table C.) 

To take care of the growth in the high school population, the 
increase in trained teachers and increased provision for transpor- 
tation to larger consolidated schools, the budget includes in- 
creased appropriations for high schools and the equalization 
fund, provision for w^hich is made mandatory by sections 197 and 
204 of the 1927 edition of the School Laws of Marvland. (See 
Table C.) 



8 1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE C 

Appropriations of the State of Maryland for the Public School Budget 
Years Ending September 30, 1929, 1930, and 1931 



Purpose 


1929 


1930 


1931 


Maryland Teachers' Retirement System : 








State Contributions (Ch. 344-1927) 








County Teachers 




$424,654 


$445,886 


Baltimore City Teachers 




411,893 


432,487 


Expense Fund 




7,500 


7,500 


Total Retirement System 


$197,000 


$844,047 


$885,873 


Approved High Schools 


468,130 


500,954 


518,192 


Colored Industrial Schools 


30,750 


30,750 


30,750 


Part Payment of Salaries of County School 








Officials 


187,000 


187,000 


187,000 


Free Textbooks 


200,000 


200,000 


200,000 


Materials of Instruction 


50,000 


50,000 


50,000 


State Board of Education — 








Hotel and Travel 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


Vocational Education 


15,000 


15,000 


15,000 


Physical and Health Education 


15,000 


15,000 


15,000 


Bureau of Educational Measurements .... 


12,000 


12,000 


12,000 


Printing Annual Report 


2,000 


2,000 


2,000 


Bureau of Publication and Printing 


5,000 


5,000 


5,000 


Examination and Certification of Teachers 


500 


500 


500 


Extension leaching 


4,000 


3,000 


O AAA 
O ,00U 


State Department of Education 


66,900 


73,650 


73,650 


Towson Normal School 


*312,039 


*312,039 


*312,039 


Frostburg Normal School 


*73,263 


*83,565 


*83,565 


Salisbury Normal School 


*85,885 


*90,815 


*91,015 


Bowie Normal School 


*47,170 


*55,200 


*55,200 


Consultant Architect 


1,500 


1,500 


1,500 


Census and Attendance. 


1,900,000 


1,900,000 


1,900,000 


Equalization Fund 


469 , 882 


485 , 458 


526 , 563 






5,000 


5,000 


Instruction of Physically Handicapped 






10,000 






10,000 


Total 


$4,144,019 


$4,883,478 


$4,983,847 


Less Estimated Receipts from Normal 






116,300 




116,800 


115,300 


Total Required from the State 


$4,027,219 


$4,768,178 


$4,867,547 




$1,477,219 


$1,848,098 


$1,670,147 




2,550,000 


2,920,080 


3,197,400 


Amount of Public School Tax 


.1038 


.1058 


.1095 


* Includes the following estimated receipts 


from student 


fees: 




Towson Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Bowie 


Total 


1929 $75,000 $14,800 


$18,000 


$9,000 $116,800 


1930 62,000 20,300 


20,000 


13,000 


115,300 


1931 62,000 20,300 


21,000 


13,000 


116.300 



State Public School Budget and 1929 Legislation 9 

The State Department of Education and the State normal 
schools which are giving service in additional fields have had in- 
creases in their appropriations. At Towson the increase arises 
from a decrease in the estimated receipts from fees. (See Table 
C.) 

The budget provides for a direct State tax on real and personal 
property of 10.58 cents in 1930 and of 10.95 cents in 1931. The 
State tax produces 61 per cent of the funds required in 1930 and 
66 per cent of the State appropriation for the Public School bud- 
get for 1931. The remainder $1,848,000 in 1930, and $1,670,000 in 
1931 will be taken from general funds in the State Treasury de- 
rived from such sources as the inheritance tax, licenses, the re- 
ceipts from the Maryland Racing Commission, gross receipts, 
bonus and franchise taxes, interest and penalties, etc. 

LEGISLATION AFFECTING EDUCATION 
Special Classes for Handicapped Children 

A large portion of the 1929 school legislation centers around 
the education and readjustment of the physically handicapped. 
An attempt is to be made to have more complete information 
concerning the number, type, and location of physically disabled 
persons in Maryland. When the school census is taken in the 
counties and the police census in Baltimore City, the names and 
addresses of all disabled children between the ages of six and 
eighteen shall be tabulated and sent to the State Superintendent 
of Schools. When this information is available, the State Board 
of Health is called upon to provide for the examination of these 
children and to classify them according to the nature and degree 
of the handicap. Efforts will be made to determine which 
children are able to care for themselves and to benefit from at- 
tendance in the regular public schools, and which should receive 
clerical, therapeutic, or hospital treatment. If the number of 
those who can not, or should not, attend the regular schools is 
sufficiently large, special schools or classes shall be established. 
The State Board of Education is empowered to prescribe the cur- 
riculum and equipment for all such classes which may be organ- 
ized in the counties. A sum of $2,000 is available for each class 
of at least ten handicapped children provided the class is organ- 
ized in accordance with the rules and regulations of the State 
Board of Education. 

Vocational Rehabilitation of Persons over 14 

A further effort to fit the handicapped person into more nor- 
mal relationship with the social and economic order is found in 
the Maryland legislation accepting the provisions and benefits of 
the Act of Congress which aims towards vocational rehabihtation 
of disabled persons and their return to civil employment. A 



10 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation has been appointed who 
interviews and studies the possibility of rehabilitating- handi- 
capped persons in both Baltimore City and the counties. To be 
eligible for rehabilitation a person must be at least 14 years of 
age, vocationally handicapped, and susceptible of rehabilitation. 

State Aid for High Schools in Cities Having More than One School 

The clause of the section dealing with State aid for high 
schools which limited the amount of high school aid to $2,500 for 
each of two high schools in the same city, was repealed. Now 
if there are two or more large high schools in a city each will be 
aided on the basis of the actual enrollment and attendance. 

Safeguards for School Busses 

A bill, previously applicable to Talbot and now made manda- 
tory in Frederick, was passed in an endeavor to provide greater 
safeguards for children riding on school busses. All such busses 
shall have printed on the rear the words, ''school bus" and shall 
be equipped with signals which are visible from the rear when 
the bus is about to stop. In these counties all vehicles behind a 
school bus are required to stop at least ten feet behind the bus 
and remain so until the bus has moved on. It is unfortunate that 
these regulations apply to only two counties, and as bus transpor- 
tation becomes more prevalent, the need of such safeguards will 
be even more urgent. 

Children to Complete Six Grades Before Receiving Employment Certificates 

The Child Labor Law was amended to require completion of 
the elementary school course before an employment certificate 
may be granted. This means an increase of one grade in the re- 
quirement for Baltimore City children of fourteen years or over 
who formerly could secure a certificate upon completion of the 
fifth grade. 

Bond Issues Authorized 

In the 1929 legislature, 15 counties and Baltimore City received 
authorization for bond issues with amounts ranging from $20,000 
in Queen Anne's to $2,000,000 in Baltimore County. In only two 
counties, Wicomico and Worcester, were referenda required, and 
in each case it was successful. Baltimore City's issue must also 
be put to popular vote. In Anne Arundel and Howard the sale 
of bonds has been held up by a petitioned referendum, but in all 
the other counties the bonds have been or soon will be sold. (See 
Table 154, page 251.) 



THE 1928 SCHOOL CENSUS IN THE COUNTIES 



Teachers and school officials in the Maryland counties enum- 
erated nearly 6,000 more children in the school census taken in 
November, 1928, than were found in the census taken in Novem- 
ber, 1926. In 1928 the county child population of ages 5 to 18 
years, inclusive, aggregated 183,380 white and 42,058 colored 
children, making a total of 225,438 children. (See Table 1.) 

TABLE 1 

Census of Children Under 19 Years of Age in 23 Maryland Counties, 

November, 1928, By Age and Color. 



Age White Colored Total 



Total, 1928 183.380 42,058 225,438 

1926 177,534 42,312 219,846 

18 9,295 2,077 11,372 

17 10,476 2,262 12,738 

16 11.789 2.779 14,568 

15 11,919 2.753 14.672 

14 13.362 3,042 16,404 

13 13.316 2.973 16.289 

12 13.676 3,193 16,869 

11 13.550 2,992 16,542 

10 14.287 3,228 17,515 

9 13,879 3.206 17,085 

8 15,213 3,611 18.824 

7 14,906 3,418 18,324 

6 14,582 3,527 18.109 

5 13,130 2,997 16,127 



Each age group from 5 years to 14 years in the counties in- 
cludes between 13,000 and 15,000 white children and between 
3,000 and 3,500 colored children. These figures indicate that the 
schools in the counties must be prepared to take into the first 
grade annually, approximately 15,000 white and 3,500 colored 
children. (See Table 1.) 

There are more white boys than girls in every age group enu- 
merated. This fact is also evident in the statistics of enroll- 
ment in the public schools, for in every grade through the sixth 
there are more white boys than girls enrolled. Above grade six 
the girls exceed the boys in number, not, indeed, because of an 
excess of girls in the population, but because an excess number 
of boys drop out of school. (See Table 2 and Chart 2, page 30.) 



11 



12 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 2 

Census of Boys and Girls Under 19 Years of Age in 23 Maryland Counties, 
November, 1928, by Age, Color and Sex 



White Colored 



Age 


Boj'^s 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total, 1928 


93.627 


89 . 753 


21.219 


20,839 


1926 


90,473 


87,061 


21,298 


21,014 


IS: 


4,852 


4,443 


1.109 


968 


17 


5,472 


5,004 


1.197 


1.065 


16 


6,152 


5,637 


1,482 


1,297 


15 


6,051 


5.868 


1,369 


1.384 


14 


6,830 


6,532 


1.550 


1,492 


13 


6.722 


6,594 


1,496 


1,477 


12 


6,990 


6,686 


1.612 


1,581 


11 


6,886 


6,664 


1.479 


1,513 


10 


7,202 


7,085 


1,615 


1,613 


9 


7,041 


6.838 


1 , 590 


1,616 


8 


7,632 


7,581 


1,820 


1,791 


7 


7,728 


7,178 


1,672 


1,746 


6 


7,404 


7,178 


1,754 


1,773 


5 


6,665 


6,465 


1,474 


1,523 



The increase in the census of white county children noted be- 
fore was found in about two-thirds of the counties, the remain- 
ing third showing a decrease. One-third of the total increase in 
the counties appeared in Baltimore County, whose school popu- 
lation grew by over 2,000 in the two-year period from 1926 to 
1928. Allegany came next with approximately 1,400 more chil- 
dren ready for an education than in 1926. Montgomery had just 
under 1,000 additional children, Washington 700, Frederick 600, 
Anne Arundel and Prince George's between 300 and 400 addi- 
tional. 

Eight counties reported a smaller number of boys and girls of 
school age in 1928 than the number reported in 1926. Howard 
showed the greatest decrease, and other counties reporting fewer 
children were: Harford, Kent, Somerset, Worcester, Carroll, 
Caroline, Charles, and St. Mary's. The white and colored popu- 
lation in each county is shown for ages 5 and under 18 years,^ 
for 7 to 16 years inclusive,^ and for ages 6 to 14 years inclusive.*^ 
(See Table 3.) 



a Used in calculating the Ayres' index number. 

b The ages of compulsory school attendance with certain exceptions. 

c The basis for distributing approximately one and one-quarter millions of dollars in 
the public school budget. 



1928 School Census in Maryland Counties 13 



TABLE 3 

Children Enumerated in Maryland Counties in November, 1928, by Certain 

Ajfes 



COUNTY 


CHILDREN OF AGES 


(a) 5— Under 18* 




(b) 7 


— 16t 


(c) 6— 14J 
White 

and 
Colored 
Total 


White 


Colored 


White 




Total 


1/4 


,UoO 


39 ,981 


ioO 


C07 


OA , J. c/«J 


loo 


,901 


Allegany 


on 


,oOo 


377 


1 f\ 


,1^4 / 


296 


15 


,4oU 


Anne Arundel 


o 
O 


,Doo 


3 ,858 


O 


C/f O 
,o4Z 


3 016 


9 


AO ^ 


Baltimore 


ZD 




2 ,708 


on 
zu 


,0oU 


2 072 


O 1 

Zl 




Calvert 


1 


,352 


1 ,704 


1 


,083 


1 360 


2 


,225 


Caroline 


3 


,704 


1 ,239 


2 


,877 




3 


458 


Carroll 


8 


,100 


473 


6 


,274 


347 


6 


,094 


Cecil 


5 


,577 


627 


4 


,391 


487 


4 


,543 


Charles 


2 


,242 


Z ,Z0/ 


1 


,763 


1 831 


3 


,389 


Dorchester 





,017 


2,211 


3 


,943 


1 ,723 


5 


,179 


Frederick 


13 


,032 


1 ,319 


10 


,099 


1 ,004 


10 


,331 


Garrett 


6 


,032 


6 


4 


,739 


2 


4 


,400 


Harford 


6 


,306 


1 ,007 


4 


,931 


774 


5 


,379 


Howard 


3 


,261 


923 


2 


,522 


717 


3 


,010 


Kent 


2 


,528 


1,378 


1 


,940 


1 ,033 


2 


,740 


Montgomery 


9 


,931 


2,471 


7 


,646 


1 ,957 


8 


,847 


Prince George's 


12 


,243 


4,944 


9 


,382 


3,819 


12 


,365 


Queen Anne's 


2 


,933 


1,420 


2 


,318 


1 ,101 


3 


,103 


St. Mary's 


3 


,196 


2,260 


2 


,448 


1 ,776 


3 


,863 


Somerset 


3 


,864 


2,400 


3 


,030 


1 ,902 


4 


,579 


Talbot 


3 


,031 


1,475 


2 


,378 


1 ,100 


3 


,268 


Washington 


16 


,268 


448 


12 


,776 


345 


12 


,258 


Wicomico 


6 


,024 


2,191 


4 


,766 


1 ,744 





,948 


Worcester 


3 


,829 


2,285 

1 


3 


,022 


1 ,806 


4 


,367 



♦Ages 5-18, inclusive, must be enumerated by law, but 5 and under 18 is used in com- 
puting Ayres' Index Number. 

tCompulsory attendance ages. 

JAges used as basis for distribution of certain school funds. 



Of 135,897 white children of ages 7 to 16 years,t 113,243 or 83 
per cent were in public schols, 11,037 or 8 per cent were in 
parochial and private schools, and 11,617 or 9 per cent were not 
in school in November, 1928. Of the latter group, 888 who were 
mentally and physically handicapped and 8,390 who were 15 and 
16 years old, many of whom were graduates of the elementary 
school are excused from school attendance. The attendance offi- 



14 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



cers in the counties use the census data to follow up and bring 
into school any children of ages 7 to 16 years inclusive who 
should be in school, but who are not in attendance. (See Table 4 
and Chart 1.) 

TABLE 4 

Number and Per Cent of White Children Enumerated of Ages 7-16 Years, 
Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School, 

November, 1928 



NUMBER PER CENT 

In Private In Private 



COUNTY 


In 


and 


In No 




In 


and 


In No 




Public 


Parochial 


School 


Total 


Public 


Parochial 


School 




School 


School 






School 


School 




Total and Average: 




















1928 


113,243 


11,037 


11,617 


135,897 


83 


.3 


8 


.1 


. 8.6 


1926. 


110,033 


8,854 


11,049 


129,936 


84 


.7 


6 


.8 


8.5 


Talbot 


2,223 ■ 


27 


128 


2,378 


93 


5 


1 


1 


5.4 


Montgomery 


6,319 


903 


424 


7,646 


82 


6 


11 


8 


5.6 


Prince George's 


8,092 


698 


592 


9,382 


86 


3 


7 


4 


6.3 


Kent 


1,774 


40 


126 


1,940 


91 


4 


2 


1 


6.5 


Howard 


2,081 


274 


167 


2,522 


82 


5 


10 


9 


6.6 


Anne Arundel 


5,968 


421 


453 


6,842 


87 


2 


6 


2 


6.6 


Harford 


4,461 


129 


341 


4,931 


90 


5 


2 


6 


6.9 


Cecil 


3,529 


559 


303 


4,391 


80 


4 


12 


7 


6.9 


Caroline 


2,657 


19 


201 


2,877 


92 


4 




6 


7.0 


Charles 


1,393 


235 


135 


1,763 


79 





13 


3 


7.7 


Allegany 


12,288 


2,390 


1,369 


16,047 


76 


6 


14 


9 


8.5 


Queen Anne's 


2,082 


36 


200 


2,318 


89 


8 


1 


6 


8.6 


Wicomico 


4,274 


63 


429 


4,766 


89 


7 


1 


3 


9.0 


Worcester 


2,735 


16 


271 


3,022 


90 


5 




5 


9.0 


Somerset 


2,730 


26 


274 


3,030 


90 


1 




8 


9.1 


Washington 


11,213 


387 


1, 176 


12,776 


87 


8 


3 





9.2 


Garrett 


4, 198 


105 


436 


4,739 


88 


6 


2 


2 


9.2 


Frederick 


8,457 


675 


967 


10,099 


83 


7 


6 


7 


9.6 


Dorchester 


3,546 


12 


385 


3,943 


89 


9 




3 


9.8 




15,772 


2,842 


2,066 


20,680 


76 


3 


13 


7 


10.0 




5,339 


247 


688 


6,274 


85 


1 


3. 


9 


11.0 


St. Mary's 


1,207 


921 


320 


2,448 


49. 


3 


37. 


6 


13.1 


Calvert 


905 


12 


166 


1,083 


83. 


6 


1. 


1 


15.3 



Some counties reported 5 per cent of the children of ages 7 to 
16 years inclusive not in school, while others showed from 10 to 
15 per cent of the white pupils out of school. Some of these non- 
school attendants are no doubt too physically or mentally handi- 
capped to attend school and others are graduates of the elemen- 
tary school, but there are undoubtedly children out of school who 
should be in school in a number of the counties. It is the func- 
tion of the attendance officer to follow up these children and 
endeavor to bring them into school. Of course, a county which 
has been most careful and accurate in taking its census may 
show a larger percentage of non-school attendants than one 
which has been less careful. 

Conditions vary greatly among the counties : Talbot had over 
93 per cent of its white children in public schools and only 5 per 



White Children of Ages 7 to 16 in 1928 School Census 

CHART 1 



15 



PER CENT OF WHITE CHILDREN OF AGES 7-16 YEARS, UiCVJSTIE. 
ElIUMER-VTED NC72L3ER, 1928. IN PU3LIC AND 
IN PRIVATE AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. AlfD IN NO SCHOOL 



Total No. % In 

County of White Public % In No 

Children Schools School 

Total and 



Co. Av. 135,897 83.3 

Talbot 2,378 93.5 

Montcomery 7,646 82.6 

Pr. Geo. 9,382 86.3 

Kent 1,940 91.4 

Howard 2,522 82.5 

A. Arundel 6,842 87.2 

Harford 4,931 90.5 

Cecil 4,391 80.4 

Caroline 2,877 92.4 

Charles 1,763 79.0 

Allegany 16,047 76.6 

Q. Anne's 2,318 89.8 

Wicomico 4,766 39.7 

Worcester 3,022 90.5 

Somerset 3,030 90.1 

Washington 12,776 87.8 

Garrett 4,739 88.6 

Frederick 10,099 83.7 

Dorchester 3,943 89.9 

Baltimore 20,680 76.3 

Carroll 6,274 85.1 

St. Mary's 2,448 49.3 

Calvert 1,083 83.6 



In Private and Parochial 
Schools 



11.8 



r.4 





m 






10.9 




«z 1 











12.7 1 


7.0 1 






13.3 


8.5 


1 1 




9 6- 


6.7 1 


9.8 





10 - 


1 13-7 1 




37:6 



cent not in school. Montgomery had ahnost as small a percen- 
tage not in school as Talbot, but 12 per cent in parochial and 
private schools, making its public school enrollment include but 
83 per cent of the child population of ages 7 to 16 years. Cal- 
vert had 84 per cent in public school, but 15 per cent in no school ; 
and St. Mary's had 49 per cent of its child population in public 
schools, 38 per cent in parochial and private schools, and 13 per 
cent not in any school. The counties are arranged in Table 4 and 
Chart 1 from lowest to highest according to the per cent of chil- 
dren not in school in November, 1928. (See Tabic 4 and Chart 
1.) 



PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE 

The foregoing figures were based on the census of all children 
of school age. Subsequent figures in this report will deal with 
the number of children reported by principals as actually enrolled 
in or attending public schools. The public schools in the counties 
enrolled 131,280 white pupils in 1929, which was 1,906 more 
children than the number enrolled the preceding school year. 
Since some of these pupils entered late and withdrew early, the 
average enrollment, technically called ''average number belong- 
ing", was 123,255 and the average number attending was 110,- 
341. The average number belonging for 1929 was 1,773 pupils 
larger than for the preceding school year, but the corresponding 
increase in average daily attendance was only 424. It will be 
seen later that 1928-29 was a bad year for school attendance. 
(See Table 5.) 



TABLE 5 

Enrollment, Average Number Belonging, and Average Number Attending 
in County White Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1929 



County 



Total 
White 
Enroll- 
ment 



Average Number 



Belong- 
ing 



Attend- 
ing 



Cot^NTv 



Total 
White 
Enroll- 
ment 



Average Number 



Belong- 
ing 



Total Counties, 1929 1 
Total Counties, 1928 . 

Total Counties, 1920 . 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Frederick 

Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Carroll 

Harford 

Wicomico 



t*131,280 


tl23,255 


tll0,341 




4,837 


4,356 


3,794 


♦129,374 


121,482 


109,917 


Cecil 


4,166 


3,875 


3,399 


Dorchester 


3,946 


3,687 


3,293 


114,871 


t 


82,017 


Somerset 


3,259 


3,039 


2,706 




Worcester 


3,206 


2,930 


2,610 


19,178 


17,593 


15,732 


Caroline 


3,125 


2,870 


2,600 


14,544 


13,559 


12,428 


Talbot 


2,604 


2,422 


2,188 


13,227 


12,404 


11,090 




2,472 


2,247 


2,025 


9,949 


9,297 


8,333 


Queen Anne's .... 


2,247 


2,064 


1,827 


9,057 


8,195 


7,494 


Kent 


2,122 


1,960 


1,743 


7,392 


6,687 


5,947 


Charles 


1,881 


1,764 


1.507 


7,071 


6,587 


5,950 


St. Mary's 


1,353 


1,230 


1,071 


6,556 


6,037 


5,265 


Calvert 


1,027 


967 


833 


5,475 


4,928 


4,359 










4,904 


4,557 


4,147 


Baltimore City. . . 


*9 1,297 


85 , 049 


77,184 








State 


♦222,577 


208 , 304 


187.525 



tData not available until 1923. *Excludes duplicates. 

t For similar data for counties arranged alphabetically see the following: Tables III, 
V and VI, pages 310-313. 

The counties are arranged in Table 5 in order of size of public 
school population from largest to smallest. The only counties 
which have changed their position among the counties since last 
year are Wicomico v^hich displaced Garrett, and Somerset w^hich 
displaced Worcester. (See Table 5.) 

In the City of Baltimore the white public school enrollment 
was 91,297, the average number belonging 85,049, and the aver- 



16 



White Enrollment, Number Belonging and Attending 



17 



age number attending 77,184. According to the 19,20 federal 
census, the total city white population exceeded that in the coun- 
ties by 50,000. It will be noted, therefore, that the public school 
population in the counties exceeds that of the City of Baltimore 
by from 33,000 to 40,000, depending on whether comparison is 
based on enrollment, average number belonging, or average num- 
ber attending. The difference to the extent of 22,500 may be 
explained by the excess enrollment in parochial and private 
schools in the City over that in the counties. Through the cour- 
tesy of the superintendent of Catholic schools, figures regarding 
enrollment and teaching staff in Catholic schools for the fall of 
1928 are available and for some of the other private schools of 
the State the principals have furnished similar data. We realize 
that the data for private schools are by no means complete. We 
shall endeavor in the coming year to secure response from the 
private schools which have failed to return our questionnaires 
in the past. (See Table 5 and Table IV, page 311.) 

The remaining difference between city and county enrollment is 
probably due to a larger number of children per family in the 
counties than is found in the City, and to the fact that a larger 
percentage of county than of City children enter high school. 
(See Chart 12, page 95.) 

LENGTH OF SESSION— WHITE SCHOOLS 1928-29 
White schools in the counties opened between September 3rd 
and 12th in 1928. The closing dates ran from May 31st in the 
three southernmost counties on the Eastern Shore, to June 20th 
and 21st in Allegany, Baltimore, Garrett, and Harford Counties. 
(See Table 6.) 

On the average, the county white elementary schools were in 
session 186.8 days, nearly two days less than for the preceding 
year. The shorter school session was found in every county ex- 
cept Washington, and for the elementary schools of Kent and 
Anne Arundel. The county having the shortest school year, Cal- 
vert, had 180.3 days, and the longest, Allegany, 195.9 daj's. 
Allegany County schools were open four more days than those in 
any other county. (See Table 6.) 

Until the end of the school year 1928-29, on the recommenda- 
tion of the State Department of Education, the counties con- 
sidered children present for the entire day even though they 
were in attendance for the morning only, if school was closed in 
the afternoon to permit teachers to attend a meeting of teachers 
called by the superintendent or supervisor. With the opening of 
the school year in September, 1929, this practice has been dis- 
continued, in order to conform with recommendations of the 
National Education Association Committee on Records and Re- 
ports and the United States Office of Education. 



18 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 6 

Length of Session in White Schools— 1928-29 



County 



School Year 1928-29 



No. of 
Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



County 



§ Average Days 
in Session 



White 
High 
Schools 



White 
Elemen- 
tary 
Schools 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . , 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City . 




1 
1 

3 
2 
2 

1 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
*1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 



9/3 
9/6 

9/10 
9/4 

9/10 
9/3 
9/6 
9/4 

9/10 
9/4 
9/6 
9/5 
9/4 

9/10 

9/12 

9/10 
9/4 

9/10 
9/4 

9/10 
9/4 
9/3 
9/3 

t9/17 



6/21 
6/18 
6/21 
6/7 
6/12 
6/7 
6/14 
6/7 
6/7 
6/7 
6/21 
6/20 
6/14 
6/14 
6/14 
6/18 
6/14 
6/19 
5/31 
6/12 
6/7 
5/31 
5/31 

6/28 



County Average 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Queen Anne's . . 

Garrett 

Howard 

St. Mary's 

Prince George's . 

Kent 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Washington. ... 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Montgomery. . . 
Anne Arundel . . 

Worcester 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Baltimore City. 

State 



186.9 



195.8 
192.0 
191.6 
190.0 
186.0 
189.9 
189.0 
185.2 
185.9 
188.0 
184.9 
186.0 
186.7 
185.4 
183.1 
183.7 
182.0 
181 .8 
182.2 
181.4 
181.0 
180.0 
183.8 



182.7 
185.3 



186.8 

195.9 
191.7 
191.3 
189.6 
189.4 
187.9 
187.3 
186.3 
185.8 
185.8 
184.9 
184.9 
184.6 
183.6 
182.9 
182.8 
182.0 
181.6 
181.5 
181.1 
181.0 
180.7 
180.3 

189.8 



* 9/8 after opening of schools. ** For Senior High Schools 6/14. 

tDeferred two weeks because of infantile paralysis epidemic. 

§ For similar data arranged by counties alphabetically, see Table VI, page 313. 

The shorter school session in 1928-29 has been accompanied 
in a number of counties by an increase in the number of schools 
not open the required number of days. In 19,28 the number of 
white schools open less than 180 days was lower than ever before 
— 33. In 1929 there were 62 schools in 14 counties which had 
fewer days than the required number. Carroll had 12, Garrett 
10, and Charles 9 schools with a short session. Infantile paral- 
ysis and scarlet fever account for this situation in Garrett and 
Charles Counties respectively. St. Mary's, with no schools for 
white pupils open fewer than 180 days in 1929, shows an im- 
provement over conditions the previous year when there were 3 
schools which had a short session. The following counties which 
had no schools on short session in 1928 appear in the 1929 list, 
viz., Calvert, Allegany, Kent, and Queen Anne's, each of which 
had one school open less than 180 days. (See Table 7). 



Length of Session and Per Cent of Attendance 



VJ 



TABLE 7 

Number of Maryland County White Schools in Session Less Than 
180 Days, Year Endin<? July 31, 1929 



No. of Schools Open Less Than 
180 Days 









Having 






Having 


More 




Total 


One 


than One 


Ck)unty 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


All 1929 


62 


45 


17 


Counties 1928 


33 


25 


8 


1927 


83 


68 


15 


1926 


124 


109 


15 


Allegany 


1 


1 




Kent 


1 


1 




Queen Anne's . . . 


1 


1 




Prince George's. . 


2 


1 


1 


Washington 


3 


2 


1 



No. of Schools Open Less Than 
180 Days 









Having 






Having 


More 




Total 


One 


than One 


County 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Frederick 


3 


1 


2 


Talbot 


3 


1 


2 


Dorchester. . . . 


4 


2 


2 


Somerset 


4 


2 


2 


Calvert 


4 


4 




Montgomery. . . 


5 


4 


1 


Charles 


9 


6 


3 


Garrett 


10 


7 


3 


Carroll 


12 


12 





PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE LOWER 

Due to the bad weather and the epidemics prevalent during 
the school year 1928-29, attendance in county white elementary 
schools was one per cent lower than for the preceding year. The 
average daily attendance was 88.8 per cent of the average num- 
ber belonging. The progress shown annually since 1923 in in- 
creasing the per cent of attendance had its first setback in 1929. 
(See Table 8.) 

TABLE 8 

Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White Elementary Schools, 

1923-29 



1929 

Derreasp 

Type of School 1923 1924 1925 1927 1928 1929 under 1928 

White Elementary 84.2 85.5 87.2 88.7 89.8 88.8 1.0 

One Teacher 79.4 80.9 83.1 85.0 86.6 85,7 .9 

TwoTeacher 82.2 83.8 85.8 87.4 88.9 87.5 1.4 

Graded 87.3 88.3 89.4 90.2 91.0 89. S 1.2 



Every county showed a decrease in per cent of attendance 
from 1928 to 1929, except Anne Arundel, Kent, and St. Mary's 
which had commendable increases, and Baltimore and Mont- 
gomery, in which the percentages for the two years were the 
same. (See Table 9.) 

The per cent of attendance varied in white elementary schools 
from 83.8 in Charles County to 90 per cent in Caroline and 91 
per cent in Prince George's and Allegany Counties. (See Table 
9.) 



20 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 9 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools, 1923-1929 



County 


1923 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County 


1923 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County Average . . 


84 


2 


88 


.7 


89 


8 


88 


.8 




83 


3 


90 


4 


91 





88 


2 


















Montgomery 


81 


9 


87 


9 


88 


2 


88 


2 


Allegany 


89 





92 


6 


93 


6 


91 





Worcester 


83 


5 


88 


1 


88 


J 


88 





Prince George's.. . 


84 


9 


90 


2 


90 


9 


91 























Caroline 


86 


5 


90 


3 


91 


8 


90 





Harford 


84 


5 


87 


7 


88 


5 


87 


8 




86 


5 


90 


8 


92 


4 


89 


8 


Queen Anne's . . . . 


85 


4 


86 


5 


90 


3 


87 


6 


Anne Arundel .... 


84 


5 


88 


1 


89 


1 


89 


7 


Cecil. 


84 


8 


88 





88 


6 


86 


7 






















83 


9 


86 


7 


89 


2 


86 


6 




84 





86 


3 


87 


6 


89 


6 


St. Mary's 


74 


5 


81 





85 


6 


86 


4 


Talbot 


85 


8 


90 


5 


91 


8 


89 


4 


















Baltimore 


84 





88 


6 


88 


7 


88 


7 




79 


4 


85 


8 


88 





86 


4 


Frederick 


83 


6 


87 


6 


89 


3 


88 


7 




79 


9 


81 


8 


88 


1 


84 


8 


Washington 


84 


9 


89 


5 


90 


1 


88 


7 


Charles 


79 


5 


83 





85 


7 


83 


8 


Kent 


86 


7 


89 





90 


8 


88 


6 


Baltimore City. . . 


. 89 


8 


90 


5 


90 


6 


90 


5 


Dorchester 


81. 


2 


87 


5 


89. 


7 


88 


3 




































State 


86 


7 


89 


5 


90 


2 


89 


5 



Similar data for 1929 for the counties arranged alphabetically will be found in Table V, 
page 312. 

Attendance in One-Teacher, Two-Teacher and Graded Schools 

The county one-teacher schools had 85.7 per cent attendance, 
the two-teacher schools 87.5 per cent, and the larger schools 89.8 
per cent. (See Table 10.) 

Talbot and Anne Arundel with a very limited number of one- 
teacher schools had the highest attendance, over 90 per cent in 
the one-teacher schools. Charles at the bottom of the list and 
without the services of an attendance officer had only 81.4 per 
cent of attendance in the one-teacher schools. Anne Arundel, 
Howard, Prince George's, Baltimore, Montgomery, Worcester, 
and St. Mary's Counties all had a higher percentage of atten- 
dance in their one-teacher schools than they had the preceding 
year. (See Table 10.) 

The two-teacher schools varied in attendance from 84 per cent 
in Charles County to 91.4 per cent in Wicomico. Four counties 
— Wicomico, Allegany, Caroline, and Queen Anne's had an at- 
tendance of 90 per cent or above in two-teacher schools. Caro- 
line, Howard, and St. Mary's were the only counties which im- 
proved attendance in 1929 over 1928 in these schools. (See 
Table 10.) 

Graded schools varied in attendance from 81.9 in Calvert to 
91.6 in Allegany and Prince George's. The only counties show- 
ing a higher per cent of attendance in graded schools for 1929 
over 1928 were Howard and Anne Arundel. Prince George's 
had the same percentage of attendance in the two years. (See 
Table 10.) 



Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools 



21 



TABLE 10 

Per Cent of Attendance, 1924, 1928 and 1929 
In Types of White Elementary Schools 



One-Teacher Schools 


Two-Teacher Schools 


Graded Schools 


County 1924 1928 1929 


County 1924 1928 1929 


County 1924 1928 1929 



County Aver . 


.80. 


9 


86. 


,6 


85. 


,7 


County Aver . 


.83. 


9 


88. 


9 


87. 


5 


County Aver . 


.88. 


3 


91 . 


0' 


•89 


,8 


Talbot 


87. 


2 


92. 


3 


90. 


7 


Wicomico .... 


86 


3 


93. 


2 


91 


.4 


Prince George's89 





91 


6 


91 


,6 


Anne Arundel. . 77 . 


6 


87. 


,9 


90. 


3 


Allegany 


.88. 


9 


94. 





91. 





Allegany 


92 


.4 


94 


2*91 


.6 


Wicomico. . . . 


83. 


9 


91. 


.2 


88, 


6 


Caroline 


87. 


9 


89. 


8 


90 


5 


Howard 


85 


.8 


88, 


8 


90 


.9 


Kent 


84 


.8 


90 


.3 


88, 


,4 


Queen Anne's. 


.86. 


5 


92. 


5 


90. 





Frederick .... 


86, 


4 


91. 


.1 


90 


6 


Caroline 


88, 


.3 


90 


.8 


88. 


.3 


Howard 


81. 


9 


87. 


3 


89. 


,8 


Garrett 


89. 


,9 


93. 


2 


90. 


3 




82 


5 


86 


1 


87. 


6 


Cecil 


.86. 


5 


90. 


3 


89. 


5 


Caroline 


89. 


9 


92. 


4 


90 


3 




81 


,7 


90 


.9 


87, 


.6 


Prince George's85 . 


,8 


89. 


6 


89 


4 


Wicomico. . . . 


.89. 


3 


92 


9 


90. 


1 


Prince George's83 


.3 


87 


.0 


87 


.3 


Talbot 


86, 


.7 


93, 


5 


89. 


,4 


Kent 


88. 


3 


90. 


9 


89. 


9 


Baltimore. . . . 


82 


.3 


85 


.8 


87 


.2 


St. Mary's . . . 


.81, 


4 


89. 





89 


.3 


Washington . . 


.88, 


,8 


91 


,7 


89, 


.9 


Queen Anne's. 


.82. 


.9 


88, 


.6 


86. 


,2 


Worcester. . . . 


82 


6 


90. 


4 


89, 


.1 


Dorchester. . . 


.89. 


5 


91. 


4 


89. 


8 


Dorchester. . . 


.81 


.3 


86 


.4 


85, 


.4 


Anne Arundel.. 81 


9 


89. 


2 


88, 


5 


Anne Arundel. 


.87. 


9 


89. 


2 


89. 


8 


Carroll 


78 


.2 


86 


.4 


85 


.4 


Somerset 


83 


3 


92 


4 


87 


.5 


Harford 


88 


9 


90 


6 


89, 


6 


Calvert 


77. 


.2 


86 


.7 


85, 


.3 


Garrett 


87, 


.7 


91, 


.7 


87, 


.4 


Montgomery . 


.86 


.3 


89 


5' 


•89 


.3 


Washington. . 


.80 


.1 


85 


.2 


85, 


. 1 


Harford 


85 


6 


88, 


3 


87 


.3 


Baltimore .... 


86 


2 


89 


2 


89, 


2 




82. 


.9 


86 


.9 


84. 


9 


Dorchester. . . 


.86. 


,7 


88. 


6 


86 


.8 


Talbot 


88, 


.5 


91. 


.4 


89. 





Montgomery . 


.78 


.1 


83 


.9 


84 


.9 


Frederick .... 


80 


.3 


87 


,3 


86 


.5 


Worcester 


89 


.3 


90 


. 5 


88 


.9 


Worcester. . . . 


77 


.0 


83 


.8 


84 


.8 


Calvert 


81 


.7 


89 


.8 


86 


. 5 


Somerset 


.86 


.7 


90 


.9 


88, 


. 5 


Frederick .... 


79 


.6 


86 


.3 


84, 


,8 


Baltimore. . . . 


82 


.5 


87 


.0 


86 


.4 


Carroll 


84 


.3 


89 


5 


87, 


, 5 


Cecil 


81, 


,7 


86 


.7 


84, 


5 


Montgomery . 


.80 


5 


87. 


,2 


86, 


2 


Queen Anne's. 


.88. 


3 


90. 


r> 


87. 


3 




82 


.7 


85 


.2 


84, 


.5 


Kent 


85 


.8 


91. 


2 


86, 


.0 


Cecil 


87. 


3 


89. 


2 


87. 


1 


Garrett 


81 


.2 


86 


.8 


84 


.5 


Washington . . 


.80 


.6 


86 


.4 


85 


.4 


Charles 


88 


.4 


87 


.6 


84 


.8 


8t. Mary's . . . 


.79 


.3 


83 


.1 


84 


.4 


Carroll 


81 


.4 


86 


.1 


84 


.0 


St. Marv's 






87 


.3 


83 


2 


Charles 


77 


.3 


81 


.6 


81 


.4 


Charles 


84 


.3 


88 


.0 


84 


.0 


Calvert 






90 


. 5 


81 


9 



• Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8. 

Similar data for 1929 for the counties arranged alphabetically will be found in Table V, 
page 312. 

Attendance By Months 

The number belonging and per cent of attendance by months 
in county schools indicate that the maximum enrollment was 
found in white one-teacher schools in December, in two-teacher 
schools in January, in graded schools in November and in white 
high schools in October. The 100 day provision permits pupils 
of ages 13-16 years who are employed to enter school as late as 
November 1 and withdraw early in April. (See Tabic 11.) 

The maximum enrollment in colored elementary schools was 
found in February and in colored high schools in November. 

The per cent of attendance in January was lower than for any 
other month during the school year, 1928-29, probably due to the 
influenza epidemic and the bad weather. The one- and two- 
teacher schools had only just over three-fourths of the number 
belonging present on the average during that month. The per 
cent of attendance was highest in September, dropped each 
month until it was lowest in January and therafter increased 
each succeeding month. (See Table 11.) 



22 



1929 



Report of State Department of Education 



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Monthly Attendance and Pupils Attending Few Days 



23 



Pupils AttendiriR Fewer Than 100 and 140 Days 

With the lower percentage of attendance found so generally 
prevalent in the counties, it is to be expected that a larger num- 
ber of children would be present fewer than 100 and 140 days 
than in the preceding year, thus checking the steady progress in 
this respect found since 1924, and this is the case in the two- 
teacher and graded schools and the white elementary schools as 
a whole. (See Table 12.) 



TABLE 12 

County White Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days, 

1924-1929 





PRESENT UNDER 100 DAYS 


PRESENT UNDER 140 DAYS 


year 




















One- 


Two- 


Graded 


All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 


Graded 


All Ele- 




Teacher 


Teacher 




mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 




mentary 








NUMBER 










1924 


6,537 


2,655 


5,918 


15,110 


12,684 


5,704 


12,525 


30,913 


1925 


5,179 


2,180 


4,984 


12,343 


10,502 


4,776 


11,219 


26,497 


1926 


4,370 


1,861 


5,302 


11,533 


9,359 


4,196 


11 ,772 


25,327 


1927 


3.701 


1,572 


5,109 


10,382 


7,749 


3,579 


11,185 


22.513 


1928 


2,805 


1,176 


4,498 


8,479 


5,989 


2,656 


10,067 


18.712 


1929 


2,512 


1,337 


4,843 


8,692 


5,539 


3,121 


11,325 


19,985 








PER CENT 










1924 


23.4 


15.6 


10.7 


15.0 


45.4 


33.5 


22.5 


30.7 


1925 


19.6 


13.2 


8.5 


12.2 


39.7 


29.0 


19.2 


26.1 


1926 


17.8 


11.9 


8.6 


11.3 


38.1 


26.9 


19.1 


24.9 


1927 


16.1 


10.9 


7.8 


10.1 


33 . 7 


24.8 


17.1 


21 .9 


1928 


13.3 


8.7 


6.6 


8.2 


28 . 3 


19.7 


• 14.7 


18.2 


1929 


13.3 


9.6 


6.8 


8.4 


29.4 


22.5 


16.0 


19.3 



The possibility for covering the work in the elementary school 
curriculum varies greatly with the county in which one lives. 
In Queen Anne's only 5 per cent of the children were present 
less than 100 days, while in Charles County 15 per cent of the 
children were kept out of school so that their days in attendance 
were thus curtailed. If the comparison is made for those present 
less than 140 days, which means missing at least two or more 
months of the regular school year, Allegany had 12 per cent 
losing this much time while Charles County had such a loss by 
35 per cent of its white pupils. (See Tabic 13.) 

LATE ENTRANCE TO SCHOOL INCREASES 

The progress in reducing the number of white elementary 
pupils entering school after the first month had a setback in 
1929. The increase in late entrants, when analyzed by cause, 
seems due to a larger number just moving into the locality, more 
illness and quarantine, and a larger proportion entering late be- 
cause under school age or for other miscellaneous causes. It 



24 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 13 

Per Cent of White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 
100 and 140 Days for School Year Ending July 31, 1929. 



PER CENT OF PUPILS ATTENDING 



COUNTY 


One-Teacher 
Schools 


Two-Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All Elementary 
Schools 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Total Number 


2,512 


5,539 


1,337 


3,121 


4,843 


11,325 


8,692 


19,985 


County Aver. . 


13 


3 


29. 


4 


9. 


6 


22. 


5 


6 


8 


16 





8. 


4 


19 


3 


Allegany 


15 


5 


27 


7 


5 


3 


10. 


1 


5 


4 


10 


7 


6 


1 


12 





PrinceGeorge's 
Queen Anne's. 


10 


5 


24 


9 


6 


4 


18. 


8 


6 


1 


12 


7 


6 


5 


14 


5 


6 


4 


23 


4 


2 


1 


9 


1 


5 


6 


15 





5 





15 


8 


Baltimore .... 


9 


6 


21 


G 


10 


2 


21 





6 


8 


14 


8 


7 


4 


16 





Howard 


11 


7 


20 


1 


5 


3 


13 


5 


7 


2 


15 


2 


8 


5 


16 


7 


Harford 


11 


5 


27 


2 


9 


1 . 


18 


6 


4 


1 


11 


3 


7 


1 


17 





Anne Arundel. 


5 


4 


15 


4 


6 


8 


21 


1 


7 


1 


17 


1 


7 





17 


4 


Kent 


9 


5 


18 


3 


7 





22 


2 


4 


7 


14 


6 


6 


6 


17 


5 


Frederick 


9 


5 


28 


2 


6 


2 


22 


6 


4 


5 


14 


8 


5 


8 


18 


8 


Talbot 


8 


8 


19 


1 




8 


13 


1 


7 


7 


19 


5 


7 


4 


19 





Wicomico .... 


7 


4 


21 


7 


6 


7 


13 


7 


9 


3 


19 


3 


8 


5 


19 


4 


Caroline 


12 


6 


27 


3 


8 


5 


18 





7 


2 


18 


2 


8 


1 


19 


5 


Cecil 


15 


3 


27 


9 


7 


6 


16 





8 


2 


18 


9 


10 


4 


21 


2 


Washington. . . 


20 


9 


37 


8 


17 


8 


35 


3 


7 


6 


17 


2 


10 


7 


22 


3 


Dorchester . . . 


13 


1 i 


30 


9 


9 


2 


24 


8 


7 


2 


18 


3 


9 





22 


4 


Somerset 


10 


6 


25 





8 


8 


24 


3 


8 


8 


21 


5 


9 


2 


22 


6 


Worcester .... 


18 





34 


7 


12 


1 


23 


5 


6 


6 


19 





10 





23 


3 


Montgomery. . 


16 


7 


32 


3 


14 


3 


31 


5 


10 


2 


20 


7 


11 


7 


24 


1 


Carroll 


14 


9 


31 


5 


13 





32 


8 


6 


7 


18 


9 


10 





24 


6 


St. Mary's 


12 


9 


35 


8 


7 


1 


18 


7 


16 


9 


35 


.9 


10 


9 


28 


4 


Calvert ...... 


13 


.5 


29 


9 


9 


7 


22 


7 


11 


8 


31 


.2 


12 


.3 


28 


7 


Garrett 


15 


1 


36 


6 


12 


8 


27 


8 


6 


1 


18 


.2 


12 


3 


30 


2 


Charles 


20 





44 


6 


20 


1 


33 





11 


8 


31 


.9 


15 


.1 


35 


3 



should be remembered that an infantile paralysis epidemic was 
at its height in Maryland at the beginning of the school year in 
the fall of 1928. (See Table 14.) Allegany, Prince George's, 
Baltimore, Washington, and Montgomery had an increase in late 
entrants because of employment, negligence or indifference. Five 
counties, Dorchester, Garrett, Caroline, Charles, and Anne Arun- 
del decreased considerably the number of late entrants after the 
first month for these causes. (See Table 15.) 

The largest proportion of late entrants who stayed out of 
school for work was found in Garrett, St. Mary's, and Carroll. 
If more information could be presented to parents on the advan- 
tages of getting children into the schools when they open, be- 
cause of the better adjustment and progress possible, probably 
fewer parents would have their children entering late as a result 
of the 100 day provision in the law. The counties are probably 
nearly ready for a change in the compulsory attendance law 
eliminating the 100 day provision. (See Table 15.) 



Late Entrance-White Elementary Schools 25 
TABLE 14 



Causes of Late Entrance in White Elementary Schools, 1924-1929 





ENTERING AFTER 
FIRST MONTH EX- 
CLUSIVE OF TRANS- 
FERS 


PER CENT OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS 
ENTERING SCHOOL AFTER THE FIRST 
MONTH BECAUSE OF 


YEAR 


Number 


Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indif- 
ference 


Just 
Moving 
to Place 


Under 
13 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 


Illness 
or 

Quaran- 
tine 


Under 
School 
Age and 
Other 
Causes 



White Elementary Schools 



1924. . . . 


11,792 


10 


4 


3.5 


2 


5 


1.8 


1 


.4 


1.0 


.2 


1925. . . . 


9,297 


8 


2 


2.8 


2 


1 


1.6 




.8 


.7 


.2 


1926. . . . 


8,646 


7 


6 


2.7 


1 


6 


1.3 




.8 


.7 


.5 


1927. . . . 


7,330 


6 


4 


2.2 


1 


4 


1.1 




.5 


.7 


.5 


1928. . . . 


5,534 


4 


8 


1.7 


1 


1 


.'.8 




.4 


.5 


.3 


1929. . - 


6,227 


5 


4 


1.6 


1 





1.0 




.4 


.7 


.7 










One-Teacher 


Schools 










1924. . . . 


5,644 


17 


5 


7.4 


3 


5 


1.9 


3 





1.4 


.3 


1925. . . . 


4,349 


14 


3 


6.1 


3 


1 


1.9 


2 





.9 


.3 


1926. . . . 


3,854 


13 


7 


6.2 


2 


5 


1.5 


1 


9 


.9 


.7 


1927. . . , 


3,058 


11 


6 


5.0 


2 


3 


1.2 


1 


3 


.9 


.9 


1928. . . . 


2,178 


8 


9 


4.2 


1 


7 


.9 




9 


.6 


.6 


1929. . . . 


2,160 


9 


9 


4.3 


1 


5 


1.1 




8 


.9 


1.3 



Two-Teacher Schools 



1924. . . . 


2,183 


11 


5 


3 


9 


2 


6 


1 


8 


1.6 


1.1 


.5 


1925. . . . 


1,725 


9 


4 


3 


2 


2 


6 


1 


7 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1926. . . . 


1,494 


8 


6 


3 


5 


1 


6 


1 


2 


.9 


.6 


.8 


1927.. . . 


1,228 


7 


6 


3 


1 


1 


6 




9 


.6 


.7 


.7 


1928. . . . 


896 


6 





2 


1 


1 


6 




9 


.4 


.5 


.5 


1929. . . . 


926 


6 





2 


1 


1 


1 


1 





.4 


.7 


.7 



Graded Schools 



1924.. . . 


3,965 


6.4 


1 


.4 


1 


.8 


1 


7 


.5 


.8 


.2 


1925. . . . 


3,223 


5.0 


1 


.0 


1 


.6 


1 


4 


.3 


.6 


.1 


1926. . . . 


3,298 


4.8 


1 





1 


.4 


1 


2 


.3 


.6 


.3 


1927. . . . 


3,044 


4.2 


1 





1 





1 


1 


.2 


.6 


.3 


1928... . 


2,460 


3.2 




8 




8 




8 


.2 


.4 


.2 


1929. . . . 


3,141 


4.0 




8 




9 




9 


.2 


.6 


.6 



FEWER CHILDREN WITHDRAW FROM SCHOOL 

It is gratifying to find that out of 5,473 withdrawals from 
county white elementary schools for causes other than removal, 
transfer, and death, there were 536 fewer in 1929 than in 1928. 
Over 200 fewer pupils left school because of employment ; nearly 
180 fewer were withdrawn because of mental or physical in- 
capacity. Poverty was the only cause of withdrawal showing an 
increase, and the total number of children withdrawn for this 
cause was 495 in 1929, an increase of 18 over 1928. The services 
of social workers in all of the counties would probably help con- 



26 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 15 

Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils 
Entering School After the First Month, Because of Employment, 
Indifference, or Neglect, For School Year Ending July 31, 1929 





Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 


COUNTY 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More 
Employed 


Negligence 
or Indif- 
ference 


Under 
13 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 


13 Years 
or More 
Employed 


Negligence 
or Indif- 
ference 


Under 
13 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 



County Aver.. 


3,525 


3 





1 


6 


1 







.4 






Allegany 


174 


1 


4 




5 




9 






3 


9 


PrinceGeorge's 


124 


1 


6 




4 




7 




. 5 


2 


6 


Baltimore .... 


268 


1 


6 




7 




9 






4 


11 


Anne Arundel. 


114 


1 


8 




4 


1 


2 




.2 


1 


13 


Kent 


35 


2 





1 


3 




2 




5 


9 


3 


Wicomico .... 


86 


2 


1 


1 


4 




7 






10 


7 


Somerset 


70 


2 


7 


1 


6 




8 




3 


12 


8 


Cecil 


102 


2 


9 


1 





1 


7 




2 


6 


19 


Talbot 


59 


2 


9 


2 


5 




3 




1 


17 


4 


Harford 


145 


3 





1 


1 


1 


4 




5 


7 


14 


Washington. . . 
Queen Anne's. 


405 


3 


3 


1 


9 


1 







4 


13 


12 


62 


3 


3 


2 


4 




2 




7 


15 


2 


Frederick 


306 


3 


5 


2 


4 




9 




2 


16 


10 


Montgomery. . 


232 


3 


6 




8 


1 


4 


1 


.4 


5 


15 


Howard 


82 


3 


9 


1 


2 


2 


6 




1 


8 


23 


Charles 


61 


3 


9 


1 


4 


1 


9 




6 


11 


20 


Caroline 


116 


4 


5 


3 


6 




6 




3 


20 


5 


Worcester .... 


131 


5 


1 


2 


9 


1 


6 




6 


18 


18 


Calvert 


48 


5 


5 


2 





2 


5 


1 


.0 


14 


22 


Garrett 


248 


5 


5 


5 


4 




1 






23 


1 


Carroll 


339 


6 





4 





1 


5 




5 


21 


16 


Dorchester . . . 


219 


6 


8 


3 


2 


2 





1 


6 


19 


21 


St. Mary's 


99 


8 


1 


4 


4 


1 


6 


2 


1 


22 


17 



3 
13 
2 
7 
15 

1 

10 
8 
6 

14 

12 
19 

9 
21 

5 

18 
11 
17 
20 
4 

16 

22 
23 



siderably in reducing poverty as a cause of withdrawal. It does 
not seem fair to permit children who are capable of standard 
work in the grade they are in to withdraw from the elementary 



TABLE 16 

Causes of Withdrawals From County White Elementary Schools, 1929 



Number Leaving Per Cent Leaving 

One- Two- All Ele- One- Two- All Ele- 

Teacher Teacher Graded mentary Teacher Teacher Graded mentary 

Causes of Withdrawal Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools 



Removal, Transfer, Death 2,956 1,665 7,655 12,276 13.6 10.7 9.8 10.6 



Total other Causes 1,402 711 2,824 4,937 6.4 4.6 3.6 4.3 

Employment 816 359 1,181 2,356 3.7 2.3 1.5 2.0 

Mental and Physical 

Incapacity 223 161 939 1,323 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 

Under 7 or Over 16 169 102 260 531 .8 .7 .3 .5 

Poverty 130 64 301 495 .6 .4 .4 .4 

other Causes 64 25 143 232 .3 .2 .2 .2 



Withdrawals from White Elkmentary Schools 



27 



schools merely because their parents are too poor to provide 
them with necessary clothing or because the children must be 
put to work to supplement the family income. (See Table 16.) 

Withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death included slightly 
more than 10 per cent of the total enrollment. Harford, Cecil, 
Wicomico, and Garrett had from 12 to 16 per cent of the enroll- 
ment withdrawing for these reasons, while Calveit, Somerset, 
Charles, and Dorchester had only from 4 to 7 per cent leaving 
in this way. (See Table 17.) 

In withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, and 
death, Baltimore County with its policy of keeping children in 
school and of laying little stress on the 100 day provision of the 
law led the State with but 2 per cent of its pupils withdrawing 
for these causes. Cecil, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and 
Carroll all had a low per cent of this type of withdrawal — less 
than 3.5 per cent. Garrett lost nearly 10 per cent of its pupils 
for causes other than removal, transfer, and death, and Worces- 
ter and Somerset lost over 6 and 7 per cent respectively. But all 
of the counties except five showed a reduction in withdrawals 

TABLE 17 



Withdrawals By Cause From Maryland County White Elementary 
Schools For Year Ending June 30, 1929 



COUNTY 


Withd 
f 

Rem 
Trans 
De 

No. 


rawals 

or 

oval, 
sfer or 
ath 

Per 
Cent 


WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 


Total 
Num- 
ber 


Total 
Per 
Cent 


PEF 

Em- 
ploy- 
ment 


i CENT \ 

Mental 

and 
Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


VITHDRA 

Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


WING 

Pov- 
erty 


FOR 

Other 
Causes 


Total and Average 


12,276 


10 


6 


4,937 


4 


3 


2 


.0 


1 


.2 


.5 


.4 


2 




1,649 


9 


8 


358 


2 


1 




.8 




.7 


.3 


.2 


.1 


Cecil 


454 


12 


9 


89 


2 


5 


1 


1 




.6 


.2 


.5 


.1 


Prince George's . . . 


906 


11 


6 


219 


2 


8 




7 


1 


3 


.3 


.2 


.3 


Anne Arundel 


563 


9 





200 


3 


2 


1 


6 




9 


.3 


.2 


2 


Carroll 


564 


10 


1 


181 


3 


2 


1 


4 




.7 


.6 


.3 


2 


Harford 


759 


15 


9 


166 


3 


5 


1 


5 




9 


.7 


.3 


.1 


Montgomery 


747 


11 


6 


236 


3 


7 




9 


2 





.6 


.1 


.1 


Talbot 


208 


10 


2 


77 


3 


8 


2 


2 


1 





.3 


.2 


.1 


Kent 


195 


11 


4 


66 


3 


9 


1 


6 


1 


8 


.1 


.3 


.1 


Howard 


243 


11 


5 


85 


4 





1 


5 


1 


2 


.6 


.2 


.5 


St. Mary's 


120 


9 


9 


50 


4 


1 


2 


1 




8 


.5 


.7 




Queen Anne's 


222 


11 


6 


83 


4 


4 


2 


5 


1 


2 


.2 


.4 


. 1 


Caroline 


256 


10 





117 


4 


6 


2 


9 


1 





.3 


.3 


. 1 


Allegany 


1,320 


10 


5 


579 


4 


6 


2 


3 


1 


3 


.4 


.3 


.3 


Charles 


104 


6 


6 


76 


4 


8 


1 


5 


1 


5 


.3 


1.1 


.4 


Frederick 


850 


9 


8 


425 


4 


9 


2 


5 


1 


5 


.3 


.6 




Wicomico 


522 


12 


7 


210 


5 


1 


2 





1 


6 


.5 


.9 


. 1 


Dorchester 


235 


7 


3 


174 


5 


4 


3 


2 




9 


.6 


.4 


.3 


Calvert 


34 


3 


9 


49 


5 


6 


2 


4 


1 


2 


.2 


1.0 


.8 


Washington 


1.378 


11 


3 


707 


5 


8 


2 


8 


1 


1 


.9 


.8 


.2 


Worcester 


235 


9 


1 


164 


6 


4 


3 


6 




7 


.3 


1.5 


.3 


Somerset 


153 


5 


9 


192 


7 


4 


3 


7 


1 


7 


.4 


1.2 


4 


Garrett 


559 


12 


4 


434 


9 


7 


6 


6 


1 


2 


1.3 


.3 


.3 



28 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



for "other causes" under last year. The five having a larger 
number of withdrawals for ''other causes" were Calvert, Alle- 
gany, Queen Anne's, Wicomico, and Kent. (See Table 17.) 

The counties having 1 or more per cent of the children with- 
drawing for poverty are Worcester, Somerset, Charles, and Cal- 
vert; and Wicomico, Washington, and St. Mary's show more 
than twice as many withdrawals for this cause as were found in 
the average county. It is probable these counties are in need of 
the services of a trained social worker. (See Table 17.) 

CAUSES OF LONG ABSENCE 

During the period of enrollment over 1,100 more county chil- 
dren were absent 40 days or more from white elementary schools 
because of sickness, poverty, indifference and neglect, and illegal 
employment in 1929 than in 1928. Sickness was responsible for 
over one-half of the long absence. The close connection between 
improvement in school attendance and better health conditions 
is therefore easily demonstrated. (See Table 18.) 

TABLE 18 



Per Cent of Pupils Absent 40 Days or More, With Cause of Absence for 

School Year Ending June 30, 1929 











All White Ele- 




One 


Two 


Graded 


mentary Schools 


Cause of Absence 


Teacher 


Teacher 










Schools 


Schools 


Schools 














1929 


1928 


Death, Sickness, Physical and 












Mental Defects 


7.7 


7.0 


5.4 


6.1 


5.3 


Poverty, Indifference, Neglect .... 


6.3 


5.7 


3.7 


4.4 


4.2 


Illegally Employed 


1.3 


1.2 


.4 


.7 


.6 


Bad Weather and Roads 


1.4 


.7 


.2 


.5 


.5 


Other Causes 


.7 


.2 


.2 


.3 


.4 


Total 


17.4 


14.8 


9.9 


12.0 


11.0 


Number Absent 40 Days or More . . 


3,465 


2,140 


7,291 


12,896 


11,782 



EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance and 
withdrawals, the 23 counties have been ranked in accordance 
with an average of their ranking in these three items for white 



Long Absence and Index of School Attendance 



29 



elementary schools. That county is considered highest which 
has the highest percentage of attendance accompanying a low 
percentage of late entrance and withdrawals. A county which 
lets its children enter school late and withdraw early may keep 
them in steady attendance while they are enrolled, but it is un- 
questionably doing less for its children than a county which pro- 
motes early entrance and discourages withdrawals and still keeps 
a high percentage of attendance. With this method of ranking. 
Prince George's led the counties of the State, and Baltimore and 
Anne Arundel took positions next in order. Garrett stood lowest 
on the list and Calvert next to the bottom. (See Table 19.) 

TABLE 19 



An Index of School Attendance in Countv White Elementary Schools 
for School Year Ending June 30, 1929 







PER CENT 


OF 




RANK IN PER CENT OF 


COUNTY 






















Attend- 


Late* 


fWith- 


Attend- 


Late* 


tWMth- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


Countv Average 


88 


8 


3 


1 


4 


3 








Prince George's 


91 





1 


6 


2 


8 


2 


2 


3 


Baltimore 


88 


7 


1 


6 


2 


1 


8 


3 


1 


Anne Arundel 


89 


7 


1 


8 


3 


2 


5 


4 


4 


Alleganv 


91 





1 


4 


4 


6 


1 


1 


14 


Talbot 


89 


4 


2 


9 


3 


8 


7 


9 


8 


Kent 


88 


6 


2 





3 


9 


11 


5 


9 


Wicomico 


89 


8 


2 


1 


5 


1 


4 


6 


17 


Cecil 


86 


7 


2 


9 


2 


5 


18 


8 


2 


Howard 


89 


6 


3 


9 


4 





6 


15 


10 


Harford 


87 


8 


3 





3 


5 


16 


10 


6 


Caroline 


90 





4 


5 


4 


6 


3 


17 


13 


Montgomery 


88 


2 


3 


6 


3 


7 


14 


14 


7 


Frederick 


88 


7 


3 


5 


4 


9 


9 


13 


16 


Washington 


88 


7 


3 


3 


5 


8 


10 


11 


20 


Queen Anne's 

Somerset 


87 


6 


3 


3 


4 


4 


17 


12 


12 


88 


2 


2 


7 


7 


4 


13 


7 


22 


Carroll 


86 


4 


6 





3 


2 


21 


21 


5 


Dorchester 


88 


3 


6 


8 


5 


4 


12 


22 


18 


Charles 


83 


8 


3 


9 


4 


8 


23 


16 


15 


Worcester 


88 





5 


1 


6 


4 


1.5 


18 


21 


St. Mary's 


86 


4 


8 


1 


4 


1 


20 


23 


11 


Calvert 


84 


8 


5 


5 


5 


6 


22 


19 


19 


Garrett 


86 


6 


5 


5 


9 


7 


19 


20 


23 



♦ For employment, neg:lig:ence, and indifference. The county having the smallest per- 
centage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t For causes other than removal, transfer and death. The county havinn the smallest 
percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



GRADE ENROLLMENT IN THE COUNTIES BETTER DISTRIBUTED 

The children enrolled in the county public schools were better 
distributed among the grades than ever before. There were 
fewer children held in the first grade and every grade above the 
first, except Grade 5, showed an increase in enrollment for 1929 
over 1928. The first grade with 17,528 boys and girls still en- 
rolled a considerably higher number than any other grade. This 
number was, however, 646 fewer than for the preceding year. 
The enrollment decreased in each succeeding grade after the 
first, until but 3,612 pupils were enrolled in the last year of high 
school. (See Chart 2.) 

CHART 2 



Grade 
or Year 

Kgn. 



8 



gin 



IV 



NDMBER OF BOYS AI© GIRLS ENROLLED BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCH00I2 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1929 



Total 

332 

17,528 
15,243 
14,565 
14,393 
13,656 
13,074 
11,914 
2,784 
8,587 
6,100 

4,694 
3,612 



Boys 



Girls C 



167 
165 



8166 



7988 



7255 



7590 



6975 



6942 



6579 



6379 



5969 



1419 



4458 



□ 



3401 




30 



Grade Enrollment in White Schools 



31 



OH 



o 
o 
M 
a 

CO 

JS 
bo 



01 
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32 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



As noted before, the boys exceeded the girls in each grade 
from 1 to 6 inclusive, but thereafter the girls exceeded the boys 
in each grade in increasing numbers, there being 736 more white 
county girls than boys in the last year of high school work. ( See 
Chart 2.) 

The enrollment of white pupils in each grade of each county 
showed tendencies similar to those for the counties as a whole, 
except in Calvert and Wicomico, which had their maximum en- 
rollment in grades 3 and 4 respectively. (See Table 20.) 

Allegany, Anne Arundel, and Washington Counties continue 
having eight grades in the elementary school course. Montgom- 
ery County, in establishing junior high schools in certain schools 
adjacent to Washington, D. C, has the 6-3-3 plan of organization, 
which adds a year to the length of the course in these schools. 
(See Table 20.) 

The one- and two-teacher schools had a much larger propor- 
tion of their enrollment in the first grade than the graded 
schools. If the number of entrants to school is estimated as an 
average of the enrollment in grades 2-4 inclusive, nearly one- 
fourth of the first grade pupils in one- and two-teacher schools 
were repeaters, while this was true of fewer than one-eighth of 
the first grade pupils in graded schools. Even this amount of 
repetition is a great improvement over conditions in 1928. (See 
Table 21.) 

TABLE 21 

Number and Per Cent of Pupils Enrolled in Each Grade cf 
Maryland County White Elementary Schools (By Types) 
Year Ending June 30, 1929. 



GRADE 



*Number in Each Grade 


Per Cent of Average for 
Grades 2-4 in Each Grade 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


2,810 


2,002 


9,922 

332 
11,254 
10,262 
9,834 
9,669 
9,236 
8,976 
8,692 
2,511 












3 

113 
103 
99 
97 
93 
90 
88 
25 


3,661 
2,915 
2,765 
2.750 
2,519 
2,319 
1,793 
132 


2,613 
2,066 
1,966 
1,974 
1,901 
1,779 
1,429 
141 


130 
104 
98 
98 
90 
83 
64 
5 


131 
103 
98 
99 
95 
89 
71 

i-r 
i 


18,854 


13,869 


70,766 







Average of Grades 2-4 . 



Kindergarten . 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 



* Exclusive of pupils who withdrew for removal, transfer or death. 



White Gradk Enrollmknt and Elementary Graduates 



33 



The percentage of estimated entrants who reached grade 7 
was only 64 and 71 in one- and two-teacher schools respectively, 
whereas it was 88 in graded schools in 1929. In Carroll County 
pupils w^ho have completed the work of the sixth grade in a one- 
teacher school are required to attend a larger school for the 
seventh grade work. This of course would tend to lower the one- 
teacher percentage in the seventh grade and raise those for the 
larger schools in Carroll County. 

Probably the establishment of a 12-year elementary and high 
school course in some schools of Montgomery County explains 
the increase from 23 to 25 in the per cent remaining to grade 8, 
which is found in Allegany, Anne Arundel and Washington Coun- 
ties. This is a low percentage for the counties of the State as a 
whole, but in the three counties which have the eighth grade 
throughout the county, the eighth grade enrollment represents 
61 per cent of the average enrollment in gi'ades 2 to 4. (See 
Table 21.) 

WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES INCREASE 

There was an increase for 1929 over 1928 of 570 in the num- 
ber of white graduates of the county elementary schools, of 
which increase 413 were boys. There were 9,928 graduates in 
1929, of w^hom 4,742 w^ere boys and 5,186 girls. The excess of 
girls over boys, 444, is considerably smaller than in any preced- 
ing year. The 1929 graduates included 9.6 per cent of the total 
county white elementary school enrollment, 8.8 for boys and 10.4 
for girls. Assuming a stationary enrollment and that all who 
entered the first grade remained to graduate, the maximum per 
cent of graduates possible in a seven-grade county would be 14.3 
per cent and in an eight-grade county 12.5 per cent. (See Table 
22.) 

TABLE 22 

White County Elementary School Graduates 



Number Per cent 



Year Boys (Jirls Total Boys Girls Total 

192.S 3.200 4,130 7.33G 1 8 5 7 2 

1924 3.300 4.210 7.570 4 8.7 7.5 

1 925 3.705 4.549 8.254 7.0 9.4 8 1 

1920 4.054 4.599 8.053 7.7 9.4 8.5 

1927 *4.290 *5.()59 *9.349 *8.1 *10 2 *9.1 

1928 *4 . 329 *5 . 029 *9 . 358 *8 . 1 * 1 1 *9 . 1 

1929 *4.742 *5.180 *9.928 *8.8 *10.4 *9 



* Includes eighth Krade promotions in junior h'mh schools. 



34 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 3 



County 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN TOTAL COUin'Y WHITE LLKI/IEOTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 

1929 

Number 

Boys Girls I^HPer Cent Boys I I Per Cent Girls 



Total and 4 
Co, Average ' 


742 


5,1B6 


Cecil 


190 


198 


Frederick 


482 


484 


Caroline 


118 


149 


*Montgomery 


310 


341 


Kent 


86 


87 


Garrett 


218 


222 


St. IJaiy's 


59 


62 


Worcester 


107 


146 


Queen Anne's 


94 


86 


Somerset 


122 


132 


Carroll 


237 


285 


Howard 


105 


89 


Tal hot 


WW 


114 


Pr. George's 


334 


337 


Dorchester 


111 


166 


Wicomico 


147 


178 


Harford 


156 


204 


Charles 


62 


69 


Baltimore 


712 


632 


Calvert 


37 


34 


Washington** 


381 


486 


*Allegany** 


418 


469 


Anne Arundel** 


190 


216 



110T4 



112.8 



112.1 



8. a 



n. r 



iz.o 



9; 



10.3 



10.8 



10.4 



9.9 



8.5 



10. S 



9.6 



9. J 



10.4 



6>.8 



9.1 



7.1 



8.1 



6 



[1?74 



fioVa 



110.1 



1 9.1 



8.4 





7. 



Includes eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 
County has eight grades in the elementary school course. 



Graduates of White Elementary Schools 



35 



The 20 counties having seven grades ranged from 12.7 gradu- 
ates for each 100 white elementary pupils enrolled to 8.4 in Cal- 
vert County. The three eight grade counties at the bottom of 
Chart 3 varied in number of graduates per 100 white elemen- 
tary pupils from 8 in Washington to 7.1 in Anne Arundel. (See 
Chart 3.) 

Baltimore, Calvert, and Howard Counties are the only ones in 
which the number and per cent of boys graduated exceeded the 
number and per cent of girls graduated. In Queen Anne's also 
the number of boys graduated exceeded the number of girls grad- 
uated. The disparity between the number and per cent of boys 
and girls graduated was very great in Caroline, Dorchester, 
Talbot, Worcester, Harford, and Carroll Counties. (See Chart 
3.) 

The number and per cent of elementary school graduates in- 
creased in all of the counties except eight, and of the eight there 
was only one county, Wicomico, in which the number and per 
cent of both boy and girl graduates decreased. Talbot, Queen 
Anne's, Baltimore, Harford, and Charles lowered their rank in 
graduates considerably. The decrease in Baltimore County was 
probably due to the use of the results of the county-wide exami- 
nations in determining whether pupils should be allowed to grad- 
uate and enter high school. Other counties, e.g., Cecil, Fred- 
erick, Montgomery, Garrett, St. Mary's, Worcester, and Somer- 
set showed considerable gain in both the number and per cent 
of boys and of girls graduated. (See Chart 3.) 

It is planned to find out during the year 1929-30 how many of 
the 1929 elementary school graduates in each county entered 
Maryland public high schools in the fall of 1929. In counties 
having semi-annual promotions, this would also be reciuire.d for 
those entering high school in February. 

The per cent of the w^hite county elementary school enrollment 
graduating was higher in two-teacher than in one-teacher 
schools, and in graded than in two-teacher schools. The per cent 
of the white elementary boys enrolled who graduated in 1929 
was .8 higher in each type of school and for girls from .2 to .4 
higher than in 1928. (See Table 23.) 

The counties appearing in the first half of the list show an 
unusually high percentage of graduates with a few minor ex- 
ceptions : boys in Montgomerj^ one-teacher schools ; boys in Wor- 
cester one- and two- teacher schools, and girls in the one-teacher 
schools; boys in Somerset two-teacher schools; girls in Howard's 
graded schools. Most pupils in the one-teacher schools of Car- 
roll County who are ready for seventh grade work have trans- 
portation paid to larger schools. (See Table 23.) 



36 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



The percentage of boy graduates is lower than that of girls in 
every case, except for Cecil, Kent, Somerset, Prince George's, 
Harford, and Allegany one-teacher schools; Wicomico and Tal- 
bot two-teacher schools ; Garrett and Baltimore graded schools ; 
and in Queen Anne's, Howard, and Calvert two-teacher and grad- 
ed schools. (See Table 23.) 

TABLE 23 



Number of County White Elementary School Graduates in 1929 

by Types of Schools 





Number of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1929 


Per Cent of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1929 


COUNTY 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girl 


s 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total and Average 


666 


740 


589 


650 


3,487 
85 


3.796 


6 


7 


8 


3 


8 


2 


9 
15 


7 


9.6 


11 


1 


Cecil 


62 


42 


43 


45 


111 


11 


3 


9 


4 


14 


1 


5 


11.0 


15 


9 


Frederick 


97 


96 


68 


71 


317 


317 


11 


7 


12 


6 


10 


3 


11 


6 


12.6 


13 


2 


Caroline 


13 


16 


15 


16 


90 


117 


7 


3 


10 


9 


9 


9 


13 


2 


10.2 


14 


2 


Montgbmerv 


15 

25 


35 


53 


63 


*242 


*243 


4 


4 


10 


7 


9 


3 


12 


8 


*11 .6 


*13 


1 


Kent 


21 


24 


22 


37 


44 
65 


11 


3 


9 


5 


12 


6 


13 


3 


9.7 


12 


8 


Garrett 


96 


119 


43 


38 


79 


8 


2 


11 


3 


11 


9 


12 


8 


14.2 


13 





St. Mary's 


24 


22 


27 


32 


8 


8 


9 





10 


3 


ro 


6 


14 





11.0 


11 


6 


Worcester 


14 


11 


10 


13 


83 


122 


4 


4 


4 


6 


6 


4 


9 


8 


10.6 


17 


1 


Queen Anne's 


17 


17 


23 


22 


54 


47 


7 


3 


8 


9 


12 


2 


11 


8 


11.5 


11 


2 


Somerset 


28 


24 


9 


14 


85 


94 


10 





9 


2 


5 


7 


11 





10.2 


12 





Carroll 


15 


23 


31 


38 


191 


224 


1 


9 


3 


2 


8 


5 


11 


9 


13.1 


16 


2 


Howard 


27 


38 


18 


13 


60 


38 


7 


5 


12 


9 


13 


2 


10 





11.7 


8 


7 


Talbot 


6 


16 


3 


2 


57 


96 


2 


8 


11 


4 


5 


1 


3 


2 


8.2 


14 


5 


Prince George's 


22 


17 


33 


40 


279 


280 


7 





5 


7 


7 


8 


10 


6 


9.6 


10 


8 


Dorchester 


21 


41 


3 


13 


87 


112 


5 


2 


11 


1 


1 


4 


6 


6 


9.3 


12 


7 


Wicomico 


34 


33 


12 


11 


101 


134 


6 


1 


6 


8 


7 


5 


6 





9.2 


12 


2 


Harford 


32 


26 


28 


48 


96 


130 


5 


9 


5 


3 


6 


1 


10 


7 


9.1 


12 


6 


Charles 


20 


16 


8 
75 


8 


34 


45 


9 


7 


9 


8 


6 


7 


7 


6 


7.0 


11 


5 


Baltimore 


41 


43 


67 


596 


522 


7 


3 


8 


3 


8 


2 


8 


2 


9.3 


8 


7 


Calvert 


22 


24 


10 


5 


5 


5 


8 


9 


9 


6 


11 


8 


5 


5 


6.7 


5 


3 


Washington 


17 


47 


30 


39 


334 


400 


2 





5 


9 


5 


1 


6 


5 


8.2 


10 


2 


Allegany 


18 


13 


9 


12 


*391 


*444 


4 





3 


1 


2 





2 


7 


*8.0 


*9 


5 


Anne Arundel 


14 


18 


176 


198 










5 


8 


7 


4 


6.9 


8 






























* Includes pupils promoted from eighth grade in junior high schools. 



NON PROMOTIONS FEWER IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY 

SCHOOLS 

The number of failures of county white elementary pupils is 
lower than in any year since information has been collected. In 
1923, there were 22,021 boys and girls, nearly 22 per cent of the 
enrollment, who were not considered ready to undertake the 
work of a higher grade. By 1929, this number had been reduced 
to 14,756 or 14 per cent of the white elementary school pupils 
enrolled. (See Table 24.) 



White Elementary Graduates and Non Promotions 



l!7 



TABLE 24 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in 
County White Elementary Schools 



Number Per Cent 



Year Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 

1923 13,435 8,580 22,021 25.6 17.5 21.7 

1924 11,999 7,193 19,192 22.7 14.8 18.9 

1925 10,673 6,336 17,009 20.2 13 16.8 

1926 10.392 6,140 16,532 19.7 12.5 16.3 

1927 9,954 6,134 16,088 18.7 12.4 15.6 

1928 10,346 6,109 16,455 19.4 12.3 15.9 

1929 9,147 5,609 14,756 17.1 11 3 14.3 



There continues to be a disparity between the faikires of boys 
and girls. The per cent of failures of boys in 1929 was only 
slightly lower than that of girls in 1923. But in 1923 over one- 
fourth of the boys were considered failures, and in 1,929, this 
percentage had been reduced to 17. For every 100 girls there 
were just over 11 failures in 1929. There will always be some 
failures for pupils out long periods of the year for illness and 
other causes, and because most of the counties have not thus far 
been able to organize special classes for handicapped or excep- 
tional children. 

With few exceptions, the various counties shared in the de- 
crease. For boys the percentage of failures varied from 8.8 in 
Frederick to 25.3 in Calvert. For girls the range was from 6.9 
and 7.0 per cent in Frederick and Cecil respectively to 15.8 in 
Baltimore County. The decreases were especially marked in 
Frederick, Somerset, Howard, Montgomery, and Garrett Coun- 
ties. Washington, Wicomico, and Worcester had more failures 
for both boys and girls than for the preceding year, while Prince 
George's and Baltimore had more for girls, and Anne Arundel, 
Carroll, and Calvert had more for boys than in 1928. (See Chart 
4.) 

Every county had a higher percentage of failure foi* boys than 
for girls, the differences being slight in Frederick, Montgomeiy, 
and Howard, but very great in Caroline, Calvert, Harford, 
Charles, Wicomico, Queen Anne's and Talbot. A change in the 
compulsory attendance law to eliminate the 100 day provision 
might help reduce the number of failures for boys and some girls 
who can not complete the work because they attend for only 
about one-half of the school session in the middle of the year. 
(See Chart 4.) 

As has been the case heretofore the highest percentage of fail- 
ures was found in one-teacher schools and the lowest in graded 
schools. All types of schools showed a reduction in failures in 



38 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 4 



liULEER AlTD PER CENT OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS 
THROXH grade 8 NOT PROMOTED, 1929 



County 

Total and 
Co. Average 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

Cecil 

Howard 

Allegany 

Kent 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Anne Arundel 

Carroll 

Garrett 

i^ueen Anne's 

Pr. George's 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Charles 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Harfonl 

Baltimore 

Dorchester 

Calvert 



Number 
3oy3 Girls 




289 



254 



240 



83 



441 



650 



113 
164 
95 

505 

465 

351 

174 

634 
1037 

366 

165 

275 

256 

263 

469 268 
1629 1165 

345 222 

103 62 



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1929 under 1928, but the greatest reduction was in the one-teach- 
er schools. (See CJmrt 5.) 

Calvert showed a high percentage of failures in its graded 
schools, and this was the case for the boys in the graded schools 
of Charles, St. Mary's, and Queen Anne's Counties. The girls 



NoN Promotions ix White Elementary Schools 



39 



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40 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 5 



N0N-PR0U0TI0N3 THROUGH GRADE 8 COUNTY WHITE 
ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS, 1929 

Number 

Schools 3oys Girls ■■Per Cent Boys P7771 Per Cent Girls 

1193 112.4 V/// ///// ////// ^ 



One Teacher 2006 



Two Teacher ^276 
Graded 




783 y////////////////////A 

3633 ^^^^^^^^^ 



and boys in two-teacher schools in Carroll, Washington, and Dor- 
chester and the boys in Harford had a high percentage of failure. 
Four counties — Baltimore, Dorchester, Harford, and Washing- 
ton — failed more than 25 per cent of the boys and 15 per cent 
of the girls in one-teacher schools. Calvert and Caroline also 
failed 27 per cent of the boys. (See Table 25.) 



CHART 6 



1929 NON-PROMOTIONS IN KINDERGARTEN TO GRADE 8 IN 
COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOI^ 



Number 



Grade 


Boys 


Girls 


Kgn. 


19 


26 


1 


2382 


1647 


2 


1182 


609 


3 


959 


516 


4 


1109 


713 


5 


1053 


653 


6 


1155 


671 


7 


1019 


639 


8 


269 


135 



Per Cent Boys 



Per Cent Girls 




19.7- o 



For non-promotions by grades in individual counties, see Table VII, page 314. 



Nox Promotions in White Elementary Schools 



41 



Non-Promotions for Each Grade 

Non-promotions in 1929 were still greatest in number and per 
cent in Grade 1 and fewest in Grade 3. In every grade except 
the kindergarten the number and per cent of failures for boys 
exceeded those for girls. Except for girls in Grade 1 and boys 
in Grade 8, there has been a reduction in percentage of non- 
promotion for 1929 under 1928. In Grade 1, one-fourth of the 
boys and one-fifth of the girls were not promoted. (See Chart 
6.) 

The boys in the eighth grade in one-teacher schools in Alle- 
gany and Washington Counties showed a very high percentage 
of failure. Other than for boys in Grade 8 in one-teacher 
schools, the percentage of failure was highest in Grade 1 for 
each type of school. Two-teacher schools showed a lower per- 
centage of failure than graded schools for boys and girls in 
grades 3 and 7, for girls in grade 2, and for boys in grade 8. Boys 
in grade 2 in the two-teacher schools had a higher percentage of 
failure than in the one-teacher schools. (See Table 26.) 



TABLE 26 

Number and Per Cent of V^hite Elementary School Boys and Girls 
Not Promoted, By Grades, Year Ending July 31, 1929 





NUMBER 


PER CENT 


GRADE 


One- 


Two- 






One- 


Two- 








Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


iBoys 


Girls 


Kindergarten 










19 


26 










11.4 


15.8 


1 


632 


413 


387 


300 


1,363 


934 


31.4 


25.0 


27.7 


24.7 


22.9 


17.6 


2 


231 


116 


171 


75 


780 


418 


14.4 


8.8 


16.0 


7.5 


14.7 


8.5 


3 


216 


106 


105 


64 


638 


346 


14.7 


8.2 


10.3 


6.7 


12.5 


7.3 


4 


267 


172 


174 


90 


668 


451 


19.2 


12.7 


16.6 


9.7 


13.3 


9.7 


5 


234 


124 


166 


99 


653 


430 


17.2 


10.7 


16.6 


11.0 


13.8 


9.5 


6 


229 


155 


155 


88 


771 


428 


19.3 


13.7 


17.3 


9.9 


16.7 


9.8 


7 


172 


95 


106 


60 


741 


484 


19.1 


10.6 


15.1 


8.3 


17.1 


11.1 


8 


25 


12 


12 


7 


232 


116 


41.7 


16.7 


18.5 


9.2 


18.7 


9.1 


Total 


2.006 


1,193 


1,276 


783 


5,865 


3,633 


20.1 


13.4 


17.8 


11.7 


16.1 


10.6 



Causes of Non-Promotion 

There was a considerable' reduction in failures from 1928 to 
1929 for all causes, except personal illness. As noted before, 
attendance was poorer in 1928-29 than during the preceding 
year because of infantile paralysis, scarlet fever, influenza, pneu- 
monia, and other epidemics prevalent in the counties. It is to be 
expected that failures resulting from poor attendance for these 
causes would increase. It is, however, a cause for gratification 
that major causes of failure in previous years showed decreases. 
(See Table 27.) 



42 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



The chief causes of non-promotion, unfortunate home condi- 
tions and lack of interest, were responsible on the average for 
failures of 4 children of each 100 in county white elementary 
schools. Talbot and Montgomery showed the smallest per cent 
of failures for these causes, less than 2 per 100 pupils, while 
from 5 to 7 pupils failed for these causes in Dorchester, Wicom- 
ico, Somerset, Harford, Baltimore, Caroline, and Worcester 
Counties. Improved home conditions probably through the aid 
of social workers and better teaching will no doubt prove a rem- 
edy for these conditions. (See Table 28.) 

TABLE 27 



Causes of Non-Promotion For White Elementary School Pupils 
Not Promoted For Year Ending July 31, 1929 



Causes of Non-Promotion 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 

Elemen tary 
Schools 










1929 


1928 



NUMBER 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and 








1 




Lack of Interest 


773 


561 


3,103 


4,437 


5,109 


Mental Incapacity 


475 


364 


1,697 


2,536 


3.050 


Irregular Attendance not Due to 












Sickness 


574 


353 


1.112 


2.039 


2,069 


Personal Illness 


361 


273 


1,323 


1,957 


1,941 


Thirteen Years or over, Emploj^ed .... 


349 


145 


638 


1,132 


1,376 


Transfer from Other Schools 


171 


119 


546 


836 


850 


Late Entrance other than 100-Day 












Pupils 


162 


84 


188 


434 


479 


Other Causes 


334 


160 


891 


1,385 


1,554 


Total 


3,199 


2,059 


9,498 


14,756 


16,428 



PER CENT 



LTnfortunate Home Conditions and 




















Lack of Interest 


4.1 


4 





4 


4 


4 


3 


5 





Mental Incapacity 


2.5 


2 


6 


2 


4 


2 


5 


3 





Irregular Attendance Not Due to 






















3.0 


2 


5 


1 


6 


2 





2 





Personal Illness 


1.9 


2 





1 


8 


1 


9 


1 


9 


Thirteen Years or Over, Employed . . . 


1.9 


1 







9 


1 


1 


1 


3 


Transfers from Other Schools 


.9 




9 




8 




8 




8 


Late Entrance Other than 100-Day 




















Pupils 


.9 




6 




3 




4 




5 


Other Causes 


1.8 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 


1 


5 


Total 


17.0 


14 


8 


13 


4 


14 


3 


16 






Causes of Non Promotions in White Elementary Schools 43 



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44 



1929 Report op State Department of Education 



Prince George's reported 5 per cent of its pupils failed be- 
cause of mental incapacity and this was reported as the cause for 
the failure of 4.4 per cent of the pupils in Calvert and 3.6 per 
cent in Carroll County. 

Irregular attendance due to causes other than sickness was 
responsible for failing 5.5 per cent of the pupils in Calvert 
County, 4.3 per cent in Charles, and 3.9 per cent in Dorchester 
County. What was back of this irregular attendance? If the 
fundamental causes could be discovered, poor homes, or poor 
teaching, or lack of emphasis on the disadvantages of poor at- 
tendance could probably be found to account for most of it. (See 
Table 28.) 

Personal illness seems to have been reported as the cause of 
failure for 6 out of each 100 pupils in Talbot County, far more 
than any other county in the State. This seems unusual when 
Talbot County is organized to do satisfactory health work from 
the point of view of the State Department of Health. Queen 
Anne's reported 3 pupils out of each 100 who failed for this 
cause, and over 2 who failed because of employment. Late en- 
trance caused the failure of at least one out of each 100 pupils 
in St. Mary's, Charles, Garrett, and Carroll Counties. A tend- 
ency to ignore the opening date of school can only be combated 
by an intensive campaign in which parents are interested in 
securing the success and welfare of their children in completing 
the school work by early entrance to school and regularity of 
attendance after an early entrance. ''Other causes" were re- 
ported as causes of failing two or more pupils out of each 100 
in St. Mary's, Harford, Garrett, Baltimore, Dorchester, and Cecil 
Counties. (See Table 28.) 

TESTS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The accompanying list of standard tests given in the elemen- 
tary schools of every county except Baltimore indicates the wide- 
spread use of standardized tests for diagnostic pui*poses and as a 
basis of remedial follow-up work. 

Tests in Reading 

The counties which did not have their schools at standard or 
above in the Sangren Woody and Detroit Reading Tests given 
throughout the counties of the State in 1927-28 were asked by 
the State Department of Education to give tests in reading in 
the spring of 1929. The test chosen was the New Stanford 
Achievement Test, Form V. Tests in paragraph meaning and 
word meaning were given in Grades 2 to 7 (8) and also in litera- 



Reading and Geography Tests in White Elementary Schools 45 



ture in grades 4 to 7 (8). A number of counties in which the 
schools had been at or above standard in 1927-28 recjuested the 
privilege of using the New Stanford Achievement Test in all of 
their schools. As a result, about 40,000 pupils in 20 of the coun- 
ties took the test; the State, paid for the test material. Balti- 
more, Montgomery, and Queen Anne's, which had their schools 
well above standard in 1927-28, were the only counties which did 
not use the New Stanford Achievement Test in any of their 
schools in the spring of 1929. 

A comparison of the results in paragraph meaning in May, 
1929, with those of May, 1924, when Form A of the Stanford 
Achievement Test was given to all pupils, showed a gain in the 
per cent above standard, even though in many of the counties, 
the testing at the later date was limited only to the schools which 
were not at standard or above in the preceding year. Every 
county showed a higher per cent above standard in 1929 than in 
1924 except for all types of schools in Carroll* and Anne Arun- 
del (although there were over 50 per cent of the Anne Arundel 
graded school pupils above standard at the later date), and ex- 
cept for one-teacher and graded schools in Washington County, 
one-teacher schools in Calvert, two-teacher schools in Worcester 
and Caroline, and graded schools in Talbot, Frederick, and 
Charles. The graded schools in Frederick and Charles had at 
least 50 per cent of their pupils at standard or above at both 
dates. 

The one-teacher schools in Prince George's had over 50 per 
cent of the pupils above standard in May, 1929 ; and this w^as the 
case for the pupils in the two-teacher schools in Cecil, Harford, 
Talbot, Kent, Garrett, Charles, and Howard. The graded schools 
in all counties tested, except six, had over 50 per cent of the 
pupils in graded schools at standard oi* above in May, 1929, and 
not one of these six counties, which fell below the 50 per cent 
standard had less than 45 per cent of the graded school pupils 
at standard or above. 

Carroll, Somerset, and Washington Counties also used the 
Gates' Reading Tests in the second grade and Garrett used the 
Sangren Woody Reading Test in grades above the fourth. 

Geography Tests Prepared by State 

Miss M. Theresa Wiedefeld with the cooperation of Mr. E. 
Curt Walther of the State Normal School staff at Towson devised 
a geography scale based on the bulletin 'Tentative Goals in 
Geography." The scales were in a sense "teaching tests" to aid 
supervisors and teachers to plan teaching pi'ocedures which 
would result in developing the abilities measui-ed by the tests. 
The parts of the scale had the following descriptive titles: 



• In 1929 only those Carroll County Schools were tesle<l which wore below standard in 
1927-28, whereas the 1924 results included all Carroll County pui)ils. 



46 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Part I Geography Study 

1. Reading to answer problems in geography 

2. Finding problems in geography 

3. Organization 

4. Picturing in geography 

Geography Memory 



Part 



II 
1. 



Locational geography 



a. Western hemisphere 

b. Eastern hemisphere 

2. Geography vocabulary 

3. Picture location 

4. Solving problems 

Part III Geography Appreciations 

Eighteen of the counties used the Geography tests in the 
spring. Supervisors were asked to send in class record sheets of 
typical classes in each grade. Sixteen of the supervisors did so 
and from these Miss Wiedefeld was able to set up tentative norms 
for the various parts of the test. 

The results from the parts of the test devised to measure study 
abilities seemed better than those attained in the parts measur- 
ing control of fact and locational geography. 

New forms of the test are being prepared and will be available 
for use in the spring of 1931. 

Standard Tests Given in White Elementary Schools of Maryland Counties 

September, 1928, to June, 1929 



County 



Grades 
Tested 



Time of Testing 

September 1 

September 1 

Allegany \ September 6 

i May 4-8 

[ May 2-8 (Rural) 



Anne Arundel 



Calvert. 



May. 
May. 

Fall. 



Fall... 
Spring . 



4-8 
2-8 

1 

1 7 

2-7/ \ 
\ teacher / 



Spring 4-7 

Caroline Spring 2-7 

f October 6-7 

October 3-5 



Carroll. 



October . 
Spring. . 
Spring. . 



Cecil 



May. 
May. 



2 

2-7 
4-7 

1 

2-7 



Tests Given 
Detroit Intelligence Test 
Pintner-Cunningham Tests 
Otis Classification Tests 

Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 
New Stanford Achievement Tests in Reading and Literature 

Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 
New Stanford Achievement Tests in Reading and Literature 

Pintner-Cunningham Primary Mental Tests, Delta 1 and 
Delta 2 

Haggerty Intelligence Examination 

New Stanford Achievement Tests in Reading and Literature 
Geography Tests Prepared by Mjd. State Dept. of Education 

New Stanford Achievement Tests in Reading and Literature 

Public School Achievement Tests Battery B (grammar, 

history and geography) 
Public School Achievement Tests in Arithmetic, Reasoning 

and Reading 
Gates' Reading Test 

New Stanford Achievement Testsin Reading and Literature 
Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 

Haggerty Reading Examination, Sigma 1 

New Stanford Achievement Tests in Reading and Literature 



Test Given in White Elementary Schools 



47 



County 
Charles . . . 



Dorchester . . . 



Time of Testiiifi 



May. 
May. 



Grades 
Tested 



4-7 
2-7 



June 1 

May 2-7 (Rural) 

May 4-7 



Tests Given 

Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 
New Stanford Achievement Tests in Reading and Literal ure 

Detroit Reading Test — Form A 

New Stanford .Uliievement Testsin Readingand Literature 
Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 



Frederick . 



Garrett. 



May. 



May. 
May. 



2-7 
4-7 

0-7 
4-7 
2-7 
4-7 



New Stanford .\cliievemont Testsin Reading and Literature 
Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 

Ely King History Test 
Sangren Woody Reading Test 

New Stanford .Achievement Testsin Reading and Literature 
Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 



Harford . 



4-7 

May 4-7 

May 2-7 (Rural) 



History Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 
Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Educatio n 
New Stanford Achievement Testsin Reading and Literatur e 



Howard . 



May. 
May. 



2-7 
4-7 



New Stanford .Achievement Testsin Readingand I^iterature 
Geography TestsPrepared by Md. State Dept. of Educature 



Kent. 



May. 
May. 



2-7 
4-7 



New Stanford AchievementTestsin Readingand Literature 
Geography TestsPrepared by Md. State Dej)t. of Education 



Montgomery . . \ 



February 3-4 

February 5-7 

May 4-7 



Compass Survey Testsin Arithmetic (Elementary) 
Compass Survey Tests in .Arithmetic (Advanced) 
Geography TestsPrepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 



Prince George's 



5-7 

4-7 

February 6-7 

Spring 

May 



2-7/ 

(teacher 



May. 



4-7 



Queen Anne's.. {Spring........... 6-7 



Orleans' Public School Achievement Test 

Los Angeles Diagnostic Test in Language Form 

A Test in Civic Attitudes (Devised by Supervisor) 

A Test in Civic Information (Devised by Supervisor) 

New Stanford AchievementTestsin Readingand Literature 

Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 

Pressey Diagnostic Testsin English Composition 
Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 



St. Marj's. 



Somerset 



Spring . 



2-7 



November 2 

November 3 



November and May. 

November 

November and May. 

May 

May 



May. 



4-7 



2-7/ ^ 
(teacher) 



4-7 



New Stanford Achievement Tests in Reading and Literature 

Gates' Test in Reading— Types 2 and 3 

Public School -Achievement Test in Reading 

Public School Achievement Test in Geography — Forms I 

and II 
Intelligence Tests 

Stanford .Achievement Test.s — Forms .A and B 
Gates' Reading Test — Type 1 

New Stanford .Achievement Testsin Readingand Literature 
Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept . of Education 



Talbot 



Spring . 
Spring. 



Washington. 



2-7 
4-7 



f Novemberand December 2 

,| Spring 2-8 

( Spring 4-8 



NewStanford .Achievement Testsin Readingand Literature 
Geography TestsPrepared by Ml. State Dept. of Educatio n 

Gates' Reading Test (Following Directions) 

New Stanford .Achievement Testsin Readingand Literature 

Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 



Wicomico. 



Spring . 



1 

2-3 
4-7 
1 

2-7 



Worcester. 



Spring 7 

Spring 2-7 

Spring 4-7 



Pintner-Cunningham Primary Mental Test 
Stanford .Achievement I'rimary Test -Form .A 
Stanford .Achievement .Advanced Test Form B 
Haggerty Reading Test 

NewStanford .AchievementTestsin Readingand Literature 
Denny Nelson History Test 

NewStanford .Achievement Testsin Readingand Literature 
Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education 



48 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Intelligence and Reading Tests for First Grade 

Allegany, Calvert, Cecil, Dorchester, Somerset, and Wicomico 
Counties used either the Detroit, Pintner-Cunningham, Hag- 
gerty, or Gates tests with their first grade pupils. 

Public School Achievement Tests 

Carroll, Prince George's, and Somerset Counties used the Pub- 
lic School Achievements Tests in various subjects. 

History and Civics Tests 

Harford County gave the history tests prepared in the State 
Department of Education which were used in most of the coun- 
ties in the spring of 1928. A new form of these tests is to be 
available in the spring of 1930. 

Garrett County used the Ely King History Test; Worcester 
County, the Denny Nelson History Test; and Prince George's 
County used some Tests in Civic Attitudes and Information 
which had been prepared by the elementary school supervisors. 

Arithmetic Tests 

Montgomery County used the Compass Diagnostic Tests in 
Arithmetic and Carroll County the Public School Achievement 
Test in Arithmetic Reasoning. 

Language and English 

Prince George's gave the Los Angeles Diagnostic Test in 
Language Form and Queen Anne's the Pressey Diagnostic Tests 
in English Composition. 

SPECIAL CLASSES 

For the semester from February to June, 1929, Baltimore City 
had 102 special classes in schools for white pupils and 12 in 
schools for colored pupils. The majority of the classes were for 
subnormal children. The white schools had 17 open air classes 
for anemic and tubercular children. There was also an open-air 
class for colored children. There were 12 classes for white and 
3 for colored crippled children. (See Table 29.) 

A brief survey of special education in the public schools of Bal- 
timore during the year 1928-29 resulted in the establishment of 
a division of special education with a director in charge. The 
division is working to improve the training of the teachers of 
special classes, to determine on a scientific basis who shall enter 
these classes and the types of classes required, and is planning 



Tests in Wiiitk Elkmk.ntary Schools and Special Classes 



49 



for the use of $1,500,000 for a building for mentally and physi- 
cally handicapped children authorized by the 1929 Legislature, 
which will be voted on by the citizens of Baltimore in the fall of 
1930. 

The survey commends Baltimore for taking care of all types 
of handicapped children, but recommends doubling the number 
of classes in order to care for the proportion of the school popu- 
lation actually in need of education in special classes. Addi- 
tional technical training would be desirable for practically all of 
the teachers of special classes. The Baltimore City salary sched- 
ule provides for $400 over and above the regular schedule for 
trained teachers of special classes, but none of the teachers now 
employed are sufficiently trained to earn the differential avail- 
able. 



TABLE 29 

Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1929 



No. Making: 





No. 




Returned 


Average 


Per 


Satisfactory Improve- 


KIND OF class 


of 


Total 


to 


Net 


Cent of 


ment 






Classes 


Admitted Regular 


Roll 


Attend- 




t=Pei- 








Classes 




ance 


No. 


Cent. 








White Schools 








Subnormal 


61 


1.240 


37 


962 


87 


814 


80 


Open Air 


17 


424 


42 


325 


85 


287 


85 


Crippled 


12 


207 


22 


214 


93 


196 


92 


Disciplinary 


3 


110 


13 


70 


95 


63 


82 


Americanization .... 


3 


96 


9 


71 


90 


61 


84 


Deaf 


3 


32 




31 


90 


30 


97 


Sight Conservation. . 


2 


31 




28 


84 


26 


87 


Cardiac 


1 


20 




19 


79 


14 


74 


Total White 


102 


2,220 


123 


1 ,720 


88 


1,491 


83 








Colored Schools 








Subnormal 


6 


135 


2 


113 


71 


62 


57 


Disciplinary 


9 


76 


47 


32 


100 


15 


63 


Crippled 


3 


56 




51 


86 


50 


89 


Open Air 


1 


22 




20 


83 


20 


95 


Total Colored 


12 


289 


49 


216 


80 


147 


70 



*Per cent of number admitted exclusive of pupils returned to regular classes or with- 
drawn in other ways. 



The Legislature of 1929 authorized an expenditure of $10,000 
by the State Board of Education during each of the years 1930 
and 1931, for the establishment of special classes for physically 
handicapped children in the counties. Not more than $2,000 is 
to be available for any one class, which must include at least 10 
children. Several counties, notably Allegany and Washington, 
are considering the advisability of establishing such classes. 



THE TRAINING OF THE WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

IMPROVED 

Of 3,016 county white elementary teachers employed in Octo- 
ber, 1929, there are 2,815 or 93 per cent who hold regular first 
grade and elementary principals' certificates. The preceding 
year the per cent was 91, and ten years before it was 33. First 
grade certificates represent satisfactory completion of a two-year 
normal school course or its equivalent, and the elementary princi- 
pal's certificate requires an additional half year of training. (See 
Table 30.) 

TABLE 30 



Increase in Teachers Holding Regular First Grade Certificates, 1921-1929 







White Elementary Teachers 




Total Number 


Holding Regular First Grade 


FALL OF 


White Elementary- 


Certificates 




Teachers 










Number 


Per Cent 


1921 


3,040 


1,228 


40.4 


1922 


3,038 


1,351 


44.5 


1923 


3,026 


1,633 


54.0 


1924 


3,019 


1,936 


64.1 


1925 


3,058 


2,212 


72.4 


1926 


3,071 


2,414 


78.6 


1927 


3,037 


2,597 


85.5 


1928 


3,047 


2,756 


90.5 


1929 


3,016 


2,814 


93.3 



All types of schools share in the improvement, the per cent 
having first grade and elementary principals' certificates being 
higher than for 1928 by 5, 3 and 2 per cent in one-teacher, two- 
teacher, and graded schools respectively. In one-teacher schools 
in October, 1929, there were 89 per cent of the teachers who hold 
regular first grade certificates; in two-teachers schools, 91 per 
cent; and in graded schools, 95 per cent hold these and elemen- 
tary principals' certificates. The remaining teachers hold pro- 
visional or second and third grade certificates. Third grade cer- 
tificates are no longer issued to new applicants and second grade 
certificates are only given to those who hold third grade certifi- 
cates and qualify for a higher grade of certificate. The decreas- 
ing numbers of teachers without the normal school training de- 
sired are plainly evident in Chart 7 and Table 31.* 

* For number and per cent of white elementary teachei's holding various grades of 
certificate in 1929, see Tables IX to XI, pages 316 to 318. 



50 



Training of White Elementary Teachers 



51 



CHART 7 



OCT. 



TRAnmiG OF Li^YLAiro coimr white ele-sjtary teachers 



NUl.IBER 
REG- PROVI- 
UIAR SIOIIAL 



% REGUIAR 



% PROVLSIOllAL 





1 228 




1322 


1351 


52 


1923 


1633 


32 






oo 


1 o c 

1925 


c212 


on 


1926 


2414 


24 


1927 


2597 


21 


1923 


2756 


35 


1929 


2814 


16 


1921 


933 


189 






17*^ 






Q7 








1925 


517 


DO 


1926 


405 


21 


1927 


287 


21 


1928 


184 


a 


1929 


142 




1921 


368 


291 


1922 


365 


201 


1923 


320 


124 


1924 


229 


101 


1925 


182 


65 


1926 


161 


46 


1927 


87 


24 


1928 


60 


4 


1929 


41 


3 



FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES 




SECOIID GRADi, CEfiTIflCAIES 







29 1 




27 


m 




'3 L' 











THIRD GRADE CERTIFICA3B3 




8 




6 i 









The counties vary in the per cent of teachers holding regular 
first grade and elementary principals' certificates from 100 in 
Baltimore County and 99 in Garrett and Caroline to 71 in St. 
Mary's and 79 in Cecil and Charles. All except seven of the 
counties have at least 92 per cent of their teachers with the train- 



52 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 31 



Grade of Certificate Held by County White Elementary Teachers in Various 

Types of Schools, October, 1929 



CERTIFICATES 


White Elementary School Teachers 


One 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 
Schools 


First Grade 

Regular 

Provisional 


Number 


603 


402 
1 

31 


1,809 
15 

62 


2,814 
16 

142 


Second Grade 

Regular 


49 


Third Grade 

Regular 

Provisional 


23 
2 


6 
1 


12 


41 

3 


1 otal 

First Grade 

Regular 

Provisional 




677 


441 


1,898 


3,016 


Per Cent 


89.1 


91.1 
.2 

7.1 


95.3 
.8 

3.3 


93.3 
.5 

4.7 


Second Grade 

Regular 


7.2 


Third Grade 

Regular 

Provisional 


3.4 
.3 


1.4 

.2 


.6 


1.4 
.1 


Total 




100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



ing desired. The counties showing the greatest improvement in 
number and per cent from 1928 to 1929 are Carroll, Charles, 
Howard, Washington, and Harford. (See Table 32.) 

Comparison with conditions in 1921 shows the phenomenal 
improvement made in replacing untrained with trained teachers 
in Garrett, Caroline, Wicomico, Worcester, Howard, Kent, Dor- 
chester, Charles, Carroll, Washington, Prince George's, and 
Somerset Counties. In these counties the per cent of white ele- 
mentary teachers holding first grade certificates is higher by 
from 60 to 92 per cent than eight years ago. With the exception 
of Howard and Washington, all of the counties which have made 
these tremendous gains have been recipients of the State Equal-^ 



White Elementary Teachers Holding First Grade Certificates 53 



ization Fund which has made it possible to increase the salary 
budget sufficiently to employ normal school graduates without 
adding to the county tax burden. 

The counties which have made only slight gains from 1921 to 
1929 like Baltimore, Allegany, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, and 
Talbot had a large proportion of trained teachers at the earlier 
date and, therefore, had little chance for growth. (See Table 
32.) 

TABLE 32 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Teachers Holding Regular 
First Grade Certificates in October, 1929, Compared with 1928 and 1921 



County 



§ 1929 



Number 



Per Cent 



1929 Increase Over 



1928 



Number 



Per Cent 



1921 



Number 



Per Cent 



Total Average . . . 

Baltimore 

fOarrett 

tCaroline 

fKent 

fAllegan y 

Howard 

fPrince George's 

Alontgomery . . . 
t(^ueen Anne's . . 

Talbot 

Harford 

Anne Arundel . . 

t Wicomico 

fCalvort 

tCarroll 

Frederick 

fW'orccstcr 

Washington . . . . 

tDorchcster 

fSomerset 

Cecil 

tCharles 

fst. Mary's 



2,814 


93 


58 


2 


1,586 


53 


373 


100 


10 




112 


11 


149 


99 


*9 


3 


137 


92 


68 


99 


4 


3 


46 


73 


50 


98 






30 


68 


324 


97 


4 


1 


117 


26 


56 


97 


3 


6 


40 


72 


190 


97 


1 


3 


134 


61 


168 


95 


12 


3 


82 


27 


50 


94 


*3 


*1 


15 


45 


50 


94 


*1 


*2 


16 


37 


116 


94 


7 


5 


70 


56 


142 


94 


*5 


2 


66 


35 


95 


93 


1 


3 


71 


72 


26 


93 


*1 




10 


51 


146 


92 


14 


8 


99 


65 


199 


92 


3 


4 


108 


55 


66 


89 




1 


50 


72 


272 


88 


19 


5 


199 


61 


76 


86 




5 


54 


68 


59 


82 


*1 




40 


60 


75 


79 


*3 


1 


46 


52 


37 


79 


3 


8 


27 


64 


27 


71 




3 


17 


55 



* Decrease. 

t Received Eciual ization Fund in 1928-29. 

§ For counties arran^jed aliihabctically, see Table IX, 



page 316. 



54 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 

According to reports from county superintendents, 826 or 27 
per cent of the 3,019 county white elementary school teachers in 
service in October, 1929, attended universities, colleges, or nor- 
mal schools the preceding summer. The University of Maryland 
and Johns Hopkins University took care of over two-thirds of 
this group of summer school attendants. Frostburg Normal 
School had 66; Teachers College, Columbia University, 48; the 
University of Virginia, 39; and the University of Delaware 22. 
(See Table 33.) 

The counties varied greatly in the proportion of their teaching 
staff who went to summer school in 1929, from Prince George's 
with 36.5 per cent and Allegany, Somerset, and Montgomery 
which had a third at summer school to Anne Arundel, Talbot, 
and Worcester which had fewer than a fifth of their staffs at 
summer school. In order to renew their certificates, teachers are 
required to attend summer school at least once in each four 
years. The counties are required to aid to the extent of $25 
in the expense of such summer school attendance. Some of the 
counties grant from $50 to $100 to teachers who go to schools at 
a distance such as New York, Chicago, etc. (See Table 33.) 

TABLE 33 

County White Elementary School Teachers in Service in October, 1929 
Reported by County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1929 





Teachers Employed 










Oct., 1929 Who 




Number 


of White 




Attended Summer 




Elementary 


County 


School in 1929 


Summer Schools Attended 






Number 


Per Cent 


Teachers 


Supervi- 
sors 



Total and Average. 


826 


27 


4 


Prince George's. . . . 


73 


36 


5 


Allegany 


111 


33 


3 


Somerset 


24 


33 


3 


Montgomery 


58 


33 







33 


32 


4 


St. Mary's 


12 


31 


6 


Queen Anne's 


16 


30 


2 




14 


29 


8 


Harford 


36 


29 


3 


Caroline 


20 


29 





Garrett 


42 


28 


2 


Kent 


14 


27 


5 


Baltimore 


102 


27 


2 


Washington 


82 


26 


5 


Frederick 


55 


25 


5 


Cecil 


21 


22 


1 


Calvert 


6 


21 


4 


Dorchester 


17 


19 


3 


Carroll 


30 


19 





Howard 


11 


19 





Anne Arundel 


28 


18 


4 


Talbot 


9 


17 





Worcester 


12 


16 


2 



Total 

University of Maryland 

John Hopkins University 

Frostburg 

Columbia 

University of Virginia 

University of Delaware 

Ashville 

George Washington University 

Shippensburg Normal 

Harrisonburg T. C .• • • • 

University of Pennsylvania . . . 

University of Vermont 

University of West Virginia. . . 

University of California 

Penn State 

Catholic University 

All Others 



826 

*290 
266 
66 
48 
^39 
22 
10 
10 
10 
7 
6 
5 
5 
4 
4 
3 
33 



13 

1 

6 



* One attended 6 weeks at another school. 



t One attended 12 weeks. 



Summer School Attendance and Extension Courses 



55 



EXTENSION COURSES 

In addition to attendance at summer school, the superinten- 
dents and teachers in several counties arranged for extension 
courses. Some of these courses met the requirements set up by 
the State, which made the county or teachers eligible to receive 
reimbursement from the fund provided in the State public school 
budget for this purpose. In the school year 1926-27 State aid 
was given for such courses in 8 counties, but in the two years 
following, only two counties, Allegany and Washington, had such 
courses for which State aid was given. (See Table 34.) 

TABLE 34 



Extension Courses for White Teachers 



County 


Total 
Enrollment 


Total Number 

for Whom 
Reimbursement 
Was Allowed 


Total 
Reimbursement 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


Allegany 

Carroll 


57 
12 
35 
10 

5 
82 
11 

6 


IG 
2 


t48 


27 
5 

27 
7 

5 
68 
7 

G 


7 


tl7 


$ 472.50 
50.00 
433 . 00 
175.00 
92.50 
1,560.00 
185.00 
111.00 


$122.50 


*$755 00 


Frederick 












Prince George's. . 
Somerset 


























Washington 

Wicomico 


66 


34 


39 


25 


570.00 


375.00 


Worcester 














Totals 














218 


84 


t82 


152 


46 


42 


$3,079.00 


$692.50 


$1,130.00 



t Excludes teachers doing extension course of study work in connection with Teachers' 
College, Columbia. 

* Includes $500 for partial reimbursement to county for course of study work. 

COURSES OFFERED 
College algebra and trigonometry. 
Modem European History 
Recent American History (Since 1865). 
English non-dramatic Poetry. 
Elizabethan Drama. 
French (1-6). 
Secondary EJducation. 

RESIGNATIONS OF TEACHERS FROM COUNTY WHITE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

In the school year just past fewer teachers resigned from the 
Maryland county white elementary schools than in any of the 
three years preceding. Not counting 44 teachers on leave of 
absence and 53 who transferred from one county to another, 
there were 404 resignations between October, 1927 and October, 
1928. This was 78 fewer than the corresponding figure for the 
preceding year. (See Table 35.) 

Marriage was the cause of resignation for 150 teachers or 37 



56 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



per cent of those who resigned from the county white elementary 
schools. Work other than teaching claimed 44 or 11 per cent 
of the resignations. There were 37 teachers dropped for failure 
to attend summer school or to keep up with the requirements for 
those holding low grade certificates. Inefficiency caused the dis- 
missal of 33 or 8 per cent of the teachers who left the county 
school systems. (See Table 35.) 

There were 25 who left the county schools to teach in other 
states or in private schools. Illness, retirement, and death 
caused the resignation of 48 teachers. Baltimore City took 16 
teachers from the counties and 14 others left elementary school 
positions in the counties for high school, normal school, and 
supervisory positions in the State. (See Table 35.) 

TABLE 35 

Estimated Causes of Resi^ation of White Elementary School Teachers 
from Maryland County Schools at End of or During 
1924-25, 1925-26, 1926-27, 1927-28 



1927-28 



Cause of Resignation 


1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 


No. 


Per Cent 


Marriage 




136 


158 


168 


150 


37.1 


Work Other than Teaching 




37 


34 


42 


44 


10.9 


Dropped for Low Certificate 


Grade 












or Non-Attendance at Summer 












School 




83 


58 


42 


37 


9.1 


Dropped for Inefficiency 




41 


55 


56 


33 


8.2 


Teaching in Baltimore, Normal or 


f 










High School or acting as 


Super- 






] 






visor or Attendance Officer , 




58 


76 


61 


• t30 


7.4 


Teaching in another State 


or in 










Private School 










25 


6.2 


Illness 




22 


19 


18 


24 


5.9 


Retirement 




23 


16 


39 


14 


3.5 


Death 




9 


5 


10 


10 


2.5 


Moved Away 




25 


18 


20 


10 


2.5 


Other and Unknown 




35 


27 


26 


27 


6.7 


Total 




469 


466 


482 


t404 


100.0 


Leave of Absence 




*78 


*56 


*52 


*44 




To Other Counties 




*71 


*43 


*53 


*53 





flncludes 8 who left elementary teaching positions to teach in county high schools, 
3 to become supervisors, 1 to act as attendance officer, 2 to teach in normal elementary 
training schools, and 16 to Baltimore City. 

*Not included among total resignations. 



The resignations varied from 2 in Calvert and 5 in Queen 
Anne's and Talbot to 37 in Washington and 34 in Carroll and 
Frederick Counties. Whenever there has been an unusual num- 
ber of resignations or dismissals for the various causes they have 
been mentioned on the next page. (See Table 36.) 



Resignations from County White Elementary Schools 



57 



TABLE 36 



Estimated Causes of Resignation of Teachers from Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools, Year Ending June, 1928 











T5 




O 0) 


u 

(U 






















c 
S 
*j 


5£ is o 
o t. *j 2 
-J °<-g 


>, 


Baltin 
chool 
in Stfti 


-C O 
*J <-> 
C e3 
c > 
<u 








>> 





c 
■/, 




County 




CJ 

.2 


^ ? 


=3 u 

o ^ c 

CT ^ 
Cess 


c c 


u i_c 
111 


u 

c o ° 

•= i; c 

Si ^ 


CO 
01 


"c 
o 
C 




ea 
< 


_. 
c 

cj 
o 


> 


2 








C f 
>• 


c r 
(-< 


Q 




? X X 


c 


"S 


03 
U 

(-) 


o 






O 


Tntnl 


\ -±o^ 






"^7 


oo 


30 


9i 


94 


1 J. 


1 n 
xu 


1 n 
xu 


97 


44 


•JO 


Allegany 


21 


14 


2 




2 


1 




1 








1 


2 


1 


■\ f 1 r\ n A V* 1 1 T\ A 1 




7 


9 


r: 
tj 


9 


9 


1 




1 






1 
X 


9 


r^n Ify FY > r\T*^> 


97 








1 


2 


1 

X 




1 

X 




2 


1 
X 




I 'J 1 ^TC^Y't 


9 






1 




1 

X 












1 

X 


1 1 V* 1 1 T1 n 


1 9 


9 


1 


2 


1 
1 






1 
X 






1 
X 




1 

X 


9 


Carroll 


34 


12 


5 


1 


5 


4 


2 


1 


1 


1 




2 


2 


4 




1 


V J 










9 




1 

X 


1 

X 






9 


1 

X 




10 


9 


1 

i. 


1 

X 






1 
1 


•I 
o 


1 


1 

1 








5 


Dorchester 


12 


4 


1 


1 


1 


1 






2 




2 




1 


Frederick 


34 


16 


2 


4 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 




4 


's 


4 


Garrett 


36 


13 


6 


5 


4 




1 


1 


1 


1 




4 


7 


14 


Harford 


19 


5 


6 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 






1 


1 


Howard 


10 

8 


2 


2 




3 


2 




1 








2 


Kent 


1 




2 


3 




1 








1 






1 


Montgomery 


20 


4 






3 


3 


5 






4 


1 


1 


1 


Prince George's.. . . 
Queen Anne's 


32 


8 


6 


1 


5 


1 


4 


2 


1 




1 


3 


4 


4 


o 


2 


1 








1 




1 












•St. Mary's 


11 


1 


1 


7 


1 










1 




o 


Somerset 


12 


6 






1 


1 




3 




1 






2 


Talbot 


5 


2 












1 




2 


1 


1 


Washington 


37 


11 


6 


7 


1 


1 


2 


3 


1 


1 


3 


1 


8 


2 


Wicomico 


8 


5 


2 






1 
















T 


Worcester 


11 


7 












1 


1 




2 


4 


1 



























t Excludes teachers on leave of absence and transfers to another county. 

Washington and St. Mary's Counties dropped 7 teachers for 
low certificates and failure to attend summer school and this was 
the case for 5 teachers in Garrett and Anne Arundel. Carroll 
and Prince George's each dropped 5 teachers for inefficiency. 
Anne Arundel lost 8 teachers to Baltimore City. Four teachers 
left Caroline and Prince George's Counties to go to other states 
or to private schools. Montgomery had 5 resignations because 
of illness. (See Table 36.) 

Leave of absence, presumably for study, was granted to 8 
teachers in Frederick and Washington Counties and to 7 Garrett 
County teachers. These teachers are probably studying at the 
State normal schools to qualify for first grade certificates. (See 
next to last column, Table 36.) 

Garrett lost 14 teachers to other counties chiefly because the 
normal school graduates emploj^ed from outside the county were 
offered positions in their home counties. St. Mary's and (Charles 
each furnished 5 teachers to other counties and 4 teachers left 



58 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

Frederick, Prince George's, and Carroll to take positions in other 
counties. (See last column. Table 36.) 

TEACHER TURNOVER REDUCED 

Since there were fewer resignations from the county white 
elementary schools, it follows that there were fewer vacant po- 
sitions to be filled. A summary of figures for the past four years 
will show the improved conditions with respect to teacher turn- 
over in county white elementary schools. 

There were 30 fewer vacancies in the county white elemen- 
tary schools in the school year just closed than in the year pre- 
ceding, and when comparison is made with three years preced- 
ing, the number of openings for teachers is 150 fewer. The per 
cent of teachers new to the counties as a whole is now less than 
15 per cent of the total teaching staff in white elementary 
schools. (See Table 37.) 

TABLE 37 



October 


New to 
Maryland 
Counties 


Chang-e in No. 
of Teaching 
Positions 


Number New to Counties Oct., 1928 
Who Were 


Inexperi- 
enced 


Experienced But 
Not in Md. Counties 
Preceding Year 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


1925 


601 

564 
481 
451 


19.7 
18.4 
15.8 
14.8 


+ 39 
+ 13 
—34 
+ 10 


411 
390 
380 
326 


190 
174 
101 

125 


1926 


1927 


1928 





In addition to the 451 vacancies shown above for the school 
year 1928-29, there were 53 additional changes arising from the 
transfer of teachers from county to county, making the total 
number of teachers new to the situation in the individual coun- 
ties 504 or 16.5 per cent of the number of teaching positions. 
The individual counties varied in per cent new to the county 
from 5 in Queen Anne's to 29 per cent in Garrett. Queen Anne's, 
Wicomico, Calvert, and Kent had a turnover under 8 per cent, 
while at the opposite extreme, in Garrett, Prince George's, St. 
Mary's, Caroline, Montgomery, and Charles, the turnover was 
over 20 per cent. (See Table 38.) 

Garrett last year was still eliminating the untrained teachers 
by replacing them with normal school graduates. Because of an 
insufficient number of Garrett County high school graduates 
taking the normal school course, it is necessary for Garrett to 
employ normal school graduates whose homes are in other coun- 



Teacher Turnover ix White Elementary Schools Reduced 59 



TABLE 38 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers New to 
Maryland Counties, in October, 1928, Showing? Those Experienced, 

and from Other Counties 



County 



New to 
County 



No. 



Per 
Cent 



Change 
in No. of 
Teacliing 
Positions 

Oct. '27 
to '28 



Number New to County Oct., 1928 
who were 



Inex- 
perienced 



Ex- 
perienced 
but New 
to 

State 



Experienced 
in Counties 

but Not 
Teaching in 

1927-28 



Total and 








Average 


t504 


16. 


5 




o 


o . 


4 


Wicomico 


6 


5. 


8 


Cji 1 vprt, 


2 




q 


Kent 


4 


7. 


8 


Baltimore 


43 


10. 


9 


Talbot 


6 


11 


3 


Allegany 

Somerset 


41 


12 


3 


10 


13 


7 


Harford 


17 


13 


8 


Dorchester 


13 


13 


8 


Cecil 


15 


15 





W^ashington .... 


52 


17 





Carroll 


27 


17 


2 


Worcester 


13 


17 


3 


Anne Arundel . . 


32 


18 


9 


Frederick 


42 


18 


9 


Howard 


11 


19 





Charles 


10 


20 


.8 


Montgomery . . . 


37 


21 


.9 


Caroline 


15 


22 


.4 


St. Mary's 
Prince George's. 


9 


22 


.5 


48 


23 


.9 


Garrett 


48 


29 


.1 



+ 10 

— 3 

— 1 



— 5 
+ 13 



+23 

— 2 

— 3 
+ 1 



+ 4 
—14 

— 3 
+ 2 

— 3 

— 1 

— 6 
+ 13 



— 7 
+ 6 

— 4 



326 

2 
4 
1 

2 
32 

5 
15 

6 
15 
13 

12 

34 
19 
6 
21 

35 
10 
7 

16 
15 

3 
18 
35 



66 



6 



1 
11 
1 
1 
4 



1 
1 

12 



1 

14 

8 



59 



1 
2 
3 

1 

6 
2 
1 



1 

3 
5 
4 
3 



2 

5 



4 
*6 
4 



tincludes 53 transfers from county to county, making total new to the 23 counties as a 
whole, 451. and the per cent of turnover, 14.8. 

*Includes 1 transfer from hi^h to elementary .school. 

ties, which means that their sojourn in Garrett is usually not 
prolonged after a vacancy nearer home is available. Prince 
George's and Montgomery have few high school graduates from 
their own counties at normal school and are often able to employ 
experienced teachers who live in Washington more or less tem- 
porarily. The turnover for the latter group of teachers is often 
very high. (See Tabic 38.) 



60 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 39 

White Elementary School Teachers in Service in October, 1928 in Maryland 
Counties, Who Were Inexperienced, and Who Came to Maryland 
After Experience in Other States, Distributed by State of 
Normal School or College Attended 



state of 

SCHOOL 
OR 

college 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's | 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


INEXPERIENCED TEACHERS 


Total 


326 


15 


21 


32 


1 


15 


19 


12 


7 


13 


35 


35 


15 


10 


2 


16 


18 


2 


3 


6 


5 


34 


4 


6 




Maryland 


298 
162 
64 
63 
9 
8 
6 
5 
5 
4 


14 

12 
2 


18 
13 
3 

2 


31 
27 
2 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


12 
4 
8 


19 
10 
5 
4 


11 

8 
2 


7 
7 


13 
2 
11 


32 
28 

4 


34 
1 
5 

28 


14 
13 


10 
6 
4 


2 
2 


10 

8 
2 


15 
6 
6 
1 
2 


2 
2 


3 
3 


6 
1 
5 


5 
3 
2 


29 
18 
1 

10 


4 
4 


6 
2 
4 


Tow son 


Salisbury 


Frostburg 




1 






1 
1 








Pennsylvania 




3 








2 
1 


1 
















1 






Virginia 














2 


2 










West Virginia 














1 




















4 






Washington, D. C 




























4 


1 










Other 


1 


3 




















































































TEACHERS WITH PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE OUTSIDE MARYLAND 


Total 


66 


3 


4 


6 






1 


1 


1 






8 


1 


1 




12 


14 




1 






11 


1 


1 




Maryland 


15 
7 
5 
2 
1 

16 
8 
7 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 


2 
1 


1 
1 


4 
4 


















1 
1 


1 




1 


3 
1 
2 












1 


1 


Towson 




























Frostburg 






















1 














1 


Salisbury 
























1 














1 


University of Maryland. . . . 
Virginia 


1 










































1 
















3 










4 
1 

2 










8 












1 
















5 




1 






Pcnnsvlvania 


1 










1 








2 
3 












1 






West Virginia 


1 
































Illinois 
























1 












1 






Ohio 






1 
























1 
1 










Michigan 
























1 
1 
1 
















New York 




1 








































California 










































New Jersey 






























1 
















North Carolina 
















1 






























South Carolina 




1 










































Texas 


























1 
1 


















Washington 














































Wisconsin 






























1 
















Unknown 








































1 












































1 



Of the 326 inexperienced teachers employed in county white 
elementary schools in October, 1928, 292 came from the three 
State normal schools, 8 from other schools of the state, and all 
except 4 of the remainder from schools in the states adjoining 
Maryland; viz., Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and 
Washington, D. C. (See top part of Table 39.) 

There were 66 teachers employed in the counties after having 
had previous experience in other states. Of these, 15 were grad- 
uates of our own normal schools and the University of Maryland, 
35 had their training in states along the borders of Maryland and 
16 came from other states. Those from the last mentioned 
group came to Washington with the families of members of 



Inexperienced Teachers in White Elementary Schools Gl 



Congress and sought employment in Prince George's and Mont- 
gomery Counties, probably because of their proximity to Wash- 
ington. (See bottom part of Table 39.) 

Of the 53 teachers who left one county to go to another over 
one half went to Allegany and Prince George's, 17 to the former 
and 10 to the latter county. Washington, Anne Arundel and 
Montgomery each appointed 4 teachers who had been employed 
in other counties the preceding year. Calvert, Kent, Talbot, 
Harford, Dorchester, Howard, Charles, and Caroline employed 
no teachers who had been teaching in other counties the preced- 
ing year. (See last column in Table 38.) 

Excluding temporary substitutes, the counties reported the 
employment of 111 teachers over and above the 3,078 teaching- 
positions in order to keep positions filled, because of resignations 
occurring during the school year 1928-29. This is a turnover of 
3.6 per cent, part of which will be reflected when the study of 
turnover between October, 1928 and 1929, is included in the 1930 
annual report. 

The turnover during the school year 1928-29 varied from in 
Kent and Queen Anne's and 1 in Charles, Cecil, Washington, and 
Wicomico to 14 and 16 in Baltimore and Allegany, the largest 
counties in the State, and 20 in Garrett, the latter being approx- 
imately one for each eight positions. There were many more 
changes required than for the preceding year in Frederick, Tal- 
bot, Baltimore, Dorchester, Allegany, and Garrett Counties. On 
the other hand, Washington, Anne Arundel, Harford, St. Mary's, 
and Charles had fewer changes than in the preceding school 
year. With consolidation of schools, satisfactory living condi- 
tions for teachers, elimination before graduation from normal 
school of students unfitted for teaching because of intellectual or 
social qualities and temperament, and the physical examination 
of all candidates for positions, the turnover during the year 
should probably gradually be reduced. (See Table 40.) 

TABLE 40 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Nchool Teachers p]m ployed in 
Excess of the Number of Teaching Positions in Order That Positions 
Be Kept Filled During the School Year Ending July 31, 1929 



REPLACEMENTS 
County Number Per Cent 

Total and AveruKO Ill .i.O 

Kent 

(Jurcn Annp's . . . . 

Washinjiton 1 

Wicomico 1 10 

Cecil 1 1.0 

Harford 2 1.0 

Charles 1 2.1 

Frederick 5 2.2 

Aime .Arundel 4 2.5 

Somerset 2 2.7 

Carroll o 3.1 



County 

Montgomery . . . 
Dorchester .... 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Howard 

Worcester 

Prince George's . 

Calvert 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Garrett 



REPLACEMENTS 
Number Per Cent 



(> 
A 

14 
3 

IB 
3 
4 

11 
2 

4 

3 
20 



3 2 
3 2 

3 8 

4 5 

4 8 

5 1 
5.3 
5 5 
7.1 
7 5 
7 5 

12.2 



62 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS STAY IN THEIR POSITIONS 

LONGER 

In October, 1929, the number of years of experience of the 
average Maryland county teacher was appreciably higher than 
the corresponding figure for 1928 for all types of schools. In 
the white elementary schools the median length of experience 
was 6.0 years, .4 of a year longer than in the preceding year. In 
the individual counties the median years of experience varied 
considerably from the county average. In Garrett, where many 
changes were necessary to secure a corps of well trained teach- 
ers, the median white elementary teacher has had only three 
years of teaching experience. Howard, Caroline, and Carroll are 
also staffed with teachers whose median experience is less than 
4 years. At the other extreme are Kent, Somerset, and Wicom- 
ico, where in the fall of 1929 the teacher with the median years 
of experience had ten or eleven years of teaching back of her. 
(See lower part of Table 4 IB.) 

The proportion of inexperienced teachers employed is being 
greatly reduced. There were only 279 inexperienced teachers in 
the Maryland county white elementary schools in October, 1929. 
This group includes 9.3 per cent of the present teaching staff, 
and 1929 is the first year in which less than 10 per cent of the 
white elementary teachers were in their first year of teaching. 
There were fewer inexperienced teachers employed than those 
with one and two years of experience. (See Table 41B.) 

The number of teachers who have had less than three years of 
teaching experience present very specific problems to the super- 
visory force. In the counties as a whole, 29 per cent of all white 
elementary teachers fell in this group. In general these are 
young normal school graduates, with a certain amount of pro- 
fessional information, a great deal of enthusiasm, but with a 
limited range of experience. The counties having a high per- 
centage of these young teachers, Garrett, Howard, Carroll, Car- 
oline, and Calvert, are especially challenged not only to offer them 
the proper guidance through the beginning year of teaching, but 
to capitalize the energy and potential growth that this young 
group presents. 

There is a considerable drop between the number of teachers 
having had one year of experience and those having had two 
years of experience. It is after two years of experience that a 
certificate becomes permanent, if attention is paid to the need of 
summer school attendance for its renewal. A teacher who seems 
ill adapted to teaching in her first year usually wants to try her- 
self out a second year. Failure to show marked improvement 
after the second year ordinarily causes the superintendent to re- 
fuse to renew the contract. The teachers who are dropped for 



EXPERIENCK OF WllITH ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 



63 



inefficiency either «o into other work, marry, or try out work in 
private schools or schools of other states. 

Those who remain and form the group with from 8 to 15 years' 
experience, represent a most valuable portion of the teaching 
staff. In October, 1929, 1,517 teachers, or 50 per cent of all the 
elementary teachers, were in this group. They couple the stabil- 
izing effect of a number of years of actual class room work under 
supervision with the desire for further gro\\i:h that is prevalent 
in a group of young teachers. 

The more experience a teacher has, the more valuable she be- 
comes provided she utilizes the results of her years of work and 
at the same time continues to grow in her profession. The su- 
pervisory staff has the opportunity of stimulating in the teachers 
with more than 15 years' experience a desire for continued de- 
velopment and an escape from routine procedures, which will 
make these teachers continue to remain a source of strength to 
their profession. (See Table 41B.) 

The types of elementary schools show^ marked variation in the 
average experience of their teachers. In the one-teacher schools 
the median experience in October, 1929, was 3.1 years. One 
hundred and thirty-two teachers, 19.5 per cent of all in the one- 
teacher schools, had had no experience in the fall of 1929, and 
49 per cent had less than three years' previous teaching exper- 
ience. In a number of the counties there are so few one-teacher 
schools that the median length of experience for this group of 
teachers is without great significance. Nevertheless, the range 
of these medians from 1.8 years in Allegany, and between 2 and 
3 years in Howard, Talbot, Caroline, Carroll, Worcester, Garrett, 
Somerset, and Frederick, to 10.7 and 12.4 years in St. Mary's 
and Prince George's respectively, does reflect a real difference in 
the situation in the individual counties. In Allegany the one- 
teacher schools serve as training centers for teachers who are 
later transferred to the larger schools. In Garrett, where there 
are 98 one-teacher schools, only tw^o teachers have been in ser- 
vice more than eleven years. This is undoubtedly caused by the 
lack of home county normal school graduates and the necessity 
of securing normal school graduates from other counties who 
leave as soon as positions are vacant nearer their homes. (See 
Tabic 41 A.) 

In the two-teacher schools the average teacher has had much 
longer training. The median experience is 5.8 years. Harford, 
Carroll, Caroline, Dorchester and Howard have the lowest aver- 
age experience (3 years or under) and in Somerset and Kent the 
median is as high as 14 years. Of the 4 11 teachers employed in 
the two-teacher schools, 31 per cent had less than 3 years' ex- 
perience, 50 per cent from 3 to 15 years, and 19 per cent had 
more than 15 years' service in the schools. (See Tabic 41 A.) 



64 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



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Years of Experience of White Elementary Teachers 



65 



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24 or morn. 

Total 

Median 



66 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



In the graded schools there is an even greater period of ex- 
perience for the median teacher — 7.0 years. In October, 1929, 
only 5.4 per cent of the graded school teachers (1,898 in all) 
were inexperienced ; in October, 1928, this was true of 6.8 per 
cent of the teachers. Twenty-two per cent of the graded school 
teaching staff had less than 3 years' experience, and 23 per cent 
had more than 15, leaving 55 per cent with experience ranging 
from 3 to 15 years.. The only counties where the median exper- 
ience is less than 4.5 years are those that have comparatively few 
graded schools — Calvert, Charles and St. Mary's. In Kent, 
Queen Anne's, Talbot, Wicomico, Somerset and Cecil (all Eastern 
Shore counties) the graded schools are staffed with teachers 
whose median experience is between 10 and 20 years. (See 
Table 41B.) 

SIZE OF CLASS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS SLIGHTLY LARGER 

. The average number of pupils belonging per teacher in county 
white elementary schools increased by .1 to 32.9 in 1929. The 
counties ranged from 40.2 pupils per teacher in Baltimore Coun- 
ty to 22.8 in Garrett. All but 10 of the counties showed an in- 
crease in size of class. The five counties (at the bottom of the 
list) having the smallest classes all showed larger classes in 
1929 than in 1928. The increases were particularly marked in 
Kent, St. Mary's, Charles, Queen Anne's, and Prince George's. 
(See Chart 8.) 

The decrease in number of pupils per teacher was nearly 3 
pupils in Montgomery and less than 1 pupil in Worcester, Har- 
ford, Talbot, Washington, Cecil, Allegany, Wicomico, Howard, 
and Caroline. (See Chart 8.) 

The figure 31.5 for Baltimore City included elementary, 
junior high, and vocational schools. If elementary schools only 
are considered, the average was exactly the same as for the 
counties, 32.9. (See Chart 8.) 

The counties at the bottom of the chart had a large propor- 
tion of their pupils in one-teacher schools. The average number 
of pupils in the average one-teacher school in the counties was 

24.7, the same as in 1928. The counties ranged from Garrett 
with but 19.1 pupils per teacher to Baltimore County with 33.8. 
(See Table 42.) 

In 1929 the two-teacher schools had an increase over 1928 of 
.2 in average number of pupils per teacher, making the number 

29.8. The counties ranged from 26 per teacher in Howard to 
33.8 in Baltimore County. Every county except six, Worcester, 
Harford, Frederick, Cecil, Allegany, and Baltimore, had more 
pupils per teacher in the two-teacher schools in 1928 than in 
1929. (See Table 42.) 



Size of Class in White Elementary Schools 

(HART 8 



67 



AVERAGE NUMBLR BELONGING Pm TKbDHjuR IN WHITE ELELIENTARY XH00L3 



County 



1927 1928 1929 



32.3 
40.1 



Co. Average 
Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 34.9 
V^ashington 36.0 
Frederick 32.0 
?r. George '3 33.8 
Talbot 
Caroline 
Allegany 
Wicomico 
Somerset 
Harford 
Howard 
Dorchester 
^ueen Anne's 28,8 
Cecil 
Carroll 
Worcester 
I.iontgomery 
Charles 
Kent 
Calvert 
St. Mary's 
Garrett 

•^aaltimore City 31.7 
State 32.0 




* Includes elementary, junior hitrh and vocational schools. The average for elementally 
schools is 32.8. 

For counties arran^red al j)habetically see Table XIII. iiajro 320. 

In the graded schools the average per teacher, 36.8, was .5 
lower than in 1928. Compared with the average for two-teacher 
schools, there were 7 more pupils per teacher in the graded 
schools. The range in graded schools was from 29.9 pupils per 
teacher in Montgomerv to 42 in Haltimore and Calvert and 13 



68 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 42 

Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher in County White 
Elementary Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1929 



County 



Schools 
Having 

One 
Teacher 



County 



Schools 
Having 

Two 
Teachers 



County 



Schools 
Having 

Three or 
More 

Teachers 



County Average ... 24 . 7 

Baltimore 33.8 

Frederick 29.0 

Caroline 28.9 

Wicomico 27 . 8 

M o n tgo rnery 27.6 

Somerset 27.2 

Howard 27.1 

Harford 27.1 

■Talbot 26.4 

Calvert 26.2 

Carroll 25.3 

Cecil. 25.2 

Washington 25.1 

Queen Anne's 23 . 9 

FrinceGcorge's 23 . 6 

Alleganv 23.2 

Dorchester 22.6 

8t. Mary's 21.9 

Charles! 21.6 

Kent 20.9 

Anne Arundel 20 . 7 

Worcester 20.6 

Carrett 19.1 



County Average. . . 29 . 8 

Baltimore 33.8 

Allegany 32.0 

Washington 31.7 

Queen Anne's 30 . 5 

Carroll 30.5 

Talbot 30.3 

Cecil 30.0 

Anne Arundel 29.8 

Frederick 29 .7 

St. Mary's 29.3 

Garrett 29.0 

Dorchester 28.9 

Kent 28.8 

Montgomery 28 . 6 

Harford 28.4 

Calvert 28.3 

Worcester 28.2 

Prince George's. . . 28.0 

Charles 27.6 

Somerset 27 . 4 

Wicomico 27 . 2 

Caroline 27 . 1 

Howard 26.0 



Count}' Average. . . 36 . 8 

St. Mary's 43 . 

Calvert 42.0 

Baltimore 42.0 

Washington 38.2 

Wicomico 37 . 9 

Dorchester 37 . 9 

Kent 37.6 

Howard 37.6 

Frederick 37.4 

Cecil 37.4 

Prince George's. . . 36.7 

Talbot 36 . 7 

Queen Anne's 36 . 5 

Anne Arundel .... 36 . 4 

Caroline 36 . 1 

Harford 36.0 

Somerset . . . 36 . 

Worcester 35 . 6 

Charles 35.2 

Allegany 35.0 

Carroll 34 .1 

Garrett 31.5 

Montgomery 29 . 9 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIII, page 320. 



in St. Mary's. The counties having an average of fewer than 
36 pupils per teacher were Montgomery, Garrett, Carroll, Alle- 
gany, Charles, and Worcester. Montgomery and Allegany have 
a junior high school organization in some of the schools and 
Allegany has extra teachers of music in addition to the regular 
classroom teachers. Carroll in the larger schools attempts to 
have a teacher for each grade which means, of course, that 
classes are smaller than would be necessary if two grades were 
combined in one room and there are also special teachers of 
music, home economics, and manual training. (See Table 42.) 



AVERAGE SALARY HIGHER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



The salary per white elementary school teacher and pi-incipal 
was $29 higher than it was the preceding year, making the 1929 
amount $1,184. There has been a slow but steady increase in 
salaries each year and this is shown for the period from 1917 to 
1929. (See table 43.) 





TABLE 43 




Average Annual 


Salary Per County 


White Elementary 


School Teacher, 




1917- 


1929 






Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year 


White 


Year 


White 


Ending 


Elementary 


Ending 


Elementary 


June 30 


vSchool 


June 30 


School 




Teachers 




Teaciiers 


1917 


$491 


1924 


SI, 030 


1918 


542 


1925 


1 . {)n7 


1919 


521 


1926 


1.103 


1920 


631 


1927 


1,126 


1921 


881 


1928 


1,155 


1922 


937 


1929 


1,184 


1923 


990 







Salaries in the counties in 1929 ranged from $991 in St. 
Mary's to $1,518 in Baltimore County. The salaries in Baltimore 
County are in a class by themselves, being $250 higher than those 
in any other county. As shown in the preceding section, Balti- 
more County has a larger number of pupils belonging per teacher 
than any other county in the State. This is one reason why Bal- 
timore County can have a higher salary schedule than the State 
minimum found in the majority of the counties. 

The salary in St. Mary's, $991, is only $41 higher than the 
State minimum required for an assistant teacher holding a first 
grade certificate, $950. A number of teachers in St. Mary's 
County are in one-teacher schools in which schools the minimum 
for teachers with first grade certificates is $1,050. It will be 
evident from the salary paid that St. Mary's must employ a num- 
ber of untrained and inexperienced teachers. (See Chart 9.) 

Every county had higher salaries in 1929 than in 1928, except 
Allegany and Caroline which had slight decreases. St. Mary's 
showed the greatest increase, $90, and even so St. Mary's stands 
lowest on the list of counties. The increase of $63 for Kent was 
not real but only apparent since, due to a deficit in 1928, the 
salary shown for 1928 included only a part of the total amount 
which teachers had actually earned. Garrett had an increase of 
$51 and Washington one of $46 which are accounted for by the 
appointment of a larger proportion of teachers holding certifi- 
cates of the first grade. Anne Arundel had an increase of $44 in 

69 



70 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



salary, Montgomery one of $37, and Harford and Cecil increases 
of $35 between 1928 and 1929. (See Chart 9.) 

CHART 9 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN WHITE ELEMfcOTARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Co. Average 


$1103 $1126 $1155 


Baltimore 


1497 


1507 


1499 


Allepan V 


1271 


1256 


1268 


Montgomery 


1172 


1158 


1191 


Pr. Georp;e 's 


1075 


1163 


1170 


An. Arundel 


1103 


1113 


1148 


Cecil 


1093 


1102 


1135 


Kent 






1 HQ? 


Washington 


1063 


1104 


1109 


Queen Anne's 


1101 


1118 


1134 


Talbot 


1084 


1100 


1105 


Calvert 


1057 


1086 


1111 


Wicomico 


1061 


1090 


1101 


Frederick 


1009 


1042 


1071 


Somerset 


925 


980 


1062 


Howard 


997 


1051 


1051 


Worcester 


987 


1016 


1052 


Harford 


989 


1024 


1036 


Garrett 


667 


932 


1016 


Carroll 


979 


982 


1035 


Caroline 


1020 


1027 


1062 


Dorchester 


965 


989 


1025 


Charles 


908 


954 


995 


St. Itery's 


824 


820 


901 


*Balto. City 


1667 


1646 


169d 


State 


1345 


1352 


1397 




* Includes $1,780 for elementary, $1,843 for junior high and $2,155 for vocational 
teachers. 

For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIV, page 321. 

In the one-teacher schools the average salary was $1,102; in 
two-teacher schools, $1,161 ; and in larger schools, $1,222. The 
$53 increase for one-teacher schools from 1928 to 1929 was 
larger than the increases of $19 and $16 respectively in the two- 
teacher and larger schools. 

In one-teacher schools salaries ranged from $946 in St. Mary's 
to $1,634 in Baltimore County. The teachers of one-room schools 



Salaries in White Elementary Schools 



71 



in Baltimore County are better paid than any other group in the 
counties of the State. In Baltimore, Prince George's, Talbot, 
and Somerset Counties the average salary in one-teacher schools 
is higher than that paid in two-teacher or graded schools in the 
same county. On the other hand, in Allegany, Kent, Cecil, Cal- 
vert, Queen Anne's, Washington, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Charles, 
and St. Mary's salaries are lower in one-teacher schools than in 
either two-teacher or graded schools. Only six counties had an 
average salary below $1,050, while this was the case in 10 coun- 
ties in 1928. In only two counties, Allegany and Anne Arundel, 
w^ere salaries in one-teacher schools lower in 1929 than 1928. 
Anne Arundel has very few one-teacher schools left and has al- 

TABLE 44 

1929 Average Salary Per Teacher in County White 
Elementary Schools Having 



One Teacher 


Two Teachers 


Three or More Teachers 


County 


Average 
Salary 


County 


Average 
Salary 


County 


Average 
Salary 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's. 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Kent 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Garrett 

\\'ashington .... 

Worcester 

Howard 

Frederick 

Harford 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel . . 
Carroll 

Dorchester 

Charles 

St. Mary's 



SI, 102 



634 
242 
225 
133 
128 

127 
125 
109 
109 
108 

101 
076 
073 
072 
066 

062 
059 
045 
007 
007 

987 
950 
946 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Montgomery. . . . 

Kent 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Cecil 

Prince George's. 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's. . . 
Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

C J arret t 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Howard 

St. Mary's 

Harford 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Charles 

Dorchester 



;i,i6i 


County Average 


$1,222 


1,513 


Baltimore 


1.506 


1.3O0 


Alleganv 


1,275 


1.242 


Montgomerv .... 


1.222 


1 , 220 


Cecil . . . 


1.209 


1,209 


Anne Arundel . . . 


1,119 


1,184 


Queen Anne's. . . 


1,194 


1.173 


Prince George's . 


1,193 


1.150 


Washington 


1.190 


1,136 


Kent 


1 .143 


1,116 


Wicomico 


1.123 


1.096 


Calvert 


1.121 


1.088 


Talbot 


1.117 


1,082 


Carroll 


1.107 


1,059 


Dorchester 


1 , 105 


1.056 


Frederick 


1.101 


1,055 


Charles 


1.096 


1,049 


Harford 


1 . 004 


1.045 


Howard 


1 . 093 


1,041 


Somerset 


1.080 


1.031 


Worcester 


1.077 


1.029 


Caroline 


1 . 072 


960 


Garrett 


1 .028 


959 


St. Marv's 


1 . 022 



For counties arranjjred alphabetically, .see Table XIV, paRe 321. 



72 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



ways had a policy of placing in these schools its least well trained 
teachers on the ground that a smaller number of pupils feel the 
ill effects if there are any. (See Table 44.) 

The average salary in two-teacher schools varied from $959 
and $960 in Dorchester and Charles to $1,513 in Baltimore Coun- 
ty. In Allegany, Anne Arundel, Kent, Calvert, Garrett, and St. 
Mary's, the average salary in two-teacher schools was higher 
than in either graded or one-teacher schools. On the other hand, 
in Wicomico, Worcester, Frederick, Howard, Harford, Caroline, 
Prince George's, Somerset, Talbot, and Dorchester, the average 
salary paid to teachers in two-teacher schools was lower than 
that paid in graded and in one-teacher schools. In all except six 
counties, Baltimore, Calvert, Talbot, Washington, Somerset, and 
Dorchester, the salaries in two-teacher schools were higher in 
1929 than they were in 1928. (See Table 44.) 

In graded schools the average salary varied from $1,022 in 
St. Mary's to $1,506 in Baltimore County. Every county except 
seven, Allegany, Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Frederick, Charles, 
Caroline, and Garrett, had a higher salary in graded schools in 
1929 than in 1928. Only three counties, Baltimore, Montgomery, 
and Garrett, had a lower average salary in graded than in one- 
and two-teacher schools. This means that the differential in 
favor of teachers in rural schools is actually effective in these 
counties which have trained teachers in all of the rural schools. 
In twelve counties, Cecil, Queen Anne's, Washington, Wicomico, 
Carroll, Dorchester, Frederick, Charles, Harford, Howard, Wor- 
cester, and Caroline, the average salaiy for teachers in the 
graded schools is higher than in either the one- or two-teacher 
schools. ( See Table 44.) 

Salaries in October, 1929 

The distribution of salaries of 2,839 county teachers, exclusive 
of principals of graded white elementary schools for October, 
1929, shows a range from $500 to $2,000, the median salary be- 
ing $1,150, the same as for October, 1928. The mode is at $1,050 
which is the minimum salary, according to the State schedule, 
paid for the first three years of service to teachers holding first 
grade certificates in charge of one and two-teacher schools. The 
mode for teachers in graded schools is $1,150, the minimum 
salary, according to the State schedule, for teachers having had 
over 8 years of experience. (See Table 45.) 

The 64 teachers in one-teacher schools receiving less than 
$1,050, the 16 teachers in two-teacher schools receiving less than 
$950, and the 31 teachers in graded schools apparently cannot 
qualify for first grade certificates, for they are receiving sal- 
aries below those guaranteed by the minimum State salary sched- 
ule for teachers holding these certificates. (See Table 45.) 



Salaries in White Elementary Schools 



73 



The salaries of 177 principals of county schools having three 
or more teachers, including the principal, range from $1,100 to 
$3,000, the median being $1,650, an increase of $100 over the 
year before. The mode falls at $1,350. (See Table 45.) 



TABLE 45 

Distribution of Salaries of White Elementary School Teachers in 
Service in Maryland Counties, October, 1929 



salary 



TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY 
SCHOOLS 



Having 

One 
Teacher 



Having 

Two 
Teachers 



Graded 
Schools 
Excluding 
Principals 



All Teachers 
Excluding 
Principals 
of Graded 
Schools 



SALARY 



$ 



500.. . 
550.. . 
600.. . 
650.. . 
700. . . 
750.. . 
800.. . 
850.. . 
900.. . 
950.. . 
1,000.. . 
1,050.. . 
1,100.. . 
1,150.. . 
1,200.. . 
1,250.. . 
1,300.. . 
1,350.. . 
1,400.. . 
1,450.. . 
1,500.. . 
1,550.. . 
1,600.. . 
1,650.. . 
1,700.. . 
1,750.. . 
1,800.. . 
and over 



Total . 
Median 



11 



2 
1 

29 
2 

16 
1 

318 
23 
81 
45 
66 
21 
18 
16 
4 
3 
4 
3 
2 



677 

,050 



11 
1 

52 
16 
78 
31 
47 
41 
60 
28 
13 
24 
3 
5 
2 
10 
3 
1 
1 
10 



441 

$1,150 



19 
7 
191 
77 
197 
164 
257 
175 
211 
183 
50 
41 
18 
24 
10 
65 
11 
10 
1 
a5 



1,721 
;i,150 



17 



5 
1 

59 
10 
259 
94 
593 
218 
385 
261 
337 
232 
81 
81 
25 
32 
16 
78 
16 
11 
2 
24 



2,839 
$1,150 



$1,100. . . 
1,150. . . 
1,200. . . 
1,250. . . 
1.300. . . 
1,350. . . 
1,400. . . 
1,450. . . 
1,500. . . 
1,550. . . 
1,600. . . 
1,650. . . 
1,700. . . 
1,750. . . 
1,800. . . 
1,850. . . 
1,900. . . 
1,950. . . 
2,000. . . 
2,050. . . 
2,100. . . 
2,150. . . 
2,200. . . 
2,250. . . 
2,300. . . 
2,350. . . 
2,400. . . 
2,450. . . 
2,500. . . 
and over 

Total . . . 

Median . 



a Includes one each at .?1,908, $1,932 and $2,000. 
b Includes one at $3,000. 



DROP IN MEN TEACHERS CHECKED FOR FIRST TIME 



The number of men teaching in county white elementary 
schools, which has been decreasing each year from 1923 to 1928, 
increased slightly from 1928 to 1929. The men included 208 or 
6.8 per cent of the white elementary school staff which included 
3,078 members. (See Table 46.) 

TABLE 46 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teaching in County WhUe Elementary 

Schools 



Year Number Per Cent Year Number Per Cent 

1923 287 9.4 1927 218 7.1 

1924 253 8.3 1928 204 6.6 

1925 233 7.6 1929 208 6.8 

1926 224 7.3 



Four counties, Calvert, Kent, Queen Anne's, and Wicomico, 
employed nc men in the white elementary schools. Washington 
and Frederick had 42 and 31 men teachcis respectively, which 
included about one-seventh of the teachers employed in white 
elemeutaiy schools. In mort counties in which men are em- 
ployed in white elementary schools, they act as principals of the 
larger elementary schools and give instruction in the upper ele- 
mentaiy grades. It is often very fortunate to have such con- 
tacts for the older children. There should, of course, be fewer 
and fewer cases of men teaching in one-room schools where in- 
struction in primary, as well as intermediate, grades is necessary. 
(See Table 47.) 



TABLE 47 



Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White 
Elementary Schools for Year Endinj> July 31, 1929 



COUNTY 



Total and Average 

Calvert 

Kent 

Queen Anne's .... 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Howard 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Prince George's. . . 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 



Men Te.\chixo 


COUNTY 


Men Teaching 








Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 




Number 


207.9 


6.8 




7 


3.7 






Talbot 


2 


3.7 






Somerset 


3 


4.1 






Caroline 


3 


4.5 






Anne Arundel 


9 


5.6 






Alleganv 


20 


6.0 


i ' 


i^o 


Charles 


4 


8.3 


1 


1.7 


Baltimore 


34.7 


9.5 


2.3 


1.8 


Garrett 


18 


11.0 


2 


2.1 


Carroll 


20 


12.4 


4.5 


2.3 


Washington 


42 


13.7 


1 


2.5 


Frederick 


31.4 


14.0 


2 


2.6 









For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VIII, page 315. 



74 



COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPIL $50 

Excluding costs of general control and fixed charges, the cur- 
rent expenses for the average white elementary pupil in the 
counties was $50, an increase of nearly $2 over 1928. The ex- 
penditure per pupil ranged from $42 in Washington County and 
$43 in Frederick and Harford to $60 in Garrett and Montgomery 
Counties. Every county, except two, Kent and Prince George's, 
showed an increase in cost per white elementary school pupil 
from 1928 to 1929. The counties having the largest increases 
are Montgomery, Worcester, Cecil, Garrett, Talbot, Dorchester, 
and Washington. (See Chart 10.) 



CHART 10 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDE GENERAL CONTROL 



County 
Co. Average 

Montgomery 
Garrett 
Calvert 
Kent 

Queen Anne's 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester 

Cecil 

St. r.ary's 

Allegany 

Talbot 

Charles 

Carroll 

Baltimore 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Prince George's 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Wiooraico 

Harford 

Frederick 

Washington 

Baltimore City 

State 



1927 1923 1929 
47 #43 

57 56 
53 
57 
57 

54 
49 
47 
43 
43 
50 
46 
50 

45 
51 
46 
45 

49 

46 
44 
45 
41 
42 
39 
70 
57 




75 



76 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Salary Cost Per Pupil 

The salary cost per pupil varies with the salary paid and the 
size of class. The salary is dependent on the salary schedule in 
effect, the grade of certificate and years of experience. With the 
average salary per teacher increased in every county except two, 
it follows that with classes of the same size, the cost per pupil 
for salaries will be greater in 1929 than in 1928. For the coun- 
ties as a group, the salary cost per pupil increased by 92 cents, 
making the amount in 1929, $36.07. Classes increased in size 
sufficiently to counteract the increased salaries, making the cost 
per pupil lower in 1929 than in 1928 in Queen Anne's, Calvert, 
Prince George's, Frederick, Charles, Carroll, and Somerset 
Counties. There were increases in salary cost per pupil of one 
dollar or more in Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Cecil, Garrett, 
Harford, Talbot, Washington, and Worcester. (See columns 2 
and 10 in Table 48.) 

Salary cost per pupil ranged from $46.72 in Garrett, which 
had the smallest enrollment per white elementary teacher, and 
$43.47 and $41.78 in Kent and Montgomery, respectively, to less 
than $32 per pupil in Frederick and CaroHne Counties. (See 
columns 2 and 10 in Table 48.) 

Supervision Costs Lower in 1929 Than in 1928 

The cost per white elementary school pupil for supervision in 
1929 ($1.47) was 2 cents lower than in 1928. Washington and 
Allegany Counties, which had lower costs than any other coun- 
ties, 73 and 87 cents, respectively, are entitled to employ one and 
two more supervisors, respectively, than they have appointed, 
and beside that, each of these counties last year had a supervi- 
sor on the staff on leave of absence for further study. Each of 
the other counties with very low costs for supervision, viz.. 
Prince George's, Somerset, and Anne Arundel, are entitled to 
appoint an additional supervisor. With the exception of Gar- 
rett, each of the counties with the highest costs for supervision, 
like Calvert, St. Mary's, Kent, and Queen Anne's, employs only 
one supervisor, but because these counties have a smiall enroll- 
ment in white schools, the per pupil cost appears to be high. 
Garrett County is the largest in area in the State, the most moun- 
tainous, and has the largest number of one-teacher schools with 
the smallest enrollment per teacher, all of which factors would 
operate to keep the cost per pupil for supervision high. (See 
columns 1 and 9 in Table 48.) 

Cost of Books and Materials Slightly Higher 

The expense per white elementary school pupil for books and 
materials and costs of instruction other than supervision and sal- 
aries was $2.19, ten cents more per pupil than in 1928. For 
these purposes specifically, without considering the part of the 



Cost 



Per White Elementary School Pupil 



77 



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78 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Equalization Fund also available, the State contributed 98 cents 
for each pupil belonging. The counties as a group therefore ex- 
pended one and a quarter times the amount made available by 
the State for free books and materials. (See columns 3 and 11, 
Table 48.) 

Many counties did much more. Allegany and Montgomery 
spent $3.93 and $3.12, respectively, per white elementary school 
pupil for books, materials and other costs of instruction, thus 
showing their faith in the value of these aids in bringing about 
the improvement of instruction. Cecil, Anne Arundel, Wicomico, 
Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Kent and Garrett are to be 
commended, for all spent more per pupil than in the previous 
year and more than the expenditure in the average county. 

Modern methods of teaching, which require a wealth of refer- 
ence material and an abundance of books, especially for the social 
studies, literature and science, cannot be put into practice with- 
out additional expenditures for these purposes in most of the 
counties. For example, Charles County with a limited expendi- 
ture of $1.39 per pupil for books and materials, of which at least 
98 cents came from State funds, can not expect to have the best 
results in the schools. In addition the Equalization Fund was 
available in Charles to help finance this part of the school pro- 
gram. 

It is surprising to find Baltimore County expending only $1.43 
per pupil for books and materials although $1.98 was spent in 
1928. Washington County's increase to $1.49 per pupil is to be 
commended, but still further expenditures are needed if the 
schools are to have adequate modern books, reference materials 
and supplies. Harford and St. Mary's spent only $1.59 per white 
elementary pupil. For Harford this is lower than the expendi- 
ture last year. Frederick, Caroline, Howard, Worcester and Cal- 
vert also fail in at least matching the amount made available by 
the State for this specific purpose. (See columns 3 and 11 of 
Table 48.) 

Operation and Maintenance Costs Increase 

The average county spent 30 cents more per white elementary 
pupil on cleaning, heating and repairing school buildings in 1929 
than in 1928. The average cost for operation in 1929 was $3.85. 
The range was from $6.46 in Montgomery to between two and 
three dollars in Garrett, Carroll, Calvert, Charles and St. Mary's. 
The plans for janitorial service differ greatly among the counties 
from provision of a salaried janitor for every school to a very 
small allowance to the teacher for keeping the building clean. 
Fuel costs vary in the different counties and with the time of 
year for its purchase. Charles, Carroll and Anne Arundel show 
considerable reduction in costs in the two years, due to lower 
expenditures for fuel. On the other hand, expenditures for fuel 



Cost Per White Elementary Pupil 



79 



increased Ki'eatly in Dorchester, MontRomery, Prince George's 
and Somerset, as did also wages of janitors in Montgomery. 
(See columns 4 and 12 in Table 48.) 

Expenditures for maintenance, of course, fluctuate from year 
to year. The expenditure of $1.78 per white elementary pupil 
was six cents higher than in 1928. Kent County, operating on a 
limited budget, spent only 52 cents per pupil, while Montgomeiy, 
at the opposite extreme, used $3.11 per pupil for I'epaii-s and re- 
placements. It is doubtful whether buildings and their contents 
can be kept up to standard condition in counties expending an- 
nually less than the average found for the counties of Maryland. 
When the county budget is much limited, it is the repairs which 
are usually postponed. Kent, Calvert, St. Mary's, Somerset, 
Charles, Caroline and Frederick all show expenditures for re- 
pairs under one dollar per pupil, and in Calvert and Frederick 
this has been the case for the past two years. (See columns 5 
and 13 in Table 48.) 

Expenses of Transportation and Health Increase 

Expense per white elementary school pupil for auxiliary 
agencies increased by 38 cents, making the total in 1929 $4.13. 
Auxiliary agencies is the term applied to transportation, health, 
library and community activities. 

The counties ranged from an expenditure of $11.34 per pupil 
in Calvert and $11.14 in Anne Arundel to^2.00 or less in Wicom- 
ico, Harford and Washington Counties. The only counties show- 
ing decreases of any size from 1928 to 1929 were Allegany, 
Baltimore, Calvert and Kent Counties. In Montgomery and 
Prince George's expenditures per white elementary pupil were 
practically the same for the two years. Large increases from 
1928 to 1929 appeared in Anne Arundel, Carroll, Charles, Fred- 
erick, Garrett and St. Mary's. (See columns 6 and 14 in Table 
48.) 

The total expenditure for transportation of white elementary 
school pupils increased by but $40,000 to $378,000, compared 
with an increase in number of pupils transported of 2,250, mak- 
ing the total number transported 14,023. The cost per white 
elementary pupil transported therefore was reduced from $28.63 
to $26.97 between the two years. (See Table 49.) 

There were eight counties which transported fewer than 275 
white elementary pupils, and in all except three of these counties 
the cost per pupil transported was considerably higher than in 
the average county. Garrett, which transported 229 elementary 
pupils, had the highest cost per pupil transported — $52.00. By 
changing from contracts based on an allowance per day to con- 
tracts covering a period of several years on an annual basis, by 
increasing the number of and rearranging the routes, the costs 
in Garrett for the present school year have been decreased con- 



80 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



siderably. In Cecil, Kent and Calvert, in which counties fewer 
than 200 pupils were transported, the expenditure per white ele- 
mentary school pupil was approximately $45. In Howard the 
cost for each white elementary pupil transported was $40. 

The lowest cost per white elementary pupil transported was 
$17 in Baltimore County, which pays for the transportation 
of 1,726 white elementary pupils, some of whom are carried on 
county owned busses. In Montgomery, which county also owns 
some of its busses, the next lowest costs are found; viz., $23. 
Of course, the expenditures shown for these counties include no 
allowance to cover depreciation of county owned busses. Most 
of the counties range in cost per pupil transported between 
$23 and $30. (See Table 49.) 

TABLE 49 

Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools— Year Ending July 31, 1929 



COUNTY 



Total and 
Average 

Calvert 

Anne Arundel. 
Queen Anne's. . 

Charles 

Caroline 

Talbot 

St. Mary's. . . . 
Dorchester. . . . 

Carroll 

Howard 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Allegany 

Prince George's 
Baltimore. . . . 

Cecil 

Wicomico .... 

Harford 

Washington. . 



Transportation 



Pupils 
Trans- 
ported 
at County 
Expense 



14,023 

192 
2,119 
508 
472 
676 
435 
228 
756 
959 
266 
521 
425 
128 
768 
976 
229 
867 
658 
1,726 
152 
221 
223 
518 



Amount 
Spent 



a$378, 143.35 

a8,502.50 
56,461.26 
14,996.64 
12.794.00 
17,227.95 
12,903.21 
6,954.12 
17,603.53 
26,432.05 
10,605.00 
12,455.31 
11,661.27 
5,822.55 
17,486.98 
27,146.37 
11,926.95 
27,370.47 
15,689.20 
29,577.70 
7,015.41 
5,601.17 
6,248.71 
15,661.00 



Cost per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 



$26.97 

44.28 
26.65 
29.52 
27.11 
25.49 
29 . 66 
30.50 
23.29 
27.56 
39.87 
23.91 
27.44 
45.49 
22.77 
27.81 
52.08 
31.57 
23.84 
17.14 
46.15 
25.34 
28.02 
30.23 



Libraries 



Total Ex- 
penditure 
for Libraries 



$10,636.13 

30.79 
687.60 
668.25 
85.52 
199.10 
148.09 
30.00 
117.03 
156.52 
180.00 
236 . 00 
180.00 
418.70 

1 , 009 . 64 
440.00 
218.05 

1,107.45 
679.75 

2 , 297 . 34 
615.47 
615.79 
220.00 
295 . 04 



Amount per 



School 



$8.43 

1.40 
19.93 
23.04 
3.42 
7.66 
6.73 
1.00 
2.34 
1.86 
5.29 
6.56 
5.81 
13.96 
16.83 
4.58 
1.66 
13.51 
10.30 
24.70 
10.80 
11.62 
3.44 
2.78 



Teacher 



$3.46 

1.10 
4.30 
12 . 61 
1.78 
2.97 
2.76 

.75 
1.25 

.97 
3.06 
3.11 
2.47 
8.21 
5.35 
1.97 
1.33 
3.31 
3.40 
6.26 
6.15 
5.92 
1.75 

.96 



Health 



Total Ex- 
penditure 
for Health 



$17,467.51 

8.75 
1,553.51 
53.00 



95.00 



494 . 33 
1,755.00 



4,050.00 



312.58 
1 , 655 . 60 
5,694.74 
37.16 



2.50 
1 , 755 . 34 



Amount 
per 
Pupil 



a Excludes $624 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 

Library Expenses Lowered 

The total amount expended for libraries in white elementary 
schools, $10,636, is over $3,000 lower than the amount expended 
the preceding year, so that the amount per white school is only 
$8.43 and per white elementary teacher $3.46. This means a 
purchase for the year of not more than two or three library 



Cost Per White Elementary School Pupil 



81 



books for each classroom from public county funds. The 
amounts contributed by Parent-Teacher Associations, schools 
and other sources were excluded from the above figures when- 
ever it was possible to determine what these amounts were. (See 
Table 49.) 

Amounts expended for libraries per white elementary teacher 
ranged from over $12.61 in Queen Anne's and $8.21 in Kent, 
between $5 and $6 in Baltimore, Cecil, Wicomico and Mont- 
gomery, down to between one and two dollars in Frederick, 
Charles, Harford, Garrett, Dorchester and Calvert, and less than 
$1 in Carroll, Washington and St. Mary's. 

Increases from 1928 to 1929 of more than one dollar in expen- 
ditures for libraries per white elementary teacher are noticeable 
in Allegany, Baltimore, Prince George's and Cecil Counties. On 
the other hand, large increases over the preceding year in coun- 
ties which were spending very little in 19,28 are evident in Gar- 
rett, Dorchester and Harford Counties. According to Professor 
Morrison, the activities of a progressive school cannot be carried 
on without a library. (See Table 49.) 

MARYLAND LIBRARY COMMISSION SENDS BOOKS TO THE 

COUNTIES * 

Schools and libraries, in ever increasing numbers are bringing 
children's books within the reach of children in a way that has 
not been possible in the past. The closer cooperation between the 
schools and the State Library Commission has been responsible 
for a wider use and greater supply of books in the village and 
rural schools. These books have been selected to meet two spe- 
cial needs — recreational reading and supplementary material. 
The child today, as an investigator and a doer, not a memorizer 
as formerly, requires books and more books in the classroom. 

Maryland has many schools with inadequate library facilities. 
In an effort to overcome this difficulty, 276 libraries with a total 
of 9,060 books were distributed to 136 different elementary 
schools by the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission. 
Traveling school libraries are collections of books which are 
loaned by the Maryland Public Library Commission for a period 
of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for four more 
months. The books are selected with respect to the grades for 
which they are intended. Thirty books are included in cases 
sent by parcel post; thirty-five in those sent by express. (See 
Table 49 A.) 

For the purpose of meeting special requirements such as school 
essays, debates or individual needs and professional reading for 
the teachers, collections of from one to ten books are loaned for 



* Furnished by the courtesy of Adelene J. Pratt, State Director of Public Libraries. 



82 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 49A 

Services of Maryland Library Commission to Elementary Schools 



COUNTY 



Total. 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll., 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Number of Schools 



Supplied 

with 
Libraries 



136 

bis 

CO 

10 
2 
2 
12 
13 
1 

r/6 
fl5 

6 

(113 
5 
1 



16 
1 
1 
2 

e 

f 
cl 
11 



Requesting 
but not 
Supplied 

with 
Libraries 



a77 
6*1 



***3 



(118 
c4 
11 
d**10 

**2 



e 

f 
c2 
*3 



Number 
of 

Teachers 
Requesting 
Libraries 



259 

614 
c5 
15 
2 
5 
28 
18 
1 

f/25 
c21 
17 
(128 
;j 
1 
2 
36 
4 
3 
2 

e 

/ 
c3 
20 



Nu.MPER OF 



Libraries 
Supplied 



276 

638 
clO 
31 
4 
3 
20 
24 
1 

dl2 
c21 
6 

(/20 
7 
1 



48 
1 

6 
2 

e 

f 
c2 
2 



Volumes 
Supplied 



9,060 

61,320 
r330 
940 
130 
TOO 
605 
800 
30 
(1405 
c67o 
190 
(/635 
220 
35 



1,610 
30 

180 
60 

e 

f 

r60 
645 



Teachers 
Supplied 

with 
Special 
Packages 



32 



1 



2 
1 

c?10 
cl 



(12 



Un- 
qualified 
Requests 



38 



* Each (*) represents an unfilled request for a second library from a school previously supplied . 
Second requests are not included in the figures show-n. 
a Fourteen requests for second libraries excluded, 
t Excludes unqualified requests shown in last column. 

6 The Cumberland Library supplied the schools in Cumberland with their own collections. In addi 
tion, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of the Cumberland schools and supplied 
the other schools of the county as shown in figures included above. 

c Limited library service given to schools by county library. 

d Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the libraries are open. 

e Talbot County Library in order to supplement their collection borrows books from the Commis- 
sion and recirculates them to the county rural schools. 

/ Washington's county-wide library service takes care of the book needs of the county schools 
without outside help. 

one month to anyone living in Maryland who is without access 
to a public library- Thirty-two elementary teachers took ad- 
vantage of this service during 1928-29. (See Table 49 A.) 

Because of insufficient funds, the Commission was unable to 
supply 77 elementary teachers with libraries, and the requests 
for second libraries from 14 other teachers had to be denied. 
Requests from 38 teachers were unfilled because of improper ap- 
plications. In some cases the blanks had not been signed by 
three guarantors, in others the grades and subjects taught were 
not indicated. Often the teacher failed to enclose the dollar 
which is needed to cover part of the cost of transportation. In a 
few instances books of a previous loan had been lost or damaged 
and the proper reimbursement had not been made. Since the 
appropriations available for the purchase of books have been in- 
creased in the State budget for 1930 and 1931, it is expected that 
it will be possible to fill all requests which meet the necessary re- 
quirements. 



Library and Health Activities in Schools 



83 



Health Expenditures Increase Slightly 

Washington and Montgomery Counties are responsible for an 
increase of approximately $2,100 in expenditures for the health 
of white elementary school children. The total 1929 expenditure 
of $17,468 for health activities represents an average expendi- 
ture per white elementary pupil of 17 cents. (See Table 49, page 
80.) 

Montgomery employed two school nurses and spent for this 
service $4,050, or 73 cents per white elementary pupil. Balti- 
more County spent, through the Playground Athletic League and 
the Childrens' Aid Association for dental clinics, $5,695, or 39 
cents per white elementary pupil. Carroll, Anne Arundel, Prince 
George's and Washington each paid the salary and expenses of 
a school nurse, which amounts were duplicated by the State De- 
partment of Health. Dorchester County spent nearly $500 for 
health activities. Consideration for the health problem to the 
extent of having the County School Boards provide sums ade- 
quate to accomplish desired results, were practically limited to 
six counties. It should be realized that the State Board of Health 
will duplicate amounts appropriated by the County School 
Boards for salary and travel expenses of nurses. (See Table 49, 
page 80.) 

SCHOOL ACTIVITIES OF THE MARYLAND STATE DEPARTMENT OF 

HEALTH * 

Visits of Nurses to Schools 

There were 47 nurses giving all or part of their time to health 
activities in the Maryland county schools. Ten counties had one 
nurse each, eight had two nurses, two had three, and of the re- 
maining three, Washington and Baltimore had four each and 
Allegany had seven nurses doing part time health work in the 
schools. (See Table 50.) 

The number of visits to schools by nurses varied greatly. Alle- 
gany with its 7 nurses had the greatest number of visits to 
schools — 521, but Montgomery, with only 3 nurses, was a close 
second with 448 visits during the school year 1928-29. For the 
counties as a whole, the average nurse made 64 visits to schools 
during 1928-29. (See Table 50.) 

Examinations of Pre-School Children 

Beginning in the early spring and continuing during the sum- 
mer of 1928 special conferences were arranged in every county 
for the examination of children of ages five to seven in prepara- 
tion for their enrollment in school in the fall of 1929. These con- 
ferences were carried on under the joint auspices of the Bureau 
of Child Hygiene of the State Department of Health, the Deputy 
State Health Officers, the State Department of Education, the 



* Furnished by the courtesy of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director, State Department of 
Health. 



84 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 50 

School Activities of the Maryland State Department of Health, 1928-29 





No. of 






Preschool Children Examined in 








Public 


No. of 


XT J? 

No. of 


Sprino and Summer, 1928 


Per Cent Exam- 




Health 


Visits to 










ined 


COUNTY 


Nurses 


Schools 


Pupils 










Requiring 


Working 


by 


Ex- 


Number 


Per Centj 


Vaccination 




in 


Nurses 


amined 
















Counties 


























White 




White 


(!nlnrorl 


WViitp 

,T ill IC 


V- UlUl 


Total 


47 


3,007 


41,405 


3,153 


378 


20.7 


8.9 


59.9 


60.1 


Allegany 


7 


521 


1,856 


985 


3 


58.1 


11.1 


51.0 




Anne Arundel. . 


3 


219 


616 


156 


22 


19.1 


4.6 


75.0 


50.0 




4 


18 


375 


376 


3 


15.9 


1.1 


86.4 


66.7 


Calvert 


2 


145 


1,547 


38 


27 


27.5 


12.6 


18.4 


7.4 


Caroline 


* 1 


42 


a 


125 


55 


36.9 


36.2 


78.4 


80.0 




o 

/ 




oi o 

d7,21o 


43 




5.9 




79.1 




Cecil 


1 


81 


c 


145 




32.7 




62.8 






1 


58 


dl,415 


57 




23.5 




77.2 




Dorchester. . . . 


1 


• 33 


a2,015 


12 


18 


2.6 


7.9 


75.0 


77.8 


Frederick 


2 


272 


4,529 


102 


3 


8.7 


2.4 


81.4 


66.7 


Garrett 


2 


89 


350 


177 




33.2 




64.4 






2 


58 


498 


245 


30 


41.5 


27.8 


30.2 


13.3 


Howard 


2 




b 


12 


7 


4.3 


8.3 


75.0 


71.4 


Kent 


2 


131 


c 


71 


43 


32.4 


29.1 


85.9 


79.1 


Montgomery. . 


3 


448 


7,401 


130 


20 


16.8 


7.5 


6.9 


20.0 


Prince George's 


2 


189 


3,349 


231 


19 


22.2 


3.9 


48.9 


57.9 


Queen Anne's. . 


1 


147 


C2.426 


78 


13 


30.0 


9.0 


92.3 


84.6 


St. Mary's. . . . 


1 


19 


d 


16 


23 


9.8 


12.1 


62.5 


73.9 


Somerset 


1 


37 


e 


4 


2 


1.1 


.8 


75.0 


50.0 


Talbot 


1 


161 


2,544 


38 


90 


13.2 


55.2 


76.3 


72.2 


Washington . . . 


4 


123 


4,254 


83 




5.8 




68.7 




Wicomico 


1 




e 


8 




1.5 




100.0 




Worcester 


1 


32 


el,012 


21 




6.0 




90.5 





t Based on an estimate of the number entering elementary schools. 

a Caroline included with Dorchester, d St. Mary's included with Charles. 

b Howard included with Carroll. e Somerset and Wicomico included with Worcester. 

c Cecil and Kent included with Queen Anne's. 

County Superintendents of Schools and the Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciations. The names of many of the children were obtained 
through the superintendents and teachers of the county schools, 
and through their courtesy, many of the conferences were held in 
school buildings. (See Table 50.) 

Special attention was given by the examining physician to 
weight, posture, heart, lungs, the throat, nose, teeth, vision and 
hearing, because of their important bearing upon the general 
health of the children and their freedom from, or their suscepti- 
bilit}^ to, disease. Conditions that needed to be corrected w^ere 
pointed out and the parents were urged to take the children to 
the family doctor or dentist for the necessary care. A report of 
each examination was also sent to the family physician. 

At these conferences 3,153 white children were examined. 
These included about one-fifth of all children entering the first 
grade the following September. In the individual counties the 
proportion of estimated white first grade entrants who took ad- 
v^antage of this examination varied from 58 per cent in Allegany, 
37 per cent in Caroline, 33 per cent in Garrett and Cecil, to less 
than 6 per cent in Somerset, Wicomico, Dorchester, Howard and 
Carroll. (See Table 50.) 

The colored children examined totaled 378, or about 8.9 per 



State Department of Health Activities in Schools 



85 



cent of the estimated number entering the first grade the follow- 
ing fall. In Talbot, Caroline, Kent and Harford between 28 and 
55 per cent of the colored school beginners were examined, but 
in none of the other counties were examinations given to more 
than 12.6 per cent of the estimated number of colored entrants. 
In Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Washington, Wicomico and Worcester 
no examinations of colored children were made. (See Table 50.) 

It was found that 60 per cent of both white and colored chil- 
dren examined required vaccination. Vaccination against small- 
pox is required by law before a child can be enrolled in a public 
school. If he appears at school without having been vaccinated, 
his entrance to school is delayed and experiences not easily 
made up later are lost. To wait until the school year begins be- 
fore giving this inoculation is unfair to the child. The disability 
caused by the vaccination should not be forced on a child at a 
time when he is already trying to adjust himself to one of the 
most complex transitions of his life. The examination of the 
pre-school child brings before the parent, at a time when there 
are no other conflicting experiences, the necessity of vaccination. 

The preliminary report from the Bureau of Child Hygiene 
gave the following data concerning the examination of pre-school 
children during 1929. Examinations were given to 3,461 white 
children. Of these children 61 per cent were in need of dental 
attention. More than 41 per cent had unfavorable throat condi- 
tions and 22 per cent were underweight. Three per cent of those 
examined had bad heart conditions, faulty vision, bone changes 
due to rickets, or unfavorable lung conditions. 

At these 1929 pre-school conferences, 601 colored children 
were examined. Forty per cent needed vaccination and another 
47 per cent had dental defects. One-fourth of the colored chil- 
dren examined had unfavorable throat conditions. Defective 
vision, hearing, and heart and lung conditions, were found in 
from 1 to 2 per cent of the children examined. 

Immunization against Diphtheria 

Toxin-anti-toxin clinics for the immunization of children 
under twelve against diphtheria were held in 16 counties in 1928 
and 12,335 children were protected against this disease. 

Dental Clinics 

Dental clinics for school children were held in Allegany, Anne 
Arundel, Calvert, Cecil, Frederick, Montgomery and Talbot Coun- 
ties. Similar clinics for pre-school children examined at the 
child health conferences and found to be in need of such atten- 
tion were held in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, 
Cecil, Garrett and Talbot Counties and about 600 children were 
given the necessary attention. 

Extension of the dental work that has been carried on for 
school and pre-school children has been made possible through 



86 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



the establishment — by the Legislature at the session of 1929 — of 
a Division of Oral Hygiene in the State Department of Health. 
Dr. Richard Clay Leonard was appointed Chief of the Division 
and began work on November 15. 

Working in cooperation with the local health organizations, 
Dr. Leonard's duties will include supervision and extension of 
the clinics already established in a number of the counties. He 
will study the needs of other counties and will aid as far as pos- 
sible the dental facilities for the children of those sections. His 
headquarters will be at the central office of the Department, at 
2411 North Charles Street, Baltimore City. 

FuU-Time Health Service 

Medical examination of school children on invitation of the 
school authorities and the control of communicable diseases in 
the schools are a part of the regular duties of the State Health 
Officers. The State was organized into Sanitary Districts in 
1914, each district consisting of two or three counties, with each 
district under the charge of a full-time health officer, known as 
a Deputy or Assistant Deputy Health Officer. Increased func- 
tion has made it necessary to decrease the territory covered and 
to organize full-time service in certain counties. The number of 
counties having full-time service has gradually increased and the 
goal that has been set for the State is a full-time officer, espe- 
cially trained for rural work, for each county. 

Eleven of the twenty-three counties of the State now have full- 
time health officers. Their total population is approximately 
470,300 or 59 per cent of the total population outside of Balti- 
more City. The first one was established in 1922 in Allegany 
County. In Cecil and Wicomico the departments were not start- 
ed until 1929. The staffs and budgets for these nine counties are 
shown in Table 51. 

TABLE 51 

Full Time County Health Departments in the State of Maryland, 1928-29 



Year 
Started 


Number of 


Total 
Budget 


Receipts From 


Nurses 


Clerks 


County 


State 


Other 
Agencies 


1922 


7 


1 


S23,0o5 


t$14,620 


$8,435 




1923 


3 


1 


12,200 


7,750 


3,550 


$900 


1924 


x3 


1 


11,020 


t4 , 700 


3,720 


2,600 


1924 


4 


*1 


18,180 


4,800 


5,880 


7,500 


1924 


2 




6,960 


1,900 


3,800 


1,260 


1924 


2 


* 


11,440 


1,200 


6,390 


°3,850 


1927 


2 


1 


10,350 


2,000 


5,850 


2,500 


1927 


1 


1 


8,255 


2,500 


5 , 755 




1928 


2 


1 


10,230 


5,200 


2,930 


°2,100 


1929 


1 


1 


8,560 


3.200 


5,360 




1929 


1 


1 


8,700 


3,300 


5,400 





COUNTY 



Allegany 

Montgomery. . . 

Frederick 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Cecil 

Wicomico 



* Excludes medical officers: Baltimore, 15; Carroll, 14. 
t Includes receipts from towns: Allegany, $6,300; Frederick, $100. 
° Includes receipts from Red Cross: Carroll, $600; Harford, $1,500. 
X Includes one nurse who does no work in the schools. 



Health Activities ix Schools and Cost Per Pupil 



87 



The ten counties forming the Sanitary Districts with full-time 
service have a total population of approximately 231,200, adding 
29 per cent to the full-time service. The two counties with part- 
time service, Garrett and Washington, have a total population 
of approximately 95,600, and constitute 12 per cent of the total 
outside of Baltimore City. 

PER PUPIL COST IN ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS HIGHEST 
The cost per white elementary pupil belonging, exclusive of 
expenditures for general control, supervision and fixed charges, 
was highest in one-teacher schools — $52.53, and lowest in graded 
schools — $46.50. The one-teacher schools had the largest in- 
crease from 1928 to 1929, $2.40 per pupil, the graded schools an 
increase of $1.84, and the cost in two-teacher schools was greater 
by 85 cents per pupil. (See Table 52.) 

TABLE 52 

Cost Per Pupil Belon^inj? in One-Teacher, T\vo-Teacher and Graded 
Schools for Year Endin<>- July 31, 1929, exclusive of Expenditures for 
General Control, Supervision and Fixed Charj^es 





One- 




Two- 








Teacher 




Teacher 




Graded 


County 


Schools 


County 


Schools 


County 


Schools 



County Average. 


.$52 


.53 


Kent 


68 


.68 


Garrett 


63 


.82 


Prince George's. , 


. 63 


.64 


Worcester 


60 


.47 


Anne Arundel. . . 


. 59 


.78 


Montgomery . . . . 


59 


,40 


Alleganv 


57 


,80 


Baltimore 


56 


.50 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


53 


,36 


Cecil 


53, 


17 


St. Mary's 


51 


00 


Dorchester 


50. 


57 


Talbot 


50. 


18 


\\'ashington 


49. 


64 


Calvert 


49. 


24 


Charles 


48. 


89 


Somerset 


48. 


19 


Wicomico 


47. 


99 


Howard 


46. 


86 


Carroll 


46. 


28 


Harford 


45. 


44 


Frederick 


42. 


48 


Caroline 


42. 


27 



County Average . . $49 . 79 

Calvert 61.74 

Kent 60.98 

Wicomico 59 . 06 

Montgomery 58 . 1 1 

Baltimore 56.71 

Caroline 55 . 88 

Anne Arundel .... 55 . 28 

Talbot 54.68 

Prince George's. . . 53 . 60 

Howard 53.47 

Cecil 51.89 

Queen Anne's. ... 51 .28 

Allegany 48.54 

Dorchester 46 . 07 

Garrett 46.00 

Worcester 45 . 20 

Somerset 44 . 86 

Carroll 44 . 77 

Frederick 43.89 

Harford 42.89 

St. Mary's 42.57 

\\'ashington 41.60 

Charles 39.45 



Count}' Average. .$46.50 

Calvert 64.92 

St. Mary's 63.73 

Montgomery 58 . 57 

Queen Anne's. .. . 54.41 

Anne Arundel .... 52 . 71 

Charles 50.73 

Alleganv 49.91 

Carroll 49.31 

Garrett 49.13 

Talbot 47.95 

Worcester 46 . 44 

Cecil 46.42 

Dorchester 46.31 

Baltimore 46.17 

Kent 44.91 

Caroline 44.84 

Somerset 44 . 75 

Howard 44 . 52 

Prince George's . . 44 . 35 

Frederick 40 . 46 

Harford 39 64 

^^'ashington 39 55 

Wicomico 39 . 54 



For disbur.sements in types of white elementai-y schools, see Tables XXVIII-XXX, ra&es 
335-337. 



88 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

In most of the counties the costs were lowest in graded schools 
and highest in one-teacher schools, but there were some excep- 
tions. In Baltimore, Wicomico, Howard, Frederick and Caroline 
the cost per pupil in two-teacher schools was higher than that in 
one teacher schools, and in Caroline the per pupil cost in one- 
teacher schools was lower than that in graded schools. In St. 
Mary's, Charles, Calvert and Carroll, the highest costs were 
found in the graded schools. In Calvert the one-teacher schools 
cost less than either two-teacher or graded schools. In Garrett, 
Worcester, Anne Arundel, Montgomery, Allegany, Queen Anne's 
and Dorchester the cost per pupil in two-teacher schools was 
lower than that in graded schools. (See Table 52.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS LOWER 

There was expended in 1929 for buildings to house white 
elementary pupils $8.04 per pupil belonging, a decrease of $1.42 
under the amount in 1928. Montgomery spent by far the largest 
amount, over $53 a pupil. Somerset, Kent and Allegany spent 
between $11 and $12 per white elementary pupil. Carroll stood 
at the bottom of the list with seven cents, and Charles, Cecil, 
Worcester, St. Mary's, Calvert and Howard spent less than one 
dolLir for each white elementary school pupil for land, new build- 
ings and their equipment and alteration of old buildings. (See 
columns 8 and 16 in Table 48, page 77.) 

SIZE OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were but 1,262 schools used for white elementary pupils 
in the Maryland counties in the school year which ended in June, 
1929 as compared with 1,336 during the preceding year. The net 
reduction of 74 is largely due to the elimination of 83 schools 
having one teacher, in most cases through the transportation of 
their pupils to larger schools. 

The schools range in size from those having one teacher, which 
are most numerous of all, and 231 having two teachers, to six 
having over 20 teachers, the largest, having 31 teachers, being 
in Hagerstown. (See the first row in Table 53.) 

Garrett and Washington are the only counties with more than 
100 schools, the former having 131 and the latter 106. These 
numoers are smaller by 8 and 2, respectively, than they were for 
1928. Carroll, with a reduction of 11, had the largest decrease 
in schools from 1928 to 1929. The reduction of 9 in Frederick 
brought the number in 1929 to 96. St. Mary's and Anne Arundel 
each decreased by 8 the number of white elementary schools, 
while. Charles had a reduction of 7 and Caroline of 6 between the 
two years. 

There were seven counties with 30 or fewer white elementary 
schools in 1929. Talbot and Calvert each had 22, Charles but 25, 
Caroline 26, Queen Anne's 29, and Kent and St. Mary's each had 
30. (See the last column in Table 53.) 



Capital Outlay and Size of White Elementary Schools 



89 



TABLE 53 

Number of White Elementary Schools Having Following Number of 

Teachers, School Year 1928-1929 



COUNTY 


WHITE elementary SCHOOLS HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 


Total 


0^ 

iJ 
u 
o 

I-H 


CO 

1 

CO 
1— 1 


n 

1 

CO 


1 

n 


1 


CO 

1 

in 


1 

»— I 

CO 


00 

1 

1—1 
t- 


Oi 

1 

I— 1 

00 




1 

05 


1 




CO 

1 


CO 

1 

CO 


1 


in 

1 


CO 

1 

10 


1 

cc 


00 

1 

t> 


1 

00 




CO 

1 

cr. 


> 


Total 


741 

36 
07 

31 
18 
11 
55 
41 
16 

t34 
53 

113 
37 
24 
20 
24 
25 
17 
21 
19 
13 
64 
37 
25 


231 

14 

8 
24 
3 
5 
14 
10 
4 
t8 
21 
11 
16 
3 
6 
18 
ttl6 
6 
8 
5 
2 
18 
6 
5 


76 

1 
5 
12 

' '5 
2 
1 
1 
2 
6 

" 6 
3 
2 
1 
10 
4 
1 
3 

" 6 
4 
1 


49 

3 
5 
3 
1 

' 3 
1 
1 
2 
7 
4 
1 
1 

' '3 
3 
1 


26 

2 
1 
2 


23 

2 
1 
1 


32 

10 
2 
4 


20 

1 
1 
1 


19 

3 
1 
5 


9 
3 
'2 


7 

2 
1 
1 


A 
U 

1 
2 


4 

1 
1 


1 

1 





Q 



Q 
1 


1 

X 


1 


1 


1 
1 


Jl,262 

tsi 

35 
•93 

22 
26 
84 
57 
25 
50 
96 

131 
64 
34 
30 
60 
66 
29 
30 
31 
22 

106 
54 
36 


A 1 iPiTfl TTV' 


Annp AriinHpl 






1 








Rill t i TTi r»rp 


2 




1 


1 


Calvert 










Caroline 


3 
2 

' '2 
1 
1 
1 
1 

' i 

3 
1 


' '2 
1 

" i 

1 


1 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 


' 1 


1 
1 


























Carroll 


























Cecil 








1 


















Charles 




























Dorchester 


' 3 
1 
1 


2 


























Frederick 




1 






1 


1 














Garrett 


















Harford 


1 
1 














1 












Howard 


2 


























Kent 




1 
2 
1 
1 


























Montgomery 


3 
3 


1 
1 


1 
1 


3 


1 

1 


1 


1 




1 
1 














Prince George's 














Queen Anne's 




















St. Mary's 


































Somerset 


1 
3 
4 
2 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 






1 




















1 








Talbot 


2 
3 

" 1 




1 
1 
























Washington 


1 
2 
1 


3 
1 
1 


1 




1 








1 










3 


Wicomico 
















Worcester 




1 















































" Includes one room school with primary grades only. 

t Includes one or two- room school with a graded organization. 

* Excludes Towson Normal Elementary School. 

t Excludes Green St. Junior High School. 



Fewer One-Teacher Schools 

The number and per cent of schools with a one-teacher rural 
organization, 739 and 24, respectively, in 1929 showed a decrease 
in number of 84, and in per cent of 2.8 under corresponding fig- 
ures for 1928. This is a greater reduction than occurred in any 
year previous. For the first time, fewer than one-fourth of the 
county white elementary teachers had in their classes children 
scattered in all or most of the elementary grades. There were 
432 fewer teachers having a one-teacher rural school organiza- 
tion in 1929 than in 1920. And when the figures are brought 
down to October, 1929, the number of one-teacher schools is only 
677 and the per cent 22.4. This is a reduction in the ten year 
period of 494, an average of nearly 50 per vear. (See Table 
54.) 

There were 18,233 pupils, or 18 per cent of the white elemen- 
tary pupils, enrolled* in this type of school. Carroll had 55 one- 
teacher schools in 1929, but this number was 16 fewer than for 
the preceding year. Even so, Carroll still has over one-third of 



Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 



90 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 54 



Decrease in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1929 





County White Elementary 


Teachers 


School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 




lota I 










Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


2,992 


1,171 


39.1 


1921 


3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


1922 


3,054 


1,124 


36.8 


1923 


3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


1924 


3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1925 


3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


1926 


3,067 


956 


31.2 


1927 


3,088 


898 


29.1 


1928 


3,070 


823 


26.8 


1929 


3,078 


739 


24.0 


1929 (October) 


3,020 


677 


22.4 



its teachers with a rural school organization. Frederick's num- 
ber of one-teacher schools, 53, is 11 fewer than in 1928, and 
brings the percentage of teachers in these schools to 23.7. St. 
Mary's and Anne Arundel with 21 and 6 one-teacher schools, re- 
spectively, each had 8 fewer than in 1928. Anne Arundel had 
but 4 per cent of its teachers in schools having a one-teacher 
rural organization, while this was the case with over 52 per cent 
of the St. Mary's teachers. Garrett had the maximum number 
of one-teacher rural schools, 113, which included 69 per cent of 
its teaching staff. This was a reduction of 7 schools under last 
year. Harford, Charles and Caroline each had 6 fewer one- 

TABLE 55 



Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1929 





Teachers in 


Pupils in 




Teachers in 


Pupils in 




One-Teacher 


One- Teacher 




One- Teacher 


One-Teacher 




Schools 


Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


County 










County 












Num- 


Per 


'•Num- 


Per 




Num 


■ Per 


"'Num- 


Per 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 


Total and AveraKe739 


24.0 


18,233 


18.0 


Queen Anne's 


. 17 


32.1 


407 


24.7 










Worcester 


25 


32.9 


515 


22.8 


Anne Arundel . . 


G 


3.8 


145 


2.6 


Charles 


16 


33.3 


346 


24.5 


Baltimore 


31 


8.5 


1,049 


7.0 


Carroll 


55 


34.1 


1,482 


30.2 


Allegany 


36 


10.8 


831 


7.4 


Dorchester . . . 


. 33 


35.2 


745 


25.5 


Prince George's. 


. 25 


12.5 


590 


8.7 


Wicomico . . . . 


37 


35.6 


1,030 


29.2 


Montgomery. . . 


. 24 


12.7 


663 


12.0 


Kent 


20 


39.2 


418 


28.3 


Caroline 


11 


16.4 


318 


14.1 


Howard 


24 


40.8 


650 


35.3 


Washington. . . . 


64 


20.9 


1,608 


15.1 


Cecil 


. 4a 


41.0 


l,0f8 


32.8 


Frederick 


53 


23.7 


1,536 


20.2 


St. Mary's 


21 


52.5 


459 


43.4 


Talbot 


13 


24.3 


343 


19.0 


Calvert 


18 


64.3 


472 


58.3 


Somerset 


19 


26.0 


517 


21.8 


Garrett 


113 


69.0 


2,089 


55.9 


Harford 


37 


29.4 


1,002 


25.3 













* Average number belonging. 



Decrease in White One Teacher Schools 



91 



teacher school organizations in 1929 than in the preceding year. 
(See Table 55.) 

Five counties, Howard, Cecil, St. Mary's, Calvert and Garrett, 
had 40 per cent or more of their white elementary teaching staff 
in one-teacher rural schools, and these counties, together with 
Carroll, had over 30 per cent of their white elementary pupils in 
this type of school. (See Table 55.) 

Ten- Year Reduction in One-Teacher Schools 

A comparison of the reduction in one- and two-teacher schools 
over the ten-year period from 1920 to October, 1929, shows the 
progress of school consolidation in Maryland. 

In October, 1929, Garrett had the largest number of one- 
teacher schools, 98, Washington 63, Carroll 55, and Frederick 42. 
The greatest reductions from 1920 to October, 1929, occurred in 
Frederick and Carroll, which decreased the number of teachers 

TABLE 56 



Decrease in the Number of Teachers in White One- and Two-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, 1920-Oct. 1929 



COUNTYt 


Number of Teachers in 
One-teacher Schools 


Number of Teachers in 
Two-teacher Schools 

• 


Decrease in 
Number of 
Teachers in 
One- and 
Two-teacher 
Schools 


1920 


Oct., 1929 


Decrease 

1920- 
Oct., 1929 


1920 


Oct., 1929 


Decrease 

1920- 
Oct., 1929 


Total 


1,171 


677 


494 


510 


442 


68 


562 


Anne Arundel. 


41 


6 


35 


22 


16 


6 


41 


Caroline 


38 


9 


29 


8 


12 


+4 


25 


Talbot 


25 


13 


12 


20 


4 


16 


28 


Charles 


44 


15 


29 


14 


8 


6 


35 


Queen Anne's . . 


33 


17 


16 


16 


12 


4 


20 


Calvert 


32 


18 


14 


4 


6 


+2 


12 


St. Mary's .... 


48 


18 


30 


10 


16 


+6 


24 


Somerset 


28 


18 


10 


22 


10 


12 


22 


Kent 


24 


20 


4 


10 


12 


+2 


2 


Howard 


30 


22 


8 


14 


12 


2 


10 


Montgomery. . 


39 


22 


17 


24 


38 


+ 14 


3 


Prince George's 


42 


23 


19 


30 


30 




19 


Worcester 


33 


26 


7 


16 


8 


8 


15 


Dorchester .... 


57 


29 


28 


18 


12 


6 


34 


Allegany 


51 


30 


21 


36 


30 


6 


27 


Baltimore 


40 


30 


10 


86 


46 


40 


50 


Harford 


51 


33 


18 


24 


30 


+6 


12 


Cecil 


57 


35 


22 


10 


20 


+ 10 


12 


Wicomico 


43 


35 


8 


16 


10 


6 


14 


Frederick 


111 


42 


69 


32 


34 


+2 


67 


Carroll 


97 


55 


42 


24 


20 


4 


46 


Washington. . . 


81 


63 


18 


32 


36 


+4 


14 


Garrett 


126 


98 


28 


22 


20 


2 


30 



t The counties are ranked in the order of the number of teachers in one- room schools 
in October, 1929. 



92 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



in one-teacher schools in the ten-year period by 69 and 42, re- 
spectively. (See Table 56.) 

In October, 1929, Anne Arundel had only 6 and Caroline but 9 
one-teacher schools. Baltimore County made a great reduction 
in the number of teachers in two-teacher schools, so that in both 
one- and two-teacher schools of Baltimore County there are 50 
fewer teachers than there were ten years ago. (See Table 56.) 

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

The establishment of junior high schools in Maryland has been 
confined to Baltimore City and two counties — Allegany and 
Montgomery. The system of junior high schools for grades 7, 
8 and 9 is very extensive in Baltimore City. In a few of the out- 
lying schools on the borders of the city there is a principal in 
charge of the work of the 7th and 8th grades, as well as that of 
the first six grades, which latter group is defined in Baltimore 
City as the ''elementary school". While the senior high schools 
maintain first-year classes for the pupils in these out-lying 
schools, their enrollment is naturally very low. In the school 
year 1928-29 the net enrollment in the 12 white junior high 
schools in Baltimore City was 14,882. Five hundred and nine- 
teen teachers were employed and the school session lasted 190 
days. There were four junior high schools for colored pupils, 
one more than in 1928, -and the enrollment, excluding duplicates, 
was 3,516. 

Nine junior high schools have already been established in Alle- 
gany County. Two of these — Green Street and Pennsylvania 
Avenue — are in Cumberland. The other junior high schools are 
located in Oldtown, Westernport, Barton, Lonaconing, Midland, 
Frostburg, and Mt. Savage. The Mt. Savage Junior High School 
was just organized in 1928-29, and has the 6-3-3 plan for all 
grades. From the first to the twelfth year the organization at 
Mt. Savage is similar to that in all of the schools except Green 
Street and Barton. There were 2,667 children belonging in 
grades 7 to 9, inclusive, in the Allegany County schools having 
the junior high school organization. For this group of pupils 
there was a faculty of 98. The pupil and financial data for the 
individual schools will be found in Table XXXI, pages 338-339. 

In Montgomery, junior high schools have been organized for 
the communities bordering Washington, D. C, which has this 
type of school organization. Montgomery had four junior high 
schools in 1928-29, and of these all but Bethesda-Chevy Chase, 
were new in that year. At Germantown and Glen Echo until 
1928-29 there were elementary schools of seven grades. An 
eighth grade has been added, and for this and the seventh grade 
a departmental and specialized program has been arranged. The 
junior high schools at Bethesda and Takoma-Silver Spring were 
a result of the extension to the upper elementary grades of the 
type of organization in the high school departments. In these 



Junior High Schools and Whith High Schools 



9:} 



two schools there were no elementary grades below the seventh, 
and in Takoma-Silver Spring the seventh grade was not organ- 
ised on this plan. The junior high schools in Montgomery al- 
ready include 476 children and 27 teachers. The problem of es- 
tablishing junior high schools in Montgomery County is espe- 
cially difficult and expensive since it entails changing from an 11 
year organization to one with 12 years for these schools, while 
other schools of the county continue with the 7-4 plan of organ- 
ization. 

WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

GAINS IN NUxMBER OF PUPILS IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1929 there were 23,371 pupils enrolled in the Maryland 
county white high schools. This is 1,560, or 7.2 per cent more 
than in 1928, and more than three and a third times the 1916 
enrollment. The average number belonging, 21,802, was 1,420 
more than for 1928. The number in average attendance, 20,275, 
although an increase of 1,195 over the 1928 figure, is the smallest 
per cent of increase of any year since 1919. This is probably a 
result of an unusual amount of influenza, pneumonia, other ill- 
nesses and bad weather, which caused exceptional irregularity 
of attendance. (See Table 57, and Chart 11.) 



CHART 11 



CaOWTH IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOL ENR0II2iEHT 



6.213 
7,000 

7,567 
7,936 



8,302 
^ 9,392 
10.900 




12.8(5 



16,026 
17.453 




19.003 



20.358 
21,811 




23,371 



For data on enrollment in individual hi^h schools, see Table XXXVII, pages 352-357. 



94 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 57 



Enrollment and Attendance in Approved White County High Schools 

of Maryland, 1916-1929 



Year Endiner 
July 31 


Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
Attend- 
ance 


Annual Increase 


Per Cent of 
Increase 


Enroll- 
ment 


Attend- 
ance 


Enroll- 
ment 


Attend- 
ance 


1916 


7,000 


5,804 


787 


528 


12.6 


10.0 


1917 


7,567 


6 327 


567 


523 


8.1 


9.0 


1918 


7^936 


6,477 


369 


150 


4.9 


2.4 


1919 


8,302 


6,685 


366 


208 


4.6 


3.2 


1920 


9,392 


7,798 


1,090 


1,113 


13.1 


16.7 


1921 


10,900 


9,294 


1,508 


1,496 


16.1 


19.2 


1922 


12,815 


11,188 


1,915 


1,894 


17.6 


20.4 


1923 


14,888 


12,716 


2,073 


1,528 


16.2 


13.7 


1924 


16,026 


13,696 


1,138 


980 


7.6 


7.7 


1925 


17,453 


14,982 


1,427 


1,286 


8.9 


9.4 


1926 


19,003 


16,218 


1,550 


1,236 


8.9 


8.2 


1927 


20,358 


17,504 


1,355 


1,286 


7.1 


7.9 


1928 


21,811 


19,080 


1,453 


1,576 


7.1 


9.0 


1929 


23,371 


20,275 


1,560 


1,195 


7.2 


6.3 



Most of the counties contributed to the increase in high school 
population, but there were a few exceptions. Worcester's high 
school enrollment remained stationary, while the attendance de- 
creased slightly. In Montgomery the number belonging to and 
attending high school was a little lower in 1929 than in 1928. 
Anne Arundel had a slight decrease in number belonging, and 
Garrett and Somerset, in number attending high school. (See 
Tables III to VI, pages 310 to 313.) 

TABLE 58 

Per C€nt of Attendance in White High Schools, 1923-1929 



County 


1923 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County- 


1923 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County Average. . 


91 


9 


93 


2 


93 


6 


93 





Montgomery 


88 


9 


92 





92 


4 


92 


6 




















Caroline 


91 


2 


92 





93 


G 


92 


6 


Wicomico 


92 


3 


95 


2 


95 


8 


95 


1 


Queen Anne's .... 


91 


9 


91 


6 


93 


1 


92 


1 


Allegany 


94 


8 


95 


4 


95 


4 


94 


6 


Somerset 


91 


4 


91 


8 


93 


1 


91 


9 


Anne Arundel. . . . 


92 


1 


93 


7 


93 


1 


94 


1 


Charles 


88 


7 


95 


4 


93 


8 


91 


7 


Washington 


93 


1 


94 


1 


94 


9 


93 


9 


Cecil 


92 





92 





92 


3 


91 


5 


Frederick 


91 


5 


93 


8 


94 


1 


93 


6 


Harford 


91 


2 


91 


7 


91 


6 


91 


2 


Prince George's.. . 


91 


8 


93 


2 


93 


7 


93 


5 


St. Mary's 


86 


8 


93 


3 


91 


4 


90 


9 


Baltimore 


91 


3 


92 


4 


93 


2 


93 


3 


Carroll 


88 


7 


91 


3 


91 


8 


90 


8 


Talbot 


93 


2 


94 


6 


94 


9 


93 


2 


Garrett 


90 


2 


92 


5 


92 


5 


90 


5 


Dorchester 


92 


4 


93 


9 


94 


2 


93 


2 


Kent 


90 


2 


91 


3 


92 


3 


90 





Calvert 


93 


5 


92 


3 


95 


3 


93 


1 




















Howard 


89 


9 


91 


3 


91 


8 


92 


9 


Baltimore City. . . 


. 91 


5 


92 


5 


92 


5 


92 


3 


Worcester 


91 


7 


93 


1 


93 


9 


92 


7 






































State Average 


91 


6 


92 


9 


93 


2 


92 


8 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table V, page 312, and for individual high 
schools, see Table XXXVH, pages 352-357. 



Increase in Attendance in White High Schools 



95 



HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE LOWER IN 1929 THAN IN 1928 
The per cent of attendance in the high schools was .6 under 
the figure for 1928. Only four counties — Howard, Anne Arun- 
del, Montgomery and Baltimore — improved the per cent of high 
school attendance during 1929. The range was from 95.1 in 
Wicomico to 90.0 in Kent, with the average at 93.0. Each year 
there has been gradual improvement in the percent of atten- 
dance, and the setback in 1929 can be attributed to an unusual 
amount of sickness. 

It is quite significant that in a year when many factors tended 
to cause low attendance, no county fell below the 90.0 per cent 
mark. (See Table 58.) 



PROPORTION GOING TO HIGH SCHOOL INCREASING 

The ratio of the number of pupils in high school to the number 
in the high and elementary schools combined showed the same 
steady increase for both the counties and Baltimore City as in 
previous years. Out of every 100 white pupils attending the 
county schools, 18 were in high schools and 82 in elementary 
schools. In Baltimore City, of each 100 pupils attending white 

CHART 12 

THE NDTjIBER of PDPHS ATTEUDDrO WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE POPILS ATTENDBTG SCHOOLS 
IN THE CODIJTIES AND RAITIUORE CITr 
1917 - 1929 



Maryland Counties 



Baltimore City 



1917-1918 
1916-1919 

1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 



I 



1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 



V/////////////////////////////////////////^^^^ \ 



1928-1989 



V//////////////////////////////////////////^^^ isTTT 



96 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



schools 15 were in what may be counted the last four years of the 
twelve year course. (See Chart 12.) More opportunities for 
employment and the 12 year course account for the lower figure 
in Baltimore City. 

If conditions were favorable, so that nearly everyone went to 
high school, allowing for mortality, the saturation point for high 
school attendance may be estimated at approximately 33 in high 
school and 67 in elementary school out of every 100 in a 7-4 sys- 
stem; or 30 in high school and 70 in elementary school for an 
8-4 organization. If the county high school were so equipped 
and staffed as to be able to offer a sufficient variety of courses 
to suit the needs and interests of all pupils, there would be a 
closer approach to this ideal. At the present time we may esti- 
mate that the counties have over one-half of the total white popu- 
lation of high school age actually in high school. (See Chart 12.) 

In considering similar data for the individual counties, based 
on number belonging rather than attendance, it must be remem- 
bered that counties which are not growing will show a larger 
proportion in high school than rapidly growing counties, such as 
Baltimore, Montgomery, Prince George's, Allegany, Anne 
Arundel and Washington. The latter counties probably have a 
larger proportion of young children who would attend the ele- 
mentary schools than counties more static in population. 

TABLE 59 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in White High Schools to "Number Belonging" 
in White Elementary and White High Schools Combined, by Counties 



County 1924 1928 1929 County 1924 1928 1929 



County Average. . . . 


13 


3 


16 


8 


17 


7 


Frederick 


14 


9 


17 


4 


18 


3 














Howard 


12 


7 


16 


2 


18 


1 


Talbot 


18 


7 


23 


3 


25 


4 


Allegany 


13 


5 


16 


5 


17 


3 


Kent 


15 


2 


23 


5 


24 


6 


Prince George's 


11 


6 


16 


2 


17 


3 


Worcester 


18 


9 


22 


3 


23 





Montgomery 


13 


9 


18 





17 


1 


Wicomico 


19 


9 


20 


8 


22 


6 


Calvert 


15 


5 


15 


5 


16 


2 


Somerset 


15 


2 


21 


5 


21 


9 


Baltimore 


11 





14 


1 


14 


9 


Caroline 


18 


8 


19 


1 


21 


6 


Anne Arundel 


10 


2 


14 


2 


14 


8 


Dorchester 


16 


7 


19 


3 
5 


20 


7 • 


Garrett 


8 


4 


13 


9 


*14 


1 


Queen Anne's 


18 


3 


19 


20 


2 


St. Mary's 


3 





12 


9 


14 


1 


Charles 


5 


5 


17 


8 


20 





Washington 


11 


1 


13 


1 


14 


1 


Cecil 


14 


3 


18 


5 


20 

















Harford 


14 


8 


18 


2 


19 


6 


Baltimore City 


9 


7 


13 


8 


15 





Carroll 


13 


7 


17 


9 


18 


8 




























Total State 


11 


8 


15 


5 


16 


6 



* Excludes 18 boys and 30 girls attending high school in Bayard, W. Va. 

The data for the individual counties show that all of the nine 
Eastern Shore counties and Charles have at least one-fifth of 
their entire public school population enrolled in the high schools. 
Most of these counties have a fairly stationary population. Tal- 
bot leads the State with slightly over one-fourth of all pupils in 
high schools, while Washington, St. Mary's, Garrett, Anne Arun- 
del and Baltimore have fewer than 15 per cent of their white 
public school population in high schools. Washington and Anne 



Increase of Total Number of Pupils and of Boys in High School 97 



Arundel have an 8-4 system, while the other counties mentioned 
have the 7-4 plan of organization. St. Mary's and Garrett are 
still developing their high schools, while Baltimore County chil- 
dren are affected by the opportunities to work much as are those 
in the city of Baltimore. (See Table 59.) 

Every county, except Montgomery (probably due to tempor- 
ary causes coincident with reorganizing certain schools on the 
6-3-3 plan), shows an increase from 1928 to 1929 in the propor- 
tion of white pupils in high school. The improvement since 1924 
has been most marked in Charles and St. Mary's Counties, in 
which several of the high schools are of recent origin. In Charles 
the increase for the five year period was from 5.5 to 20.0 per 
cent in high school, and in St. Mary's from 3.0 to 14.1 per cent. 
(See Table 59.) 

MORE GIRLS THAN BOYS IN HIGH SCHOOL 

There were 81 boys for every 100 girls in the Maryland county 

TABLE 60 



Number of Boys in High Schools for Every 100 Girls 



COUNTY 


1922 


1924 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County Average 


74 


.3 


76 


.2 


78 


.6 


78 


.7 


79 


.8 


81.0 


Howard 


56 


.8 


63 


. 1 


87 


.0 


88 


.9 


89 


.6 


96.0 


Baltimore 


79 


.2 


87 


.4 


85 


.2 


82 


. 7 


84 


.3 


90.7 


Prince George's 


74 


8 


77 


.8 


80 


.2 


76 


.2 


81 


.5 


86.4 


St. Mary's 






96 


6 


68 


5 


82 


.4 


76 


.2 


85 1 


Charles 


82 


8 


69 


4 


89 


6 


99 





80 


5 


84.9 


Carroll 


72 





74 


2 


83 


8 


82 





84 


5 


84.6 


Anne Arundel 


75 


5 


60 


1 


82 


6 


81 


3 


82 


7 


84.2 


Frederick 


85 


5 


84 


8 


89 


9 


85 


7 


84 


4 


83.3 


Cecil 


85 





74 


2 


69 


4 


76 


7 


76 


8 


82.1 


Washington 


94 


6 


87 


6 


81 


2 


82 





78 





81.8 


Worcester 


63 


4 


67 


3 


69 


6 


73 


5 


80 


5 


81.7 


Talbot 


79 


7 


78 





79 


5 


81 


6 


86 


1 


81 .4 


Somerset 


82 


1 


86 


1 


74 


2 


72 





80 


5 


80.2 


Harford 


66 


2 


84 


8 


72 


5 


80 


8 


80 


2 


79.6 


Wicomico 


72 


5 


68 


6 


66 


3 


67 


8 


79 


9 


79.1 


Montgomery 


63 


7 


76 


7 


90 


9 


88 


2 


86 


9 


77 . 5 


Dorchester 


78 


6 


71 


7 


74 


7 


78 





80 


4 


77.0 


Alleganv 


61 


9 


67 


7 


75 


7 


75 


1 


71 


9 


75 . 5 


Garrett 


76 


5 


78 


5 


75 


7 


68 


3 


72 


4 


75 . 3 


Caroline 


68 





69 


4 


68 


2 


76 


4 


72. 


5 


72.1 


Kent 


68 


5 


75 


7 


69. 


4 


69. 


3 


76. 


4 


70 <) 


Calvert 


77 


6 


71. 


8 


59 


1 


67. 


7 


62. 





66 7 


Queen Anne's 

1 


61 


8 


68. 





63. 





65. 


5 


66. 


9 


57.3 



For counties arranjfed alphabetically see Table III, i>age 310 and for individual high 
schools Table XXXVII, pages 352-357. 



98 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



white high schools. This is a larger number than has been pre- 
viously recorded and continues the steady gains noted since 1922. 
The counties varied greatly in the ratio of boys to girls. Howard 
and Baltimore Counties had more than 90 boys for each 100 girls, 
but Queen Anne's had but 57 and Calvert 67. (See Table 60.) 

St. Mary's, Howard, Baltimore, Cecil and Prince George's 
made large gains in the proportion of boys, whereas Queen 
Anne's, Montgomery and Kent had equally large losses of boys. 
Thirteen of the counties showed gains in the ratio of boys to 
girls, while 10 showed decreases. Seven of the counties showing 
decreases were on the Eastern Shore, and the other three were 
Montgomery, Harford and Frederick. (See Table 60.) 

LARGEST INCREASE IN GRADUATES OF WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

EVER RECORDED 

There were 3,395 graduates from the four year county white 
high schools in 1929. Of these 1,348 were boys and 2,047 girls. 
The increase of 402 in graduates over 1928 is much larger than 
any increase during the ten year period from 1919 to 1929. It is 
encouraging to find that the increase for boys was slightly 
greater than the increase for girls. (See Table 61.) 

TABLE 61 

Four- Year White High School Graduates in Maryland Counties, 

1919 to 1929 



Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Annual 
Increase 


1919 


323 


681 


1.004 




1920 


378 


772 


1.150 


146 


1921 


470 


893 


1.363 


213 


1922 


599 


1.034 


1,633 


270 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


320 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2.218 


265 


1925 


929 


1.610 


2,539 


321 


1926 


1,045 


1.574 


2,619 


80 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2.887 


268 


1928 


1.142 


1.851 


2.993 


106 


1929 


1,348 


2,047 


3,395 


402 



For individual high schools, see data in Table XXXVII, pages 352-357. 



All of the counties contributed to the increase in white countj^ 
high school graduates except Talbot, Worcester and Washington, 
which had decreases, and Queen Anne's and Carroll, which re- 
mained stationary. The counties varied in number of graduates, 
from ,24 in Calvert and 26 in St. Mary's to 347 in Baltimore and 
404 in Allegany County. Prince George's was the only county in 
which the number of boys graduated exceeded the number of 
girls graduated. (See Chart 13.) 



Graduates of White High Schools Increase 
CHART 13 



99 



NTJMBKR OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATED FROU VSHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



1929 



County 


1928 


1929 




364 


404 


OaX V jinQr'H 


JXX 




imi \ . T J_L III 1 /\\^ 




etc, 




COO 








V 






1 Q A 
J. Vi 


Carroll 


1 fl 


1 71 


Anne Arundel 


111 


151 


Marl ora 




i4o 




X *1 w 




Worcester 


140 


131 


Dorchester 


86 


125 


Cecil 


105 


115 


Caroline 


72 


106 


Somerset 


39 


105 


Garrett 


90 


98 


Kent 


70 


93 


Talbot 


98 


85 


Howard 


42 


69 


Charles 


55 


64 


Queen Anne's 


61 


61 


St. Uary'3 


21 


26 


Calvert 


23 


24 



Boys 




Girls 

249 



216 



167 1 


165 


"lis ,>^--: 


1 150 1 


83 


116 J 


99 


95 1 



98 



63 


88 1 


S3 


93 I 


54 


90 1 


53 


1 78 1 


53 


72 1 



78 



73 



35 


1 70 1 


34 


64 1 


■a 5Q 1 


Eini 47 




39 1 




29 


~35l 



46 



For data for individual hi^h schools, see Table XXXVII, pages 352-357. 

PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

Comparison of the number of graduates with the first year en- 
rollment of four years before gives a rough approximation of the 
persistence to graduation of those who enter high school. The 
percentage resulting from such a comparison is lower than the 
actual persistence, since the first year enrollment includes, not 
only the high school entrants for that year, but the repeaters of 
the preceding year or years who did not succeed in completing 
sufficient work satisfactorily to be classified as second year 
pupils. On the other hand the graduates include any pupils who 
may have entered the high school after the first year. 

In securing the relationships between graduates of 1929 and 
the first year enrollment of the school year 1925-26, the per- 
centage was found to be 45, 51 per cent for girls and 38 for boys. 



100 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 14 



PER CSNT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 



First Year 
Enrollment 





1926 


1929 


Total and 


7.548 


45.0 


Co. Average 


Charles 


81 


79.0 


Kent 


157 


59.2 


Cecil 


221 


52.0 


Allegany 


786 


51.4 


Talbot 


170 


50.0 










267 


49.1 


Carrol 1 


352 


48.6 


Montgomery 


411 


48.4 


Harford 


320 


45.6 


Caroline 


237 


44.7 


Queen Anne*s 


137 


44.5 


Somerset 


237 


44.3 


Anne Arundel 


342 


44.1 


Frederick 


623 


43.7 


Calvert 


55 


43.6 


St. Mary'3 


63 


41.3 


Dorchester 


311 


40.2 


Baltimore 


898 


38,6 


Howard 


179 


38.5 


Pr. George's 


515 


37.7 


Garrett 


261 


37.5 


Wicomico 


386 


37.3 



38.2 



50.9 



58.1 



36.6 



43.8 



48.1 



46. 7 



45.3 



41.0 



38.4- 



3S.3 



31.1 



55.7 



40 



35.0 



20.6 



34.5 



37.1 



30.0 



41.9 



28.3 



31.8 



41.7 



Boys 



CZn Girls 



□ 



Z] 



Z] 



The range in persistence for the individual counties was from 79 
per cent in Charles and from 50 to 59 in Kent, Cecil, Allegany 
and Talbot, to less than 40 per cent in Baltimore, Howard, Prince 
George's, Garrett and Wicomico. For boys the range was from 
21 per cent in Calvert to 66 per cent in Charles, while for girls 



Graduates of White High Schools and Normal School Entrants 101 



the minimum percentage of persistence was 34 in Prince 
George's and the maximum 95 in Charles. (See Chart 14.) 

Prince George's is the only county which had a higher per- 
sistence for boys than for girls, which is to be expected, since 
more boys than girls graduated. Washington and Garrett were 
the only counties which had a lower persistence for both boys 
and girls in 1929 than in 1928. Cecil, Frederick, Queen Anne's, 
Calvert and St. Mary's had a lower persistence for boys, while 
Allegany, Worcester, Talbot, Baltimore, Prince George's, Somer- 

CHART 15 



County 

Co. Average 

Dopcheater 

Howard 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Allegany 

Queen Anne 's 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Garrett 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel 
Kent 

Frederick 
Kon tgomery 
Carroll 
Charles 
St. f/ary's 
Calvert 



Prince George's 1 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 
ENTERING MARYLAND NORMAL SCHOOLS 
1928 and 1929 

Number Per Cent 
1928 1929 1928 1929 



282 




For data on normal school entrants from individual high schools, see Table XXXVIl, 

pages 352-357 and also pages 290 to 293. 



102 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



set and Wicomico had fewer girls staying on to graduate than 
was the case in 1928. The remaining counties showed commend- 
able increases in persistence to high school graduation. (See 
Chart 14.) 

15 OF EVERY 100 WHITE GIRL HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OF 1929 
ENTERED MARYLAND NORMAL SCHOOLS 

Of the 1929 white girl graduates from county four year high 
schools, 315 or 15.4 per cent entered the State normal schools. 
This was an increase of 33 girls over the 1928 entrants. In girls 
entering normal schools the counties ranged from 2 per cent in 
Prince George's, 5 in Calvert, 6 in St. Mary's and 9 per cent in 
Charles to 28 per cent in Howard and 29 per cent in Dorchester. 
(See Chart 15.) 

The largest increases were in Dorchester, Howard, Caroline, 
Anne Arundel, Frederick and Montgomery, while large decreases 
from the preceding year in girl high school graduates who went 
to normal schools were found in Talbot, Baltimore and Wicomico 
Counties. (See Chart 15.) 

There were but 18 boy high school graduates who entered 
normal schools in the fall of 1929, 1.3 per cent of the total num- 
ber of boys graduated. Nine counties sent boys to the normal 
schools in numbers varying from 1 to 5. (See Table 62.) 

TABLE 62 



Boy Graduates from White County High Schools Entering Maryland 

Normal Schools, 1929 





Total 


Boy Graduates Entering 




Maryland Normal 




Number 


Schools 


County 


White 








Boy 








Graduates 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County Average 


1,348 


18 


1.3 


Garrett 


34 


2 


5.9 


Baltimore 


131 


5 


3.8 


Howard 


30 


1 


3.3 


Caroline 


33 


1 


3.0 


Frederick 


107 


3 


2.8 


Harford 


53 


1 


1.9 


Washington 


115 


2 


1.7 


Carroll 


73 


1 


1.4 


Allegany 


155 


2 


1.3 



For data for individual high schools see Table XXXVII, pages 352-357. 



OCCUPATIONS OF 1928 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 

Principals were asked to report on the occupations of their 
1928 graduates during 1928-29. Their reports indicate that the 
high schools acted as preparatory schools for further education 
for over one-half of the girls and over 40 per cent of the boys 
who graduated in 1928. This was a slight increase over the year 
preceding in the per cent of girls continuing their education, but 
a decrease of 2.3 per cent under the percentage for boys the 
preceding year. (See Table 63.) 

TABLE 63 

Occupations of 1928 Graduates as Reported by Principals of White County 

High Schools 



Number 



Per Cent 



OCCUPATION 



Boys 



Girls 



Boys 



Continuing Education — 

Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities. ... 231 

Normal Schools 15 

Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Law, 

and Ministry 20 

Engineering Courses 37 

Art and Music Schools 3 

Physical Education, Home Economics, 

and Kindergarten Training Schools 4 

Army and Navy Academies 3 

Commercial Schools 135 

College Preparatory Schools 27 

Post Graduate High School Courses 4 

Hospitals for Training 1 

Office Work and Banking 104 

Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and Saleswomen, 

Business 128 

Staying at Home 32 

Working in or at Home 86 

Farming, Fishing, Nurserymen 82 

Married 

Manufacturing, Mechanical (Garage), 

Building 96 

Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur 29 

Communication, Newspaper, Telephone 

and Telegraph Operators 

Teaching and Library Work 

Army and Navy 10 

Miscellaneous and Unknown 93 



231 
282 



15 



219 
13 
6 
174 

259 

93 
200 
124 

108 

13 



35 
4 

68 



20.2 
1.3 

1.7 

3.2 

.3 

.3 
.3 
11.8 

2.3 
.3 
.1 

9.1 

11.2 
2.8 
7.5 
7.2 



8.4 
2.6 



.9 
8.1 



Total 



1 . 145 



1.851 



100.0 



103 



104 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



The number of 1928 graduates (boys and girls) who went to 
liberal arts colleges was greater than the number of 1927 grad- 
uates who did so. While the percentage was higher for girls, it 
was lower for boys. One-fifth of the boys and one-eighth of the 
girls who graduated in 1928 went to liberal arts colleges and uni- 
versities. The number and per cent of boys and girls who went 
to normal schools was lower for 1928 than for 1927 graduates, 
the per cent for girls being 15.2 per cent in the later year. The 
number and per cent of boys entering schools training for careers 
in medicine, dentistry, law, the ministry, and engineering de- 
creased slightly. (See Table 63.) 

The number and per cent of boys and girls taking commercial 
courses and entering college preparatory schools increased 
slightly, the per cent entering the commercial schools in the fall 
of 1928 being 11.8. The commercial schools probably enrolled 
many boys and girls who took the academic or general course 
in high school, either because a commercial course was not 
offered in the high school or because they desired a general foun- 
dation before beginning to specialize and prepare for a voca- 
tion. (See Table 63.) 

Hospitals took into training 174 of the 1928 graduates, 9.5 
per cent of the total number. This was an increase of 10 over 
the preceding year. 

The number and per cent of girls staying or working in or at 
home and married increased slightly, the per cent for the 1929 
graduates being 23.3. Since nearly one-fourth of the girls en- 
gaged in homemaking activities immediately upon leaving high 
school, and since homemaking became the activity of many who 
dropped out before completing the high school course, the need 
for having the high school train the girls in home economics 
courses to do better what they are going to do anyway is very 
apparent. (See Table 63.) 

Office work and banking showed increases, especially for girls, 
259 or 14 per cent of the 1928 graduates entering these fields of 
work. There were slight decreases in the number of boys and 
girls taking positions as clerks, as salespeople, or going into busi- 
ness. Work in the field of communication, involving newspapers, 
the telephone, and telegraph was selected by fewer of the 1928 
boys than by those from 1927, but there was a considerable in- 
crease in the number of girls entering these fields of work. 

There were 82 boys, 7.2 per cent of the 1928 boy graduates, 
who engaged in farming, fishing, and nursery work. Manufac- 
turing, building and mechanical work, chiefly in garages, be- 
came the occupations of 96 boys, or 8.4 per cent of the total. 
Work in transportation, involving railroads or automobiles, was 
selected by 29 boys. Ten boys went into the army and navy. All 
of these occupations showed larger numbers than for the pre- 
ceding year. (See Table 63.) 



Occupations of Whitk High School Graduates 



105 



Occupations in the Individual Counties 
Education Beyond Hi^h School 

Prince George's, Kent, and Calvert had about 45 per cent of 
their boy graduates of 19.28 entering liberal arts colleges and 
universities. One-third of the Baltimore County boys and 30 
per cent of those from Worcester and Anne Arundel went to 
liberal arts colleges. On the other hand, only a small percentage 
of boys went to this type of college from St. Mary's, Allegany, 
Dorchester, and Garrett Counties. (See Table 64.) 

Kent and Carroll sent 26 and 22 per cent of their girl gradu- 
ates to college, most of them probably entering Washington and 
Western Maryland College, respectively, which are in close prox- 
imity to the homes of girls in these counties. St. Mary's had no 
1928 girl graduates go to college and Wicomico, Dorchester, and 
Cecil sent but from 4 to 6 per cent to college. The county high 
school teaching staffs are largely drawn from the group of high 
school graduates who go to college and in order to secure a stable 
group, it is wise for the county to be looking ahead toward the 
training of this group. (See Table 64.) 

Normal school data for the graduates of 1929 have already 
been discussed on pages 101 to 102, as were the data for 1928 
graduates in the 1928 annual report. Nothing further will there- 
fore be added here. 

One-third of the 1928 boy and girl graduates from Cecil County 
went to commercial schools the year after graduation, although 
commercial courses were available in but two schools — at Elkton 
and Chesapeake City. The number registered for the commer- 
cial courses in these two high schools was very small. Of the 
1928 graduates from Caroline County, 31 per cent of the boys 
and 28 per cent of the girls, and from Harford, 20 per cent of 
the boys and 35 per cent of the girls, took commercial courses. 
The two largest high schools in each of these counties offered 
commercial courses. Thirty-eight and 23 per cent of the boys 
who graduated in 1928 from Queen Anne's and Worcester Coun- 
ties, respectively, went to commercial schools after graduation 
and this was the case for 28 per cent of the girl graduates from 
Calvert and Charles. Calvert offered no commercial courses in its 
high schools and until the year 1928-29 they were available only 
at Indian Head in Charles County. La Plata also now has a com- 
mercial course. It is interesting to find that only a very small 
proportion of boys and girls who graduated from the high 
schools in Anne Arundel, Allegany, Baltimore, and Frederick 
Counties in 1928 went to commercial schools. (See Table 64.) 

Training for Nurses in Hospitals 

The only counties from which girls did not go into hospitals 
for training were Calvert, Howard, and St. Mary's. From Prince 
George's only 2 per cent of the girl graduates went into nursing. 



106 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



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Occupations of White High School Graduates 



107 



Queen Anne's sent nearly a fourth of its girl graduates into this 
field of work. From Wicomico over 18 per cent of the 1928 girl 
graduates went into nursing, and this was true of 16 per cent of 
the girls from Caroline and 15 per cent from Worcester. 

A number of counties had no boys and girls who went to col- 
lege preparatory schools or took post graduate work. These 
counties were Anne Arundel, Calvert, Howard, Kent, Montgom- 
ery, and Somerset. On the other hand, over one-fifth of the boys 
who graduated from St. Mary's and over 10 per cent of those 
from Caroline continued education in the secondary field after 
graduation from high school. 

Business, Office, Clerical Work 

OlTice work and communication drew no workers from among 
the 1928 graduates of Calvert nor from the boys graduated in 
1928 from Caroline, Garrett, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's. 
Anne Arundel had the largest proportion of 1928 graduates go- 
ing into office work, and in Baltimore, Montgomery, Kent, Dor- 
chester, and Frederick from 13 to 18 per cent of the boys and 
from 18 to 34 per cent of the girls who graduated in 1928 went 
into office work, telephone and telegraph operation, and news- 
paper work. (See Table 64.) 

Positions as clerks in stores took from a fifth to a third of the 
boys who graduated in Calvert, Frederick, St. Mary's, and How- 
ard, but Garrett, Caroline, and Kent reported no boys in this type 
of work. Allegany, Talbot, and Worcester reported from 9 to 10 
per cent of their girls working in stores, while Calvert and St. 
Mary's used no 1928 girl graduates for this work. 

Activities Centering in the Home 

St. Mary's reported one-half of their girl graduates as staying 
at home, while this was true of nearly one-fifth, or slightly more 
than one-fifth, in Kent, Prince George's, Worcester, Frederick, 
and Garrett. Work about their own or others' homes was re- 
ported for more than one-fifth of the boy graduates of Somerset 
and Talbot and for one-fourth of the Dorchester girls of 1928 
who graduated. Some of the boys who worked on farms or fish- 
ing may have been reported as working in their own or others' 
homes. Charles had 37 per cent of the white boys who gradu- 
ated in 1928 working on farms and St. Mary's 29 per cent, and 
still neither of these counties provided courses in vocational agri- 
culture to help these boys do better work than would be possible 
in following in the paths inherited by tradition. Baltimore Coun- 
ty had less than 1 per cent of its boys reported as farming, al- 
though the 10 per cent working at home perhaps included some 
who chose this occupation. 

The highest percentages for girls who married after gradua- 
tion were reported from Charles, Talbot, and Howard Counties. 
(See Table 64.) 



108 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Manufacturing, Building, Miscellaneous 

Manufacturing, mechanical work, and building took the ser- 
vices of 32 per cent of the Allegany County boys. This probably 
emphasizes the need for courses in industry which are in pro- 
cess of development in Cumberland. 

The miscellaneous and unknown group seems particularly 
large for Howard County boy graduates — 27 per cent — and 
Charles, Baltimore, Allegany, Anne Arundel, and Garrett report 
from 13 to 16 per cent as listed in this classification. Unusual 
occupations, but also boys of whose whereabouts and occupations 
the principals have lost track, are included in this group. 

The information indicates that the boys and girls are taking 
their places in doing the work of the community. The training 
they have had at home and at school, in both elementary and high 
school, has been their preparation. 

SUBJECTS OFFERED IN HIGH SCHOOL 

English, Social Studies, Mathematics and Science 

English, being a required subject in every year of the high 
school course, is taken by the entire enrollment. Ignoring the 
fact that some pupils may appear as duplicates taking the social 
studies in more than one year, about 84 per cent of the boys and 
girls were enrolled. This indicated a slight increase over cor- 
responding percentages the preceding year. Some form of social 
studies was offered in every county high school except three of 
the one-year schools in Baltimore County. In mathematics 83 
per cent of the boys and 72 per cent of the girls were registered, 
and in science 71 per cent of the boys and 64 per cent of the girls. 
The percentages for girls in mathematics and for boys and girls 
in science were slightly below those of the year before. (See 
Table 65.) 

Latin Enrollment Decreases, French Enrollment Gains 

Latin was taken by a smaller number of white county boys and 
girls in 1929 than in 1928, the percentage of boys electing it de- 
creasing to 22 and of girls to 27. It was offered in 94 schools, 
62 per cent of all. French had an increased enrollment, which 
included 16 per cent of the boys and 22 per cent of the girls. 
The number of schools offering French was 119, a gain of 9 over 
the preceding year, which probably means that 9 of the 11 
schools which dropped Latin offered French in its place. (See 
Table 65.) 

Industrial Arts for Boys and Home Economics for Girls 

Manual training or industrial arts were taken by 5,528 boys, 
or 54 per cent of the total number of boys enrolled. In addition, 
69 boys in Hagerstown took vocational courses in industry and 



Subjects Offered in White High Schools 



109 



TABLE 65 

Distribution of Enrollment* in Maryland County White High Schools by 
Subjects Taken for Year Ending July 31, 1929 



SUBJECT 


Number 
Enrolled 


Per Cent 


High Schools 
Offering Subject 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Total 


10,306 


12,687 






152 




Enghsh 


10,393 


12,683 


100 


.0 


100 


.0 


152 


100 





feocial Studies 


8.622 


10,723 


83 


.7 


84 


.5 


149 


98 





Mathematics 


8,514 


9,097 


82 


.6 


71 


7 


152 


100 





Science 


7,298 


8,113 


70 


.8 


63 


9 


152 


100 





Latin 


2,271 


3,475 


22 


.0 


27 


4 


94 


61 


8 


Irench 


1,656 


2,751 


16 


.1 


21 


7 


119 


78 


3 


bpanish 


34 


26 




.3 




2 


3 


2 





Manual Training 


t5,528 


6 


53 


.6 






d72 


47 


4 


Home Economics 








105 


69 


1 


General 


6 


8,079 




.1 


63 


7 


92 


60 


5 


"XT J_ ' 1 




516 






4 


1 


15 


9 


9 












a44 


29 





All T~\ ^ 

All Day Courses 


844 




8 


2 




36 


23 


7 


Unit Courses 


185 


18 


8 




1 


8 


5 


3 


Commercial Subjects h 
















Stenography III-IV 


678 


1,608 


§6 


6 


§12 


7 


c54 


35 


5 


Typing IlI-IV 


899 


1,724 


§8 


7 


§13 


6 


54 


35 


5 


Bookkeeping III-IV .... 
Jr. Business Training . . . 


844 


1,477 


§8 


2 


§11 


6 


53 


34 


9 


272 


289 


°2 


6 


°2 


3 


11 


7 


2 


Commercial Arithmetic. . 


414 


556 


°4 





°4 


4 


20 


13 


2 


Commercial Geography. 


74 


92 


o 


7 


o 


7 


6 


3 


9 


Typing II 


78 


101 





8 


o 


8 


11 


7 


2 


Office Practice 


16 


29 


o 


2 


o 


2 


2 


1 


3 


Physical Education 


2,851 


3 . 357 


27 


7 


26' 


5 


30 


19. 


7 


Music 


5.703 


7,156 


55 


3 


56. 


4 


106 


69. 


7 


Art 


e247 


6261 


2 


4 


2. 


1 


4 


2. 


6 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 

t Excludes 40 boys and 1 girl taking general agriculture. 

t Excludes 69 boys taking vocational courses in industry and drawing. 

a Excludes 2 schools offering general agricvilture. 

b Excludes 1 boy and 10 girls taking secretarial studies; 67 boys and 86 girls taking 

spelling, and 33 boys and 52 girls taking penmanship, 
c Of these 1 school offers secretarial studies, 6 schools offer spelling, and 3 schools 

offer penmanship. 

d Includes 1 school offering vocational cour.ses in industry and drawing, 
e Excludes 40 boys and 151 girls taking dramatics. 

§ When percentages are based on third and fourth year enrollment, the figures are as 
follows : 

Boys Girls 

Stenography _ 19.5 33.3 

Typing 25.9 35.7 

Bookkeeping 24.3 30.6 

" When percentages are based on second year enrollment, the figures are as follows: 

Boys Girls 

Jr. Business Training 10.1 8.5 

Commercial Arithmetic 15.3 16.3 

Commercial Geography 2.7 2.7 

Typing II 2.9 3.0 

Office Practice 6 .9 



110 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



drawing. In September, 1928, the shop work in all of the schools 
offering it, except those of Baltimore, Frederick and Harford 
Counties, was limited to woodwork and mechanical drawing. Be- 
fore the close of the school year reorganization of the work to 
diversify the activities taught took place in Allegany, Caroline, 
Montgomery, Washington and Wicomico Counties. This meant 
that 28 of the 72 schools offering some form of shop work were 
reorganized on the new lines. The activities found most com- 
monly in the diversified industrial arts shops were carried on 
with wood, sheet metal, electricity, cold metal, concrete and auto- 
mobiles as media. (See Table 65.) 

The State supervisor of industrial arts jointly with the State 
supervisor of home economics held a series of regional meetings 
with the teachers of these subjects, to build up the philosophy 
underlying, and the objectives of, these subjects. 

Home economics courses were available to the pupils in 105 
schools, two more than for the year preceding. The total en- 
rollment of 8,595 was 211 more than in 1928. The enrollment 
in the vocational courses decreased, while that in the general 
courses made more than a corresponding gain. Approximately 
68 per cent of the girls were enrolled for either general or voca- 
tional courses. (See Table 65.) 

The State supervisor of home economics reports that there 
was an enrichment of the courses offered in many of the high 
schools. In place of sewing, involving only the construction of 
clothing, units covering the art principles underlying the selec- 
tion of clothing, color and design were included in the course. 
In foods, the emphasis was changed from mere cooking to under- 
standing of the principles of nutrition, to selction and serving of 
food. Many teachers added units in home decoration, home man- 
agement, home nursing and child care. 

The change in type of work offered necessitated building up a 
reference library and filing the material collected. The depart- 
ments organized in new schools or in old schools which have re- 
organized their work, are on a less formal basis. Instead of in- 
dividual laboratory equipment for each pupil, the kitchens are 
arranged in units to take care of a family group, four or five 
girls working together in a compartment equipped with stove, 
sink, table and kitchen cabinet. Each home economics room has 
four or five of these unit compartments. 

In many counties the work in home economics was scheduled 
for two double periods a week for two years, rather than as 
formerly, one double period a week for four years. The change, 
shortening the entire period of time but increasing the intensity, 
has enhanced the interest of pupils, who found a piece of work 
seemingly endless when it dragged on over a long period, since 
so little time was available each week. 

A home project has been required of each pupil enrolled in 
courses in vocational home economics. 



Subjects Offered in White High Schools 



111 



The budgeting of expenditures for home economics so that 
each teacher has a definite per pupil allowance would be an ex- 
cellent experience for both teachers and pupils of home eco- 
nomics. Having a definite income and planning to live within 
it is one of the objectives of home management. If more of the 
counties would adopt the policy now in operation in Cecil, the 
efficiency of the work would be increased and a knowledge of its 
cost would be available. Now very few counties know exactly 
what is expended for home economics for purposes other than 
teachers' salaries. 

Agricultural Courses Taken by More Boys 

There were 36 schools in 15 counties which offered courses in 
vocational agriculture — an increase of three over the preceding 
year. Every school which had courses in 1927-28 continued them 
in 1928-29. These courses were elected by 844 boys. The teach- 
ers of these courses also gave unit courses in agriculture, varying 
from 2 to 4 periods a week in nearby high schools. A course in 
general agriculture, available in 2 schools, was taken by 40 boys. 

OfTerinffs in Commercial Subjects 

The offerings in the various commercial subjects are available 
for the first time in this report. For third and fourth year 
pupils, stenography and typing were found in 54 schools, and 
bookkeeping in all except one of these schools. Typing was taken 
by more girls than either stenography or bookkeeping, the latter 
having the lowest enrollment. The enrollment of boys in typing 
was greater than that in bookkeeping. Stenography had a lower 
enrollment of boys than bookkeeping. Between 20 and 26 per 
cent of the third and fourth year boys, and between 31 and 36 
per cent of the third and fourth year girls, were enrolled for 
these courses. 

Junior business training was offered in 11 schools to 272 boys 
and 289 girls. Second year typing was also available in 11 
schools, but the enrollment included only 78 boys and 101 girls. 
Twenty schools offered commercial arithmetic to 414 second year 
boys and 556 girls. Six schools offered commercial geography, 
and two office practice. The enrollment in these subjects in in- 
dividual schools is also included. (See Table 65 and also Table 
XXXV, pages 343 to 345.) 

Physical Education, Music and Art 

Although physical education was offered in only 30 schools for 
credit, the enrollment having its benefits increased slightly over 
1928. There were 2,851 boys and 3,357 girls who had work in 
physical education scheduled as a subject for credit. 

Scheduled work in music was offered in 106 schools, an in- 
crease of 17 over the preceding year. This included 70 per cent 



112 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



of the county high schools. There were 5,703 girls and 7,156 
boys enrolled, 55 and 56 per cent, respectively, of the total en- 
rollment of boys and girls. The State supervisor of music is 
bending every effort to have the colleges give prospective teach- 
ers training in music, so that there will eventually be sufficient 
trained teachers available to make possible opportunities for in- 
struction in music in every Maryland county high school. As a 
means of training for worthy use of leisure time, for the purpose 
of developing the best type of school spirit and desirable extra- 
curricular activities, music makes a greater contribution than 
almost any other subject in the curriculum. (See Table 65.) 

Courses in art were available in 4 schools for 247 boys and 
261 girls. (See Table 65.) 

High School Subjects in Individual Counties * 
Eng^lish, Mathematics, Social Studies and Science 

The offering of courses in the individual counties shows an 
English enrollment of close to 100 per cent in all of the counties. 
Mathematics was taken by two-thirds of the boys in Carroll and 
Charles, while 100 per cent of both boys and girls were enrolled 
in St. Mary's, Calvert, and Washington. In Washington this 
means that a number of boys took more than one course in math- 
ematics rather than that every boy was enrolled for at least one 
course. (See Table 66.) 

Every one enrolled for the social studies courses offered in 
Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's, and nearly every one in Cecil. 
Queen Anne's had but 55 per cent of the boys and 61 per cent of 
the girls enrolled for the social studies. 

The enrollment in science was lowest in Queen Anne's, Talbot, 
Dorchester, and Caroline, less than 60 per cent, while in Howard, 
Cecil, and Calvert over 80 per cent of the boys and girls were 
enrolled for this subject. 
Latin and French 

Latin was not offered in Cecil and Calvert Counties and only 
a very small proportion of Garrett and Charles County pupils 
elected it. On the other hand, in Queen Anne's 54 per cent of 
the girls and 69 per cent of the boys took Latin, in Baltimore 
County approximately 45 per cent, and in Talbot and Washington 
Counties about one-third of the high school pupils were in Latm 
classes. (See Table 66.) . ^ , 

Every county, except St. Mary's, offered courses m French. 
Queen Anne's believes in work in the foreign languages, for it 
had a higher proportion of pupils enrolled for Latin as well as 
for French than any other county. This explains Queen Anne's 
low enrollments in both the social studies and science noted be- 
fore. (See Table 66.) 

offerings in individual high schools, see Tables XXXV and XXXVI, pages 343 to 

351. 



Subjects Offered in White High Schools 



113 



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114 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Physical Education and Music 

Baltimore County offered work in physical education to its en- 
tire enrollment of boys and girls and this was true of two-thirds 
of the boys and girls of Allegany County. Talbot had physical 
education classes for the girls at Easton. This included 47 per 
cent of the white county high school girls. In Frederick County 
40 per cent of the boys and girls, in Howard 30 per cent, and in 
Washington County 25 per cent were given instruction in physi- 
cal education. Carroll, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, and Mont- 
gomery reported the work as given to from 4 to 12 per cent of 
their high school pupils. The remaining counties showed no 
physical education on their subject reports. (See Table 66.) 

Caroline and Queen Anne's Counties were the only counties 
which reported no music classes in their high schools. Somerset 
had music for about 5 per cent, Dorchester for 12 per cent, and 
Kent for 20 per cent of the boys and girls. At the opposite ex- 
treme, Carroll and Howard Counties offered work in music to 
over 90 per cent of their enrollment. Baltimore, Talbot, Garrett, 
and Wicomico had slightly more or less than three-quarters of 
their boys and girls receiving music instruction and this was true 
of nearly two-thirds of the boys and girls in Allegany county. 
The remaining counties varied between 30 and 60 per cent in the 
proportion of their pupils benefiting from courses in music. (See 
Table 66, and for individual high schools. Table XXXVI, pages 
346 to 351.) 

Manual Training and Industrial Arts 

There were no courses in manual training or industrial arts 
offered in Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles, and Howard County high 
schools. On the other hand, every boy in Queen Anne's and 
Kent, and nearly every one in Baltimore, had opportunities for 
this work. In Carroll 82 per cent of the boys had courses and 
between 58 and 70 per cent in Wicomico, Allegany, Caroline, 
Prince George's, Cecil, and Harford. A lower percentage taking 
the work may appear for the counties which have adopted the 
policy recommended by the supervisor of industrial arts of hav- 
ing two double periods a week for first and second year boys, 
rather than a single double period a week for boys in all four 
years with electives for a few boys in the last two years. In this 
case although all of the boys are not enrolled for manual training 
in any one year, the boys who are having the work do it more 
intensively over a shorter period of time. (See Table 66, and 
for individual high schools. Table XXXVI, pages 346 to 351.) 

Through the entire school year 1928-29, Baltimore, Frederick, 
and Harford Counties had general shops for industrial arts. 
During the year the shop work in some schools of Allegany, Car- 
oline, Montgomery, Washington, and Wicomico Counties was re- 



Subjects Offered in White High Schools 



115 



organized from mere woodwork and mechanical drawing to 
diversification of activities, including work in sheet metal, elec- 
tricity, cold metal, auto mechanics, and concrete. The general 
shops at Bethesda, Rockville, and Silver Springs, Montgomery 
County, have been reequipped and reorganized so that there are 
none superior in the counties of the State. 

The four vocational teachers of day trade and industrial edu- 
cation in the Hagerstown High School also taught the industrial 
arts classes. In this high school 69 boys were given an oppor- 
tunity for pre-apprentice training in sheet metal work, wood- 
work, electricity, mechanical drawing, automobile repair work, 
and carpentry. For the first two years the pupils spend one-half 
of their time in the shop and the remainder in related subject 
matter. Outside of the City of Baltimore, Washington County's 
program for industrial education at Hagerstown is ahead of that 
found in any other county in the State. In the fall of 1929 Alle- 
gany County put into effect a thoroughgoing plan for industrial 
education for high school boys. 

Home Economics, General and Vocational 

Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's were the only counties which 
gave no work in home economics. Practically every girl in the 
high schools of Queen Anne's, Kent, Baltimore, and Carroll had 
opportunities for work in home economics. From 60 to 90 per 
cent of the girls were enrolled for general or vocational home 
economics in Allegany, Worcester, Prince George's, Washington, 
Harford, Cecil, Caroline, and Talbot. With the change similar to 
that recommended for industrial arts from a double period once 
a week in all four years to two double periods a week for the 
first two years with electives for the last two j^ears, the entire 
enrollment of girls will not be taking home economics at any one 
time, but every one will have had a more intensive course in the 
first two years. (See Table 66, and for individual high schools, 
Table XXXVI, pages 346 to 351.) 

Fifteen high schools in eight counties, Allegany, Anne Arun- 
del, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Montgomery, and 
Prince George's gave courses in vocational home economics to 
543 girls. In addition to the usual work in cooking and sewing, 
these courses included study and experience in the problems in- 
volved in home management, family and community relation- 
ships, and child care and training. Home projects were required 
for the first time in connection with vocational home economics. 
Although extra credit is not given for home projects, they make 
it possible to adapt the work to the needs of the home and to 
develop managerial ability. 



116 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 67 



Day School Enrollment Taking Vocational Agriculture for Year Ending 

July 31, 1923-1929 



\^\J L/ IN 1 1 


xlUjrrl bOxlVjUij 




1924 


1925 


1926 


tl927 


11928 


§192 


Allegany 


. . i'lintstone 


28 


21 


37 


42 


26 


32 


37 




Oldtown 












12 


7 


Anne Arundel . . 


. . Millersville 


• • 




17 


14 


17 


17 


18 


Calvert 


. .Prince Frederick.. . 




22 












Caroline 


. . Ridgely 


20 


15 






. . 








Denton 


18 


18 












tCarroll 


. .Westminster 


16 


24 


27 


31 


17 










6 


11 


25 


11 


11 


14 


17 






19 


23 


20 


16 


16 


22 


16 










9 










Charles Carroll .... 








16 


18 


20 


37 






7 


9 


8 


22 










Calvert Agricultural 




12 


15 


9 










. Hughesville 














8 












18 


16 


16 


18 




East New Market. 








16 


12 


7 


12 




. . Middletown 


62 


38 


32 


44 


53 


46 


32 








21 


36 


34 


42 


38 


40 




Thurmont 




21 


30 


34 


40 


27 


41 








16 


18 


17 


16 


27 


15 


_ _ „ i i. 




10 


14 


18 


28 


32 


32 


28 








18 


24 


26 


34 


50 


52 










30 


33 


35 


38 


43 




Friendsville 






12 


16 


30 


27 


25 






on 


Oyl 

z4 


Oi 

21 


26 


26 


27 


28 






oo 
22 


OT 

27 


26 


32 


55 


53 


50 


Howard 


. Clarksville 


15 


18 


18 


17 


9 


10 


20 




Lisbon 








20 


19 


16 


19 




West Friendship . . . 








18 


15 


15 


19 


Montgomery , 


. Gaithersburg 


23 


28 




18 


30 


29 


24 




Damascus 






18 


16 


21 


30 


32 




Beltsville 






19 


10 


11 








Poolesville 






14 


21 


18 


27 


21 




Kockville 










8 






Prince George's. 


. . Hyattsville 


27 


38 


41 


34 


34 


33 


30 






oo 
22 


OT 

27 


34 


26 


18 


18 


21 














13 


10 


10 




Marlboro-Colored. . 














19 


Queen Anne's . . . 




8 


19 


18 


15 


16 


18 


18 


Stevensville 


4 
















Sudlersville . 




15 


18 


11 


12 


15 


8 


Somerset 


. Princess Anne 




16 


25 


26 


44 


45 


16 


Talhnt 






40 


20 


13 










Cordova 








23 










. Clearspring 


25 


23 


18 












Smithsburg 








21 


28 


22 


23 




Boonsboro 














17 




Williamsport 














20 




. Berlin 




13 


15 


12 


16 


18 


18 




Snow Hill 




19 


24 


14 


10 


19 


16 




Pocomoke 




9 


9 


« 








Total 




344 


599 


696 


800 


t818 


°t830 


°§875 



* Unit course. 

t Ebccludes the following enrollment in unit courses in 1927 : Carroll — Manchester 11, 
Sykesville 4 ; Dorchester — Hurlock 10 ; Frederick— Adamstown 17 ; Liberty 8, Walkersville 17. 

J Excludes the following enrollment in unit courses in 1928: Frederick — Adamstown 15, 
Liberty 16, Walkersville 12; Carroll — Manchester 16, Sykesville 15; Somerset — Marion 36; 
Worcester — Stockton 10. 

§ Excludes the following enrollment in unit, courses in 1929: Frederick — Liberty 7, 
Walkersville 12 ; Carroll — Manchester 24, Mechanicsville 12 ; Sykesville 9 ; Montgomery — 
Dickerson 10 ; Somerset — Marion 7 ; Worcester — Stockton 10. 

" Pupils enrolled one month or more. 



Vocational Agriculture in White High Schools 



117 



Agriculture, Vocational and General 

In 1928-29, 36 schools in 15 counties had instruction in voca- 
tional agriculture. Every school which had courses in 1927-28 
continued them in 1928-29 and new departments were opened at 
Hughesville in Charles County and at Boonsboro and Williams- 
port in Washington County. In 8 schools of 5 counties, Carroll, 
Frederick, Montgomery, Somerset, and Worcester, unit courses 
of from 2 to 4 periods a week were offered in addition to the 
all day work. Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Kent, St. 
Mary's, Talbot, and Wicomico had no courses in vocational agri- 
culture. Baltimore County had a course in general agriculture 
at Sparks but the work could not be approved for aid under the 
Smith Hughes Act. (See Table 66, page 113 and for individual 
high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 346 to 351.) 

In Garrett, one-half of the boys enrolled took the course in 
vocational agriculture. Howard had one-fourth of the high 
school boys enrolled and Montgomery, Carroll, Harford, Queen 
Anne's, and Frederick had from 15 to 20 per cent of their boys 
enrolled for agriculture, although it was offered in only a few 
schools of the county. (See Table 66, page 113.) 

The enrollment in vocational agriculture in each county high 
school for 1923 to 1929 is given in Table 67. Three new depart- 
ments appeared in 1929 and 17 high schools had larger enroll- 
ments in 1929 than in 1928. The total enrollment in the all day 
courses aggregated 875, an increase of 45 over the 1928 figure, 
and this increase is consistent with the steady growi:h of agricul- 
tural work in the past seven years. In addition to the above en- 
rollment, 91 boys had opportunities to take unit courses in agri- 
culture in schools in Carroll, Frederick, Montgomery, Somerset, 
and Worcester Counties. In the unit courses the boys received 
instruction in agriculture from 2 to 4 hours per week. In the all 
day course, first and second year pupils had 10 periods a week in 
agriculture courses and 6 periods weekly for advanced w^ork in 
agriculture. (See Table 67.) 

The regular classroom and group work is supplemented by a 
project in either animal or plant production or farm manage- 
ment carried out by each boy. The projects are carried on dur- 
ing the school year and during the summer as well under the 
supervision of the agriculture teacher. Of the projects started 
during 1927-28, 573 were completed in 1928-29 with a total in- 
come of $18,458.23 (an average of $32 per project). The 
majority of the projects during this period were in plant produc- 
tion. The greatest numbers chose work with potatoes, corn, or 
truck gardens. (See Table 68.) 

Boys enrolled in the unit courses also carried on projects, with 
a total income of $2,059.12 and an average return of $19 per 
project. (See Table 69.) 



118 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 68 

Agricultural Projects Begun in 1927-28 and Completed in 1928-29 

All Day Courses 





Number of Pupils 


Completed Projects 


Character of Project 


Enrolled 


Com- 
pleting 
Projects 


Scope 
(Acres or 
Head) 


Total Yield 
(Bu., Lbs., Etc.) 


Pupils' 
Project 
Income 



3 


3 


1 


1 


22 


17 


7 


7 


6 


3 


2 


2 


13 


13 


16 


y 


35 


28 


3 


3 


4 


4 


49 


37 


158 


127 


7 


7 


13 


1 n 




1 O 


13 


13 


21 


18 


5 


6 


62 


43 


13 


13 


3 


3 


1 


1 


8 


8 


1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


4 


3 


1 




2 


2 


200 


165 


3 


2 


1 


1 


467 


385 


22 


20 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


30 


27 


34 


34 


t689 


573 



Animal Production 

Baby Beef . 

Bull 

Dairy Calf 

Dairy Cow 

Herd Testing 

Herd Improvement 

Milk Testing Association 

Chicks 

Hens (laying) 

Swine 

Pig ; 

Sow and Pigs 

Total 

Plant Production 

[Breeding 

Corn) Canning 

] Field 

I 

Tobacco 

Tomato 

Soybean 

' Truck 

Wheat (field) 

Buckwheat 

Apples .' 

Beans 

Cabbage 

Cucumbers 

Home Beautification . . . . 

Nursery 

Oats 

Onion (seed) 

Peas 

Strawberry 

Hotbed 

Wormseed 

Potato 

Sweet Potato 

Mangels 

Total 

Farm Management 

Cost Accounts ". . . . 

Record Keeping 

Market Study 

Surveys 

Poultry 

Total 

Other Supervised Practice . 

Grand Total 



3 
1 
21 
15 
33 



138 
725 
1,834 
3 
2 

163 



4.25 
17.13 
161.25 

16 
24 

8.5 

/18.5 acres 
11,550 sq. ft 
100 A. 
6 

1.5 
5 

. 5 

1 



29 
13.5 

.75 
1.25 

.72 



1.5 
131.97 
1.5 
1 



3 months 



100 



3,000 lbs. 



204 bu. 
18.9T;215bu.;483doz 
8,498 bu.; 202 bbl.; 
5T. Alf. 
12,000 lbs. 
11,810 lbs.;l,789bu.; 

3,373 bas. 
55 bu.; 8.5 T. hay 



2,702 bu. 
139 bu. 
74 bu. 
5,136 lbs.; 190 bu. 
6.5 T. 
175 bu. 



1,278 
614 bu. 
15 bu. 
12 bu.; 2,100 lbs. 
65 crates 



80 lbs. 
10,301 bu. 
80 bu. 
27 T. 



59.89 



724.02 
422 . 73 
Rec. only 
Rec. only 
Rec. only 
500.36 
1,080.91 
50.00 
63.00 
1,540.92 



4,441.83 



139 


34 


373 


89 


3,617 


44 


1,800 


00 


683 


51 


238 


34 


885 


92 


2,089 


77 


49 


28 


35 


25 


193 


98 


299 


10 


35 


00 



162.66 
144.58 
4.30 
50.00 
64.10 



26 00 
2,995.34 
60.00 
68.60 



$14,016.40 



$18,458.23 



t Includes 675 different individuals. 



Agricultural Projects of White High School Pupils 119 



TABLE 69 

Agricultural Projects Begun in 1927-28 and Completed in 1928-29 

Day Unit Courses 





Number of Pupils 


Completed Projects 


Character of Project 




Com- 


Scope 


Total Yield 


Pupils' 




Enrolled 


pleting 


(Acres or 


(lbs., Bu., Etc.) 


Project 






Projects 


Head) 




Income 


Animal Production 












Calf 


3 


3 






S 92 . 30 


Cow 


2 


2 


2 


700 gal. 


100.00 


Herd Testing 


10 


10 


107 




Poultry 


21 


18 


1,270 


570 . 65 


Swine 


15 


12 


18 


491.80 






Total 


51 


45 






$ 1,254.75 


Plant PHODrcTioN 












Corn 


10 


10 


10 


91 bbl. 


S 150.00 


Potato 


41 


35 


21.25 


873bu.;596bbl.;803Ib. 


510.02 


Strawberry 


1 










Tomato 


1 


1 


1.5 


150 bu. 


87.00 


Truck 


11 


10 


. 1.12 




57.35 






Total 


64 


56 






$ 804.37 


Cost Accounting 


1 


1 








Other Supervised Practice 


9 


9 








Grand Total 


125 


111 






$ 2,059.12 



t Includes 82 different individuals. 



In order to secure experience in both plant and animal hus- 
bandry, each phase is stressed in alternate years. Consequently, 
the majority of projects undertaken during 1928-29 were in ani- 
mal production. Pigs, poultry, and the dairy calf were the ani- 
mals chosen most frequently by individual boys. (See Table 70.) 

In September, 1928, the bulletin entitled Practical Activities in 
Animal Production was published as prepared by teachers of 
vocational agriculture under the leadership of J. D. Blackwell, 
Director of Vocational Education, to furnish a guide to the prac- 
tical work conducted in the laboratoiy, on the school grounds, 
and on the home farms of pupils or community. In September, 
1929, the companion bulletin entitled Practical Activities in Plant 
Production wsis made available after a similar method of prepar- 
ation. 

A summary of the counties giving work in various phases of 
vocational education which met the requirements of the Smith 
Hughes Act is shown in Table 71. 



120 1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 70 

Summary of Projects for 1928-29 in Vocational Agriculture 



Character of Project 



Scope of 
Project 
(Head or 
Acres) 



Number 
Enrolled 



Character of Project 



Scope of 
Project 
(Head or 
Acres) 



Number 
Enrolled 



ALL DAY COURSES 
Animal Production 



Baby Beef 

Bull 

Dairy Calf 

Dairy Cow 

Herd Testing 

Herd Improvement 

Horses (colts) 

Poultry (chicks) . . . 
Breeding Pens . . . . . 

Ducks 

Geese (breeders) . . . 



13 
2 
89 
63 
313 
187 
1 

12,756 
330 
244 
19 



13 

2 
62 
21 
25 
30 

1 
97 

3 
10 

4 



Hens (laying) . . . . 
Turkeys (mature) 
Turkeys (poults) . 
Sheep (mature) . . 
Ewes and Lambs. 

Pig 

Sow 

Sow and Pigs . . . . 

Bees 

Rabbits 

Total 



5,581 

18 
240 
187 

92 
224 

25 
321 
30 colon. 

40 



Plant Production 



[Breeding 

Corn^ Field 

( Sweet 

Potatoes 

Tobacco 

Vegetable Gardening 
Beans 



1 


75 


4 




10 


5 


8 


Home Beautification 


9 


75 


10 




15 




25 




20 




3 


Strawberry 


3 


75 


8 




1 




2 


Total 



.75 



.25 
8. 
.5 

5 beds 



Farm Management 



Cost Accounts. . . 
Record Keeping. 
Farm Experience. 



65 farms 
4 farms 



10 

65 
4 



Market Study. 
Machinery. . . . 



Total 

Grand Total. 



3 feeds 



UNIT COURSES 



Calf; 

Poultry Enterprise 
Poultry Records. . 

Pigeons 

Sheep 



10 


10 


2,650 


34 


1,800 


5 


20 


1 


5 


1 



Swine 

White Mice. 
Potatoes. . . . 
Truck 



Total . 



31 
25 

3.25 

1 



Agricultural Projects and Vocational Departments 121 



TABLE 71 

Number of White County Hiffh Schools Having Departments of Vocational 
Agriculture, Vocational Home Economics and Industrial and Trade 
Courses for Year Ending July 31, 1929 



Number of Departments of 



/~V T T "NT AT" 
CUUN 1 Y 


Vocational Agriculture 


Vocational 

Home 
Economics 


Industrial 
and 
Trade Courses 


All Day 

Courses 


Unit 
Courses 


Allegany 


2 
1 
3 
1 
*2 
*4 

4 
2 
*3 
*3 
*t4 
*2 
1 
*3 
*2 

°37 
875 




2 
1 


Day 


Evening 

10 
tl 


Anne Arundel 






Carroll 


3 




Charles 








Dorchester 










Frederick 


2 


1 
5 
1 
2 
1 
2 






Garrett 




1 


Harford 






Howard 








Montgomery 


1 






Prince George's 






Queen Anne's 








Somerset 


1 








Washington 




1 


1 


Worcester 


1 

8 
91 




Total 

Enrollment 


15 

543 


1 

69 


13 
§515 



t Includes one for colored iiunils. 

* One teacher takes care of 2 departments. 

° Each of eight teachers has 2 departments. 

§ Includes 220 men in 9 mining classes in Allegany and 1 in Garrett. 



* WITHDRAWAL AND FAILURES IN HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS 

With but a few exceptions, the percentage of withdrawals and 
failures for the various high school subjects was slightly lower 
in 1929 than in 1928. Non promotions of boys in science, Latin, 
and vocational agriculture and withdrawal of girls in science 
showed slight gains over last year. 

The percentage of boys withdrawing from English, mathe- 
matics, social studies, science, and agriculture ranged between 
12 and 14 per cent. For Latin and French, withdrawals of boys 
were only 9 per cent. In Latin, however, 19.5 per cent of the 
boys were not promoted, a larger percentage of failure than in 
any other subject. French was the stumbling block for 15.2 per 



* For causes other than removal, transfer, and death. 



122 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



cent, and mathematics for 14.7 per cent of the boys. In stenog- 
raphy 15 per cent and in typing 12 per cent of the third and 
fourth year boys enrolled were not promoted, in addition to 12 
and 9 per cent, respectively, who withdrew. For junior business 
training and commercial arithmetic, the per cent of boys with- 
drawing was high, 15 and 17 per cent, respectively. (See Table 
72.) 



TABLE 72 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject for Year Ending July 31, 1929 





Number 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Subject 




































c 




c 




a 






a 




c 










t3 








T) 


& 




-o 






& 




X 










0) 




-4-> 


cU 




a> 
-u 


CJ 


0) 


a 




0. 

4- 




u 


c 


■o 


o 




o 


u 
T3 




o 


I-, 
T3 


o 


u 

T5 




o 








Si 






S 








JS 




J3 








Wit 


Not 
Proi 


Wit 


Not 
Pro] 


Wit 


Not 
Proi 


Wit 




Not 
Proi 


Wit 


Not 
Proi 


Wit 




►S ^ 


English 


2,286 


1,853 


1,307 


1,263 


979 


590 


9. 


9 


8.0 


12.6 


12.2 


7 


7 


4.7 


Mathematics 


1,848 


2,106 


1,115 


1,250 


733 


856 


10. 


5 


12.0 


13.1 


14.7 


8 


1 


9.4 


Social Studies 


1,861 


1,391 


1,048 


791 


813 


600 


9. 


6 


7.2 


12.2 


9.2 


7 


6 


5.6 


Science 


1,760 


1,114 


1,021 


689 


739 


425 


11 . 


4 


7.2 


14.0 


9.4 


9 


1 


5.2 


Latin 


441 


735 


215 


443 


226 


292 


7. 


7 


12.8 


9.5 


19.5 


6 


5 


8.4 


French and Spanish 


272 


378 


150 


257 


122 


121 


6. 


1 


8.5 


8.9 


15.2 


4 


4 


4.4 


Agriculture (Vocational) 


*126 


*42 


126 


42 






13. 


4 


5.1 


13.4 


4.4 








Commercial Subjects: 


















Stenography III-IV 


209 


227 


81 


103 


128 


124 


9. 


1 


9.9 


11.9 


15.2 


8 





7.7 


Typing III-IV 


199 


208 


77 


107 


122 


101 


7. 


6 


7.9 


8.6 


11.9 


7 


1 


5.9 


Bookkeeping III-IV 


194 


168 


87 


61 


107 


107 


8. 


4 


7.2 


10.3 


7.2 


7 


2 


7.2 


Junior Business Training 


70 


40 


41 


23 


29 


17 


12. 


5 


7.1 


15.1 


8.5 


10 





5.9 


Commercial Arithmetic 


128 


97 


72 


39 


56 


58 


13. 


2 


10.0 


17.4 


9.4 


10 


1 


10.4 


Commercial Geography 


16 


19 


8 


7 


8 


12 


9. 


6 


11.4 


10.8 


9.5 


8 


7 


13.0 


Typing II 


15 


12 


6 


6 


9 


6 


8. 


4 


6.7 


7.7 


7.7 


8 


9 


5.9 




4 


6 


3 


5 


1 


1 


9. 


8 


14.6 


20.0 


33.3 


5 





5.0 



* Excludes three boys withdrawn and one girl not promoted in general agriculture. 



Withdrawals for girls were considerably below those for boys, 
the maximum being 10 per cent in junior business training and 
commercial arithmetic, and the minimum 4 per cent in French. 
The highest percentage of failure for girls appeared in commer- 
cial geography, in which the enrollment was small, in commercial 
arithmetic, mathematics, and Latin. Even these high percent- 
ages for girls varied only between 8 and 13 per cent. In with- 
drawals of girls from second year typing and failures of girls in 
commercial geography, the figures for girls were higher than for 
boys. In every other subject the girls showed considerably 
greater persistence in carrying on their work and greater success 
in receiving promotion than did the boys. (See Table 72.) 



Withdrawals and Failures in High School Subjects 123 



After looking into withdrawals and failures in the individual 
counties, they appear to be very low in Calvert, somewhat below 
the average in Charles in every subject except French, and gen- 
erally below the average of the counties as a whole in Washing- 
ton. On the other hand, withdrawals and failures in Dorchester, 
in Howard, except for Latin and French, in Baltimore, except 
for boys in French, and in Queen Anne's, except for the social 
studies and French, are larger than those found in the counties 
as a whole. (See Table 73.) 

In English, withdrawals of boys varied from 3 per cent in 
Calvert to 17 in Queen Anne's and Somerset. The range for fail- 
ures was not quite so high — from 6 per cent for Calvert County 
boys to nearly 18 per cent for Howard and Queen Anne's boys. 
For girls withdrawals from English included 3 per cent in Cal- 
vert County and 11 and 10 per cent, respectively, in Garrett and 
Somerset Counties. Failures of girls in English affected but 1 
per cent of the enrollment in Calvert, while 11.5 per cent were 
not promoted in Queen Anne's. 

Failures in mathematics included but 3 and 5 per cent of the 
boys enrolled in Calvert and Charles Counties, respectively, while 
nearly 24 per cent in Howard failed to receive promotion. The 
per cent of girls who withdrew from mathematics was higher 
than for English, the range being from 3 per cent in Calvert to 
nearly 15 per cent in Somerset. Failures of girls in mathematics 
were but 3 per cent in Calvert as against 19 per cent in Dor- 
chester. 

In science, Queen Anne's showed an exceedingly high percent- 
age of failure for boys and girls, 26 and 15 per cent, respectively. 
Calvert on the other hand had no boys who failed and St. Mary's 
reported no failures for girls. 

From 12 to 18 per cent of the boys enrolled for Latin with- 
drew in Somerset, Baltimore, Dorchester, and Queen Anne's 
Counties, while from 20 to 28 per cent failed of promotion in 
Prince George's, Baltimore, Washington, Allegany, Wicomico, 
Harford, Queen Anne's, Anne Arundel, Dorchester, and Somer- 
set Counties. While non-promotions in Latin for girls were not 
so high as for boys, in comparison with other subjects, they were 
high in Talbot, Queen Anne's, and Anne Arundel. Dorchester 
had 16 per cent of the girls failing in Latin. 

French evidently does not have the appeal for boys that it has 
for girls, for there were withdrawals of from 13 to 22 per cent 
of the boys enrolled for it in Montgomery, Prince George's, Gar- 
rett, Carroll, and Kent, and from 22 to 30 per cent of the boys 
enrolled for French failed in Kent, Somerset, Allegany, Prince 
George's, and Garrett. (See Table 73.) 

Queen Anne's, Dorchester, Somerset, Howard, and Montgom- 
ery showed a high percentage of withdrawals and failures in 
agriculture. (See Table 73.) 



124 



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Withdrawals and Failures and Tests in High Schools 125 



WITHDRAWALS FROM HIGH SCHOOL BY YEAR 

A comparison of the number of pupils for October and May 
according to the year of English work they were taking indicated 
that the loss of pupils was greatest in the first year and least in 
the fourth year. The number and per cent lost in the various 
years are given below : 

TABLE 74 



High School Pu])ils Lost 
Year Between October and April 

No. Per Cent 

I 748 9.9 

II 478 8.5 

III 311 7.1 

IV „ - 61 1.9 



Withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death are, of course, 
all likely to have an equal effect on all of the years. It is the 
causes of withdrawal other than these which should have less 
effect as boys and girls continue their work through the high 
school years. Pupils who remain to the fourth year in high 
school are less likely to drop out than are pupils in the earlier 
years, according to the above figures. (See Table 74.) 

ENGLISH TESTS GIVEN TO HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS 
IN ALL COUNTIES 

In October, 1928, and in April, 1929, the high school pupils in 
all 0^ the counties, except Somerset, were given forms 3 and 4, 
resp ctively, of the Pressey Diagnostic Tests in English Compo- 
sitic-i. These tests had been given in Somerset the preceding 
year and it was considered wiser not to repeat the same tests in 
two successive years. Approximately 20,800 pupils took the 
tests in October and 19,200 the following April, indicating a loss 
during the six months of about 1,600 pupils, nearly 8 per cent 
of the total number enrolled in October, w^hich is the month in 
which the largest enrollment is found in the white high schools. 
(See Tables 75A to 76B.) 

In Tests A and B, Capitalization and Punctuation, the average 
county was below standard in October, but attention to English 
throughout the year brought the high schools to standard in the 
April testing. In Capitalization, the only counties which had 50 
per cent or more of the high school pupils at or above standard 
in October were Baltimore, Wicomico, Caroline, and Harford. 
All of the counties except Dorchester and Saint Mary's achieved 
this in April, and in Saint Mary's first and second vear pupils 
were above standard in April and in Dorchester, fourth year 
pupils. (See Tables 75A and 75B.) 

The test in Capitalization revealed that there was not con- 
sistent growth from year to year in the high schools in all of 
the counties. In Queen Anne's, Garrett, and St. Mary's the 



126 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 75A— Test A— Capitalization 
Results of Pressey Diagnostic Tests in English Composition 
October, 1928 and April, 1929 



Scores at standard or above are in italics 





Total 


Per Cent 














Medians 














Number 


Above 


































County 


Tested 


Standard 


Year I 




Yea 


r II 




Year III 




Year IV 






Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


t5tanaara 






50 





50 





20 


4 


20 


9 


21 


2 


21 


7 


22 





22 


3 


22.5 


22 


7 


Total and Average .... 


20,775 


19,201 


43 


3 


64 


7 


19 


5 


22 





20 


8 


23 


2 


21 


6 


23 


9 


22.2 


24 


8 




401 


382 


43 


9 


80 


6 


19 


5 


24 


3 


21 


1 


26 


7 


22 


4 


27 


9 


21.5 


27 


3 


Baltimore 


2,635 


2,423 


54 


5 


77 


4 


20 





23 


6 


22 


1 


24 


3 


22 


4 


25 





23.8 


26 


2 


Charles 


353 


336 


26 


1 


74 


4 


17 


7 


22 


3 


18 


3 


24 


5 


20 


2 


25 


7 


21.5 


24 


7 


Caroline 


611 


568 


51 


9 


72 


2 


20 


4 


23 





21 


6 


24 


8 


22 


3 


25 





21 .1 


25 


2 


Prince George's 


1,418 


1,247 


47 


8 


70 


6 


19 


9 


22 


8 


21 





23 


5 


22 


4 


24 


6 


22.5 


24 


8 


Wicomico 


1,009 


973 


53 


7 


69 


7 


19 


3 


21 


5 


21 


8 


24 


4 


23 





24 


3 


24.3 


26 


2 


Anne Arundel 


973 


914 


44 


9 


69 





19 


2 


21 


8 


20 


5 


23 


1 


22 


3 


25 


2 


23.3 


24 


4 


Allegany 


2,353 


2,152 


47 


6 


65 


7 


20 


1 


21 


8 


21 


1 


23 





21 


7 


24 





22.8 


24 


9 


Harford 


952 


869 


51 


7 


64 


4 


20 


1 


22 


1 


21 


1 


23 


2 


22 


8 


24 


5 


23.3 


24 


1 


Worcester 


674 


606 


32 


6 


64 


4 


19 


6 


21 


9 


19 





23 


2 


20 


2 


23 


6 


20.6 


26 





Howard 


400 


370 


29 


3 


63 


5 


18 


5 


23 


3 


19 


7 


22 


1 


19 


8 


23 


9 


20.8 


25 


2 


Washington 


1 ,644 


1 , 537 


47 


7 


63 


1 


20 


3 


21 


8 


21 




23 





21 


4 


23 


2 


22.0 


23 


8 


Kent 


465 


429 


37 


8 


62 





19 


1 


21 


7 


20 





22 


1 


20 


7 


24 


2 


22.2 


24 


4 


Carroll 


1,074 


1,017 


36 


4 


61 


8 


18 


7 


21 


9 


20 


1 


23 


2 


21 





23 


5 


21.0 


24 


3 


Cecil 


755 


696 


38 


8 


59 


3 


17 


8 


20 


9 


20 


5 


23 


7 


21 


9 


23 


6 


21.2 


24 


6 


Talbot 


566 


562 


35 


7 


56 


2 


20 





21 


6 


18 


6 


21 


7 


20 


8 


23 


1 


21.3 


23 





Frederick 


1,707 


1 , 538 


35 


2 


55 . 


7 


18 


6 


21 


2 


20 


1 


21 


6 


21 


2 


22 


9 


21 .8 


24 


4 


Garrett 


617 


547 


30 





55 . 


4 


18 


7 


20 


1 


19 


5 


23 


/ 


20 


5 


25 


1 


20.4 


23 


3 


Montgomery 


1,098 


1,028 


37 


1 


52. 


7 


18 


8 


20 


3 


20 


3 


22 


/ 


20 


9 


22 


3 


21 .-0 


24 


1 


Calvert 


154 


148 


35 


1 


51 . 


4 


19 


8 


19 


9 


20 


4 


21 


4 


21 


1 


22 


6 


21.5 


23 


6 


Dorchester 


745 


698 


30 


7 


49. 


6 


18 


5 


20 


4 


20 


2 


21 


5 


19 


8 


21 


8 


21 .6 


24 


3 


St. Mary's 


171 


161 


21 


1 


47. 


8 


17 


5 


21 


3 


17 


6 


22 


3 


19 


8 


21 


8 


19.3 


19 


3 



median fourth year pupil did not have as high a score as the 
median third year pupil in both the fall and spring testing. In 
Caroline and Cecil in October, the median score for fourth year 
pupils was below that for third year pupils, and in April this 
was the case in Charles, Anne Arundel, Harford, and Talbot. 
(See Table 75A.) 

In April the median third year pupil in Wicomico, Cecil, and 
St. Mary's did not equal the score of the median second year 
pupil, and this was true for Dorchester in October. In Howard 
in April the median score for second year pupils was lower than 
that for first year pupils and a similar condition existed in Tal- 
bot and Worcester in October. (See Table 75 A.) ^ 

In Test B, Punctuation, the counties as a whole were at stand- 
ard or above in April in all years except the second, but only 
five counties, Caroline, Queen Anne's, Wicomico, Washington, 
and Worcester had 40 per cent or more of their pupils at stand- 
ard or above in October. This was the case in all except Calvert 
and Saint Mary's Counties in April. There was much question 
about the correct scoring of this test since the punctuation con- 
sidered correct in the key w^as at variance with the punctuation* 



Rksults of English Tests in Whitk High Schools 127 

TABLP: 75B— Test B— Punctuation 

Results of Pressey Diagnostic Tests in P^njilish Composition 
October, 1928 and April, 1929 



Scores at stavdard or above are in italics 



County 


Total 
Number 
Tested 


Per Cent 

Above 
Standard 




ear I 




\' 


Med 

ear H 


ians 
Year III 


Year IV 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Standard 






50.0 




n 


1 o 


7 


1 5 




1 6 


a 
o 


1 o 


A 


1 Q 


A 
*± 




1 
1 




A 
*± 


22.0 


Total and Averag6. . . . 


20,798 


19 , 200 


35.3 


51 . 


1 


11 





15 


8 


14 


4 


18 


3 


17 


2 


20 


5 


19 


1 


22.0 




401 


382 


49.9 


76. 


7 


12 


5 


21 


9 


18 


2 


^4 


7 


20 


3 


25 


5 


20 


4 


27 .0 




611 


568 


51 .6 


67. 


6 


13 


8 


20 


6 


16 


9 


20 


4 


19 


2 


22 


8 


22 


6 


24.2 


Baltimore 


2,638 


2.423 


41 .7 


62 


/ 


11 


5 


17 


1 


16 


3 


20 


4 


19 





21 


9 


21 





23.3 


Anne Arundel 


973 


914 


35.4 


59 





11 


1 


16 


2 


12 


9 


18 


7 


19 


2 


23 


6 


19 


9 


22.4 




354 


336 


19.2 


Ol . 


1 


9 


2 


16 


9 


10 


7 


19 


2 


13 


2 


22 


5 


15 


7 


22.1 


Wicomico 


1 ,009 


973 


44.4 


.').J 


A 


10 


9 


15 


1 


16 


4 


19 


9 


20 





21 





20 


6 


23.4 


Howard 


400 


370 


33.3 


53 


2 


11 


7 


17 


9 


14 


8 


18 


4 


14 


6 


19 


8 


17 


6 


21.9 


Worcester 


674 


606 


23.7 


51 


5 


10 


5 


16 


3 


12 


7 


18 


2 


14 


4 


20 


6 


15 





21 .9 


Prince George's 


1 ,421 


1 .247 


32.1 


51 


1 


11 





15 


9 


14 


2 


17 


7 


16 


4 


20 


8 


18 


8 


22.2 


Washington 


1 , 642 


1 ,537 


42.8 


50 


2 


12 


4 


15 


9 


16 


4 


19 


/ 


17 


9 


19 


2 


19 


4 


21.5 


Calvert 


590 


562 


34.4 


50 


2 


12 


1 


17 


9 


12 


7 


17 


6 


16 


4 


19 


2 


17 


6 


19.9 


Allegany 


2 , 353 


2,152 


37.6 


49 


3 


11 


1 


14 


6 


15 


1 


18 


3 


17 


4 


20 


6 


19 


7 


22.2 


Harford 


952 


869 


39.0 


48 


9 


11 


6 


15 


2 


15 


3 


17 


9 


17 


8 


20 


6 


19 


6 


21.8 


Frederick 


1,707 


1 , 537 


32.8 


43 


7 


10 





15 


4 


13 


9 


15 


9 


17 


2 


19 


1 


20 


2 


21 .5 


Garrett 


617 


547 


24.6 


43 


5 


10 


2 


13 


5 


12 


1 


17 


6 


15 


2 


21 


2 


16 


4 


21.2 


Montgomery 


1,107 


1 ,028 


35 . 3 


43 


5 


10 


8 


14 


4 


14 


1 


16 


8 


16 


9 


19 


3 


17 


4 


20.4 


Kent 


465 


429 


30.3 


42 


7 


11 


5 


15 


.9 


12 


6 


16 


1 


14 


8 


19 


2 


19 


5 


21 .0 


Carroll 


1 ,074 


1 ,017 


26 . 4 


42 


5 


9 


3 


14 


2 


13 





17 


2 


15 


4 


19 


4 


17 


1 


20.9 




740 


696 


24.7 


40 


9 


8 


2 


13 


2 


11 


3 


17 





15 


9 


18 


7 


17 


7 


21.7 


Dorchester 


745 


()98 


27.1 


40 


5 


10 





14 


8 


12 


4 


15 


5 


13 


1 


16 


9 


18 





21 .7 


Calvert 


154 


148 


21.4 


36. 


5 


9 





13 


5 


12 


2 


14 


5 


14 


8 


18 


8 


16 


9 


20.7 


St. Mery's 


171 


161 


12.3 


36 





8 


4 


15 


4 


10 


3 


17 


6 


11 





17 


4 


12 


5 


13.5 



rules advocated in a number of the counties. (See Table 75B.) 

The results in this test indicated an improvement in punctua- 
tion from year to year through the high school course. Only in 
Anne Arundel, Charles, and Saint Mary's did the median for 
fourth year pupils fall below that for third year pupils in April ; 
in Howard in October the median third year pupil did less well 
than the median second year pupil; and in April in Caroline 
and Talbot the median first year pupil scored higher than the 
median second year pupil. (See Table 75B.) 

In Test C, Grammar, the counties as a whole did not reach 
standard in any year in either October or April. Five counties 
had over 43 per cent at or above standard in both months — 
Queen Anne's, Caroline, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and Washing- 
ton. Washington and Harford had a decrease in the per cent at 
or above standard between October and April. The standard to 
be reached was, of course, higher in April than in October. (See 
Table 76 A.) 

The growth from year to year in an understanding of the rules 
of grammar was very obvious throughout the counties. The 
only exceptions noted were for fourth year pupils in Saint 



128 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 76A— Test C— Grammar 

Results of Pressey Diagnostic Tests in English Composition 
October, 1928 and April, 1929 

Scores at standard or above are in italics 



County 


Total 
Number 
Tested 


Per Cent 

Above 
Standard 


Year I 


Mec 
Year II 


lians 
Year III 


Year IV 


/ \ i 

UCt. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Sit *i Ti H n vri 






50 





50 


.0 


16 


8 


18 


2 


19 


.2 


20 


.7 


21 


.7 


22 


.3 


22 


.6 


24 


. 5 


J. \J veil iXLl\X Ji. \ v7Jl CL^X^ .... 


20,821 


19,195 


36 


2 


41 


.2 


13 


.6 


16 


.2 


17 


.1 


19 


.2 


19 


.5 


21 


.6 


21 


.1 


23 


.2 


Onppn A n tip's 


401 


382 


47 


.1 


66 


.0 


15 


.1 


19 


.4 


20 


.2 


24 


.6 


20 


.8 


2S 


.9 




.0 


28 


. J 


Caroline 


611 


568 


45 


.7 


59 


.7 


15 


9 


SO 


1 


18 


4 


21 


.6 


21 


.3 


24 


.0 


23 


8 


25 


7 


Baltimore 


2,638 


2,423 


43 


9 


5S 


.4 


15 





17 


5 


19 


1 


21 


.9 


21 


.7 


23 


.9 


23 


4 


26 





AnnP Aninripl 


973 


914 


48 


4 


49 


.3 


16 


.2 


17 


4 


18 


.2 


20 


.2 


22 


5 


23 


3 


23 





24 


8 


Washington 


1,644 


1,535 


45 


.7 


43 


.4 


16 


.1 


16 


3 


19 





20 


.2 


20 


.5 


22 


3 


22 





23 


1 


Prince George's 


1,419 


1,247 


36 


.2 


40 


.5 


14 


.8 


16 





16 


9 


19 


.0 


17 


3 


22 


5 


17 


6 


22 


8 


Dorchester 


746 


698 


36 


.9 


40 


.4 


15 


.3 


16 


4 


17 


8 


20 


8 


17 


9 


20 


2 


21 


4 


23 


7 


Kent 


465 


429 


38 


.3 


40 


.3 


16 


2 


16 


4 


16 


7 


17 


8 


17 


3 


21 


5 


22 


5 


23 


9 


Talbot 


590 


562 


36 


.1 


40 


.2 


15 


.0 


17 


2 


16 


7 


18 


5 


20 


3 


20 


5 


20 


6 


22 


4 


Wicomic6 


1,009 


973 


35 





40 


.1 


14 


7 


15 


9 


16 


8 


19 


5 


20 





21 


6 


21 


3 


22 


7 


Worcester 


674 


606 


22 


7 


39 


8 


12 


7 


15 


5 


15 


7 


19 


1 


17 


4 


22 


4 


18 


6 


23 





Harford 


952 


868 


40 





39 


1 


16 





15 


9 


18 





19 





20 


1 


21 


7 


20 


5 


22 


1 


Charles 


357 


336 


27 


7 


38 


7 


14 


1 


16 


1 


15 


4 


19 


5 


17 


9 


19 


8 


20 


1 


22 


4 


Allegany 


2,353 


2,152 


35 


1 


38 


4 


14 


1 


15 


6 


16 


8 


18 


2 


19 


9 


21 


7 


21 


1 


23 





Calvert 


154 


148 


31 


2 


37 


2 


12 


6 


13 


5 


16 


8 


18 


8 


19 


5 


22 


1 


20 


8 


22 


5 


Howard 


400 


370 


30 


5 


37 





14 


4 


16 


8 


15 


9 


18 


8 


17 





20 


9 


20 


1 


21 


5 


Montgomery 


1,107 


1,028 


36 





36 


4 


15 


4 


16 


4 


17 


4 


17 


9 


18 


2 


19 





20 


6 


21 


9 


Garrett 


617 


547 


23 


3 


34 


6 


13 


1 


13. 


5 


13 


9 


16 


4 


16 


7 


20 


8 


18 


9 


22 


8 


St. Mary's 


171 


161 


30. 


4 


34 


2 


14 


4 


15. 


6 


16 


5 


17 


9 


19 


5 


22 


8 


19 


3 


20 


7 


Carroll 


1,074 


1,015 


25. 





32 





13. 


4 


14. 


5 


15. 


2 


16 


6 


17 


2 


20 


8 


17. 


1 


22 





Frederick 


1,707 


1,537 


27. 


7 


30. 


1 


13. 


3 


14. 


7 


16. 


2 


16 


5 


17. 


7 


19 





20 


6 


22. 


4 


Cecil 


759 


696 


23. 


7 


28. 


9 


12. 


3 


13. 


5 


15. 


3 


17. 


9 


17. 


6 


19 


5 


18. 


7 


21 


4 



Mary's, third year pupils in Queen Anne's and Dorchester in 
April, and fourth year pupils in Carroll in October. (See Table 
76A.) 

In Test D, Sentence Structure, only 39 per cent of the county 
high school pupils were at or above standard in October and 
April. Caroline and Baltimore Counties had over 50 per cent at 
or above standard both months, which resulted from the scores 
of pupils above the first year. (See Table 76B.) / 

In some counties either no follow-up w^ork was done after the 
October testing or, if it was done, it was ineffective because the 
median score in the April testing was lower than for that of the 
previous October. This was the case for first and second year 
pupils in Washington County, for second and fourth year pupils 
in Harford and Wicomico, for third and fourth year pupils in 
Prince George's, for second year pupils in Calvert, and for fourth 
year pupils in Dorchester and St. Mary's. (See Table 76B.) 

The results of the Pressey English Tests show the need of hav- 
ing teachers of all subjects pay more attention to the form and 



Results of English Tests in White High Schools 129 



TABLE 76B— Test D— Sentence Structure 
Results of Pressey Diaj^nostic Tests in English Composition 
October, 1928 and April, 1929 

Scores at standard or above are in italics. 









IVr 


Cent 














Medians 














Total 






























Number 


Above 




























County 


Tested 


Standard 


Year I 




Ye: 


r 11 


Year III 


Y 


ear IV 




Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


Oct. 


April 


^ t Q M ri ti yfi 






50.0 


50.0 


14 


.8 


15 


.7 


16 


.4 


17 2 


17.8 


18.2 


18 


.4 


18 


.8 




20 , 792 


19, 186 


39.6 


39. 1 


13 


.5 


14 


.1 


15 


.5 


15 '8 


17.2 


17.6 


17 


.8 


18 


.3 


Caroline 


611 


568 


oO . 6 


,52.6 


14 


.3 


15 


.2 


16 


. / 


17 A 


17.7 


18.7 


19 


. .5 


19 


.9 


Baltimore 


2 , 038 


2,423 


nl .9 


.50.7 


14 


. 5 


15 


. 1 


16 


. / 


17 .3 


18. Jt 


18.7 


18 


.8 


19 


.9 


til 1 or* n A Ti n o »a 


401 


379 


38.4 


47.8 


13 


. 5 


14 


.6 


15 


. 5 


16.8 


17.3 


18.6 


17 


4 


20 


.2 


Anne Arundel 


973 


914 


61 . 1 


47.3 


14 


.7 


15 


.2 


16 


2 


16.2 


18.1 


18.6 


18 


8 


19 


2 


Washington 


1,643 


1,535 


.51.8 


45.8 


1.5 


.0 


14 


.7 


16 





16.5 


17.6 


18.2 


18 


6 


19 


1 


Talbot 


589 


562 


34.6 


39.7 


13 


5 


14 


6 


14 


3 


15.3 


16.8 


17.2 


16 


3 


18 





Allegany 


2,353 


2,152 


41 .0 


39.4 


13 


9 


14 


3 


15 


4 


15.7 


17.3 


17.8 


18 





18 


3 


Harford 


952 


869 


43.3 


39.2 


14 





14 


1 


W 


6 


16.4 


17.3 


17.4 


17 


5 


17 


4 


Wiconiico 


1 ,009 


973 


38.3 


38.5 


12 


7 


13 


8 


15 


5 


15.4 


17.6 


17.6 


IS 


4 


18 


3 


Prince George's 


1,418 


1,247 


36.7 


37. 1 


13 


3 


13 


8 


15 


1 


15.5 


20.7 


17.9 


21 


1 


18 


1 


Garrett 


617 


547 


29.2 


36.7 


12 


8 


12 


8 


14 


6 


15.4 


15.2 


17.6 


16 


1 


18 


2 


Charles 


355 


336 


31.8 


36.0 


12 


3 


13 


5 


15 


1 


15.6 


15.8 


17.1 


16 


9 


17 


() 


Calvert 


154 


148 


31.2 


35.8 


12 


4 


12 


4 


14 


8 


14.7 


16. 1 


19.3 


17 


5 


19 


/ 


Kent 


465 


429 


35.3 


34.7 


13 


3 


13 


7 


14 


6 


15.2 


15.8 


16.9 


18 


t 


18. 


(> 


Dorchester 


747 


698 


36.7 


33.8 


12 


9 


13 


5 


15 


2 


15.6 


15.8 


16.0 


18. 


1 


18. 


6 


Cecil 


734 


687 


32.3 


32.5 


11 


5 


12 


4 


15. 


1 


15.3 


16.1 


16.8 


17. 


7 


17. 


9 


Worcester 


674 


606 


27.2 


32.2 


11 


5 


13. 


4 


14. 





14.9 


15.2 


17.5 


15. 


8 


17. 


3 


Montgomery 


1,107 


1,028 


30.5 


31.8 


12. 


3 


13. 


6 


14. 


5 


15. 1 


15.5 


15.7 


16. 


7 


17. 


4 


Howard 


400 


370 


27.3 


30.0 


12. 


5 


13. 


6 


13. 


8 


15.2 


15.7 


16.4 


16. 


6 


17. 


5 


Carroll 


1 ,074 


1,017 


27.8 


29.9 


12. 


5 


12. 


9 


13. 


4 


14.9 


15.4 


16.7 


17. 





17. 


7 


Frederick 


1,707 


1,537 


33.7 


29.2 


13. 





13. 


1 


15. 





14.4 


16.2 


16.5 


17. 


.5 


17. 


7 


St. Mary's 


171 


161 


22.8 


24.2 


12. 


5 


14. 


2 


12. 


7 


14.8 


15.0 


15.8 


15. 





13. 


8 



structure of the written work in their classes. The English 
teachers alone, without the cooperation of teachers of other sub- 
jects, can not bring about an improvement in this fundamental 
necessity. The defects in the writing of high school graduates 
are more often referred to, especially by college authorities, than 
any other lack. If all of the high school teachers are constantly 
conscious of their responsibility in this matter, there is no doubt 
that better English will become more habitual for the high school 
pupils. 

The use of tests in the high schools for diagnostic purposes has 
not been so general as in the elementary schools. Since most of 
the high school teachers are specialists, there is probably no good 
reason why they can not keep in touch with the tests developed 
for their fields of work. The testing program furnishes a basis 
for measuring the effectiveness of their own work, for providing 
remedial measures after diagnosis of the conditions revealed foi* 
the classes and for individual pupils, and for the preparation of 
informal classroom tests. 



TEACHERS NEEDED FOR VARIOUS SUBJECTS 

The county high school teaching staff of 1928-29 included the 
equivalent of full time service of 1,018 teachers, an increase of 
54 over the number the preceding year. Every subject showed 
an increase except Latin which lost one teacher, and agriculture 
in which the number remained stationary. (See Table 77.) 

English, a required subject in all four years of the high school 
courses, needed the full time service of more teachers than any 
other subject — 177, an increase of 8 over the preceding year. 
Science with its laboratory work came second in number of 
teachers, requiring 142, a gain of 7 over 1928. The social studies 
needed 141 teachers on a full time basis, 3 more than last year. 
Mathematics with 138 employed 6 more than during the preced- 
ing year. Latin used 53 teachers on a full time basis and French 
51. Latin was offered in 94 schools and French in 119. (See 
Table 11.) 



TABLE 77 

Number of Teachers Distributed by Hifth School Subjects in 
White County High Schools, Year Endinj» July 31, 1929 



SUBJECTS 


Number of 
Teachers on 
Full-Time 
Basis 
Distributed by 
Time Devoted 
to Different 
Subjects 


Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 


Number of ( 
Special Teach( 
More Than 
Each Wee 

Teachers 


leases Where 
3rs Instruct in 
One School 
i or Term 

Schools 


Approximate 
Number of 

Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 


English 


177.7 
142.0 
140.7 
137.8 
52.6 
50.9 

79.8 
66.3 
a39 . 2 
634.8 
24.9 
18.0 
8.5 

44.8 


152 
152 
149 
152 
94 
119 

54 
105 
72 
cl06 
44 
30 
11 








Science 








Social Studies 








Mathematics 








Latin 








French and Spanish . . . 

Commercial Subjects. . 

Home Economics 

Manual Training 

Music 

Agriculture 

Physical Education . . . 
Library 










( 




20 
17 

d22 
13 
e2 


50 
39 
53 
28 
e2 


83 
a54 
75 
29 
30 


Administration and 
Supervision 








Total 










1,018.0 


152 

















a Includes 4 Teachers of Vocational Industrial Arts. 

b Includes apiiroximately 8 art teachers. 

c Of these 5 schools offer both art and music. 

d Includes orchestra leader in Carroll County who instructs in 10 schools already 
having a regular music teacher. 

e One teaches boys and the other teaches girls in two schools. 



130 



Teaciie;rs Needed for Various High School Subjects 



131 



There were 80 teachers of commercial subjects on a full time 
basis, a gain of 4 over 19,28. Commercial subjects were given in 
54 schools. 

There were 2 more schools which offered home economics in 
1929 than in 1928, 105 in all in the later year. This required 2 
more teachers, making the number on a full time basis 66 in 
1929, although actually 83 different teachers gave instruction in 
the subject. Twenty of the teachers taught in 50 schools spend- 
ing part of each week or each year in each school. 

In manual training and industrial arts, including the voca- 
tional work at Hagerstown, there were 39 teachers on a full time 
basis. Actually the number of different teachers giving some 
instruction in this field was 54, a gain of 4 over 1928. Their 
work was done in 72 schools which meant that 17 of the teachers 
gave instruction in two or more schools each week or year. (See 
Table 77.) 

Full time service of 35 teachers was required for music, al- 
though actually 75 different teachers gave some instruction in 
this field in 106 schools. Of the 75 teachers, 22 taught in two oi* 
more schools. 

The courses given in vocational agriculture required the full 
time service of 25 teachers, although 29 actually gave some in- 
struction in the subject in 44 different schools. Thirteen of the 
teachers gave instruction in 2 or more schools, spending a part of 
each week in each school. (See Tabic 77.) 

There were 30 schools which offered work in physical educa- 
tion, the time given by teachers requiring the services of 18 on 
a full time basis. There were actually 30 teachers who gave 
some time to physical education classes. (See Table 77.) 

Eleven schools, one more than in 1928, had the services of 
librarians in 1929, the full time of 8.5 teachers being given to 
this work. The services of the Maryland Public Library Ad- 
visory Commission are available in the solution of recognized 
library problems and nine schools took advantage of this oppor- 
tunity by receiving supervisory aid from the Director of the 
Commission, Miss Adelene J. Pratt. Miss Pratt oi'ganized and 
catalogued libraries in the schools at Sparks and Parkville in 
Baltimore County, Oxon Hill and Beltsville in Prince George's 
County, and Crisfield in Somerset County. (See Table 77.) 

Administration and supervision took the full time service of 
45 principals in the 152 high schools. In but 7 county high 
schools were there principals who did no teaching. These seven 
schools included the lai-gest high school in Allegany, Anne Arun- 
del, Prince George's, Washington, and Wicomico Counties and 
the 2 largest high schools in Balti more County. In 27 additional 
high schools the principals had a teaching schedule which per- 
mitted them to give at least half of their time to administration 



132 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

and supervision. In the county high schools there were 34 prin- 
cipals who gave one-half or more of their time to work other than 
teaching. (See Table 17.) 

EMPLOYMENT OF CLERKS IN LARGE WHITE COUNTY HIGH 

SCHOOLS 

During the school year 1928-29, clerks were employed in 9 
high schools in 3 Maryland counties. Seven were in Allegany 
County, one in Annapolis, and one in Catonsville. A tenth school 
was added when a clerk was secured for Towson in the fall of 
1929. No school with an enrollment of less than 400 had a clerk 
and half of the ten schools now having clerks had between 1,125 
and 1,700 pupils enrolled. One county superintendent stated 
that it would seem inadvisable to employ a clerk in a school with 
less than 20 teachers. A review of the county schools with 
clerks reveals only two schools. Barton and Bruce in Allegany, 
which fell below this minimum. The salary paid varied from 
$40 to $75 a month. Available information showed clerks were 
high school graduates with commercial training covering a 
period from three months to a year. In only one case did the 
clerk have experience before undertaking the work in the high 
school. 

The duties of the clerk vary considerably in the different 
schools. In every case reported, she is in charge of the princi- 
paFs correspondence, pupils' permanent record cards, and all 
office reports. Included under the last heading are all attend- 
ance, monthly, and annual reports. In Bruce, Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue, and Beall High Schools the reports show that the clerk defi- 
nitely cooperates with the teachers in publishing mimeographed 
forms and bulletins. In a majority of cases, the clerk acts as 
treasurer or bookkeeper for the school, keeping records of sale 
of tickets and materials, as well as the incidental office finances. 
In several of the schools, the clerk takes almost entire charge of 
the office, leaving the principal free to spend more time in the 
supervision of the teaching staff. 

Baltimore City employed 28 clerks in the elementary and high 
schools, 2 in each of the 6 senior high schools, 13 in the junior 
high schools, and 3 in large elementary schools. 

The need for clerical assistance increases with the increasing 
size of the school. An excerpt from the annual report of one 
high school principal expresses his attitude regarding the aid 
furnished by the clerk. *'In March I was given a clerk to relieve 
me of office duties and to allow me to do more supervisory work. 
She proved capable, and I was able to spend during the remain- 
der of the school session about half of my time in supervision of 
class room work. Furthermore, I was able to devote more of my 
time to the larger problems of the school through relief from 
many duties." 



Clerks and Provisional High School Teachers 



133 



MORE WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS HOLD PROVISIONAL 

CERTIFICATES 

There were 93 white high school principals and teachers hold- 
ing provisional certificates in October, 1929, an increase of 10 
over the number reported for the preceding October. This in- 
cludes 8.5 per cent of the total white high school teaching staff — 
an increase of .7 per cent over the preceding year. As in previous 
years, there are twice as many special as academic teachers hold- 
ing provisional certificates — partly a result of the higher stand- 
ards for music and industrial arts teachers which were required 
of new teachers of these subjects entering the service in Septem- 
ber, 1929. 

The number of teachers holding provisional certificates varies 
from 1 in Baltimore, Frederick, Garrett, Talbot and Kent Coun- 
ties to 11 in Allegany and Prince George's. In St. Mary's and 
Calvert, which have very small teaching staffs in the high 
schools, 3 and 2 teachers holding provisional certificates, respec- 
tively, represent 27 and 29 per cent of the entire teaching staffs 
in these counties. (See Table 78.) 



TABLE 78 

Number and Per Cent of Provisionally Certificated White High School 

Principals and Teachers 





Num- 








Num- 








ber 


Per Cent 




ber 


Per Cent 


COUNTY 








COUNTY 










Oct. 


Oct. 


Oct. 




Oct. 


Oct. 


Oct. 




1929 


1928 


1929 




1929 


1928 


1929 


Total 


93 


7.8 


8.5 


MontgomeiT 


8 


14.9 


9.5 










Anne Arundel 


5 


10.2 


10.0 


Baltimore 




4.3 


1.1 


Washington 


8 


7.7 


10.3 






2.7 


1.3 


Worcester 


4 


7.7 


10.3 


Garrett 




.0 


2.8 


Allegany 


11 


7.5 


10.5 


Talbot 




9.4 


3.1 


Charles _. 


9 


18.8 


11.1 


Kent 




4.8 


4.2 


Dorchester 


5 


8.3 


12.5 


Harford 


3 


8.9 


5.9 


Caroline 


4 


7.1 


12.9 


Wicomico 


3 


4.4 


6.7 


Prince George's ... 


11 


13.0 


14.5 


Cecil 


3 


7.5 
14.3 


7.0 


Somerset 


5 


6.9 


16.7 


Queen Anne's 


2 


9.1 


St. Mary's 


3 


18.2 


27.3 


Howard 


2 


12.0 


7.7 


Calvert 


2 


14.3 


28.6 


Carroll 


7 


5.6 


9.3 











The counties at the top of the list, with the exception of Gar- 
rett, have a lower per cent of teachers holding provisional cer- 
tificates than for the year preceding, while those counties at the 
bottom of the list, show increases from October, 1928, to October, 
1929. (See Table 78.) 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS ATTENDING SUMMER SCHOOL 

There was a large increase from 1928 to 1929 in the number of 
county white high school teachers in service in October reported 
by county superintendents as having attended summer school 
the preceding summer. The number in 1929 — 367 — is 71 higher 



134 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



than in 1928, and includes 33.5 per cent of the teaching staff as 
against but 28.4 per cent the preceding year. (See left side of 
Table 79.) 

Caroline, Baltimore, Kent, Allegany, Calvert and Montgomery 
Counties had from 42 to 52 per cent of their white high school 
teaching staff in service in October, 1929, at summer school in 
1929. But four counties, Howard, Worcester, Dorchester and 
Somerset, had fewer than 25 per cent at summer school in 1929. 
Large increases in summer school attendants from 1928 to 1929 
were found in Washington, Montgomery, Baltimore, Allegany, 
Caroline and Anne Arundel Counties. On the other hand, large 
decreases were evident for Dorchester, Somerset and Prince 
George's. (See left side of Table 79.) 

TABLE 79 

County Whiite High School Teachers in Service in October, 1929 Reported by 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1929 



County 



Teachers Employed 
Oct.. 1929 Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1929 



Number 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 
of White 
High 
School 
Teachers 



Total and Average 

Caroline 

Baltimore 

Kent 

Allegany 

Calvert 

Montgomery 

Washington 

Garrett 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

Prince George's. . . , 

Wicomico 

Carroll 

Charles 

Harford 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Frederick 

Howard 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Somerset 



367 


33 


5 


16 


51 


6 




47 


9 


11 


45 


8 


47 


44 


8 


3 


42 


9 


35 


41 


7 


31 


38 


8 


12 


33 


3 


14 


32 


6 


16 


32 





10 


31 


3 


22 


28 


9 


13 


28 


9 


21 


28 





5 


27 


8 


14 


27 


5 


6 


27 


3 


3 


27 


3 


20 


26 


3 


6 


23 


1 


8 


20 


5 


6 


15 





3 


10 






Total 

Johns Hopkins University .... 

University of Maryland 

Columbia 

University of Virginia 

Cornell 

University of Pennsylvania . . . 
George Washington University 
University of West Virginia. . . 

William and Mary 

Pennsylvania State 

Bowling Green 

University of Chicago 

University of Wisconsin 

All Others 



367 

108 
92 
67 
22 
7 
6 
5 
5 
•4 
4 
3 
t3 
3 
*39 



* Includes one teacher who also attended another school for 6 weeks. An individual 
attending two schools is shown twice. 
t Includes a supervisor. 

The Johns Hopkins University and the University of Maryland 
gave courses to 200 of the summer school attendants, while Col- 
umbia University and the University of Virginia had 67 and 22 
attendants, respectively. The remainder went in small groups to 
colleges in neighboring States, and in smaller numbers to col- 
leges further away. (See right side of Table 79.) 



Summer School Attendance, High School Resignations 135 



*SCHOLAUSHIFS FOR SUMMER S( HOOL COURSES IN LIBRARY 

SCIENCE 

Johns Hopkins University, in cooperation with the Enoch 
Pratt Free Library conducts summer courses in Library Science. 
The courses in public and school library methods give a g;eneral 
introduction to beginners, presented from the point of view of 
the smaller library, and covering the elements of book selecting, 
ordering, classification and cataloguing, and are followed by the 
application of these methods to the school library, and a consider- 
ation of such special topics as the librarian's relation to the 
school faculty; the integration of the library's service with class- 
room methods; and the equipment and direction of the school 
library room. Introduction to the more common reference books 
in English gives training in their everyday use in the school 
library. The points covered in library work with children are 
history of children's literature; types, both of poetry and prose; 
editions ; illustrations ; equipment and direction of children's 
rooms ; child psychology and special methods of appeal ; refer- 
ence and circulation routines and materials and story-telling. 

The three scholarships, for these courses, awarded annually by 
the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission w^ent to the 
Librarians at Catonsville High School, the Junior High School of 
Cumberland, and an assistant in the Towson Normal School 
Library. 

TABLE 80 

Estimated Causes of Resignation of White Hip;h School Teachers from 
Maryland County Schools at End of or During 1925-26, 1926-27, 1927-28 



1927-28 



Causes of Resignation 


1925-26 


1926-27 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Teaching in Another State 










or Private School 


/ 66 




43 


26.9 


Other School Positions in State 


\ 


1 52 


5 


3.1 


Marriage 


46 


42 


42 


26.2 


Work Other than Teaching 


18 


23 


21 


13.1 


Dropped for Inefficiency 


20 


20 


21 


13.1 


Illness 


6 


5 


5 


3 1 


Moved Away 


10 


6 


3 


1.9 






3 


2 


1.3 


Death 


3 


1 


2 


13 


Provisional Certificate or Failure to Attend 










Summer School 


11 


5 


2 


13 


Other and Unknown 


14 


14 


14 


8.7 


Total 


194 


171 


160 


100 


Leave of Absence 


7 


13 


8 




Transfer to Another Countv 


47 


39 


38 





♦ Prepared by Adelene J. Pratt, Director, Maryland Public Library Advisory Com- 
mission. 



136 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



FEWER RESIGNATIONS FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

Resignations from the white high schools have decreased 
steadily in the past three years from 194 and 171 to 160 between 
October, 1927 and October, 1928. Resignations of 43 teachers 
from county high schools were due to taking positions in other 
states and private schools, and 5 left to take administrative and 
supervisory positions in the State or counties. Marriage took 
42 teachers out of the county high schools. There were 21 who 
took up work other than teaching and an equal number was 
dropped for inefficiency. The county high schools lost 12 teach- 
ers because of illness, death, retirement, and the moving away of 
their families. The county superintendents dropped 2 because 
they held provisional certificates or failed to attend summer 
school. (See Table 80.) 

In addition to the above resignations, 8 teachers took leave of 
absence from the white county high schools and 38 left positions 
in one county to teach in another county. (See Table 80.) 

Resignations varied from 16 in Allegany, 12 in Baltimore and 



TABLE 81 

Causes of Resignation from Maryland County White High Schools During 

and at End of School Year 1927-28 



COUNTY 


Total Number 
Resignations t 


Teaching in 
Another State or 
Private School 


Marriage 


Work Other 
Than Teaching 


Dropped for 
Inefficiency 


Illness 


Other Positions 1 
in State j| 


Moved Away 


Retirement 


Death 


Prov. Certificate 
or Failure to 
Attend Summer 
School 


Other and 
Unknown 


*Leave of 
Absence 


*To Another 
County 


Total 1928 


tl60 


43 


42 


21 


21 


5 


5 


3 


2 


2 


2 


14 


8 


38 




16 


8 


1 


1 


5 














1 


1 


2 




6 


1 


2 


2 


1 




















Baltimore 


12 




2 




4 


1 


2 






1 




2 




2 


Calvert 


2 




1 


1 




















2 




4 


2 






1 


1 














1 




Carroll 


11 


1 


7 




1 








1 






1 


1 


5 


Cecil 


8 


2 


2 




2 










1 


1 




1 




























1 


Dorchester 


7 


3 




2 


1 














1 








12 


5 


■ '4' 


2 


1 


















Garrett 


9 


4 


4 


















1 


1 


2 


Harford 


8 


1 


3 


2 
















2 




1 


Howard 


5 


1 


2 


1 




1 
















2 


























1 






6 






2 


1 






3 










1 




Prince George's 


11 


2 


3 


2 




1 


2 










1 


1 


1 


Queen Anne's 


4 


2 


1 


1 




















1 


St. Mary's 


2 












1 








1 




1 


2 




4 


2 




1 


1 




















Talbot 


8 


2 


i 


1 


1 








1 






2 




1 




11 


6 


2 


2 
















1 




5 




7 




2 


1 


2 














2 




4 




7 


1 


5 




1 


















6 

































t Total excludes teachers on leave of absence and transfers to another county. 



Resignations and Turnover in White High Schools 



137 



Frederick, 11 from Carroll, Prince George's, and Washington, to 
none in Charles and Kent Counties. Allegany and Washington 
Counties lost the largest number to other states and private 
schools. Carroll lost the largest number because of marriage. 
Allegany and Baltimore Counties dropped 5 and 4 teachers, re- 
spectively, because of inefficiency. Three teachers moved away 
from Montgomery County. (See Table 81.) 

Worcester had 6 teachers leave who took positions in other 
counties, Carroll and Washington each lost 5 by transfer, and 
Wicomico 4. Seven counties lost no teachers because they took 
positions in other counties and each of the remaining counties 
lost 1 or 2 teachers. (See Table 81.) 



TURNOVER IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS REDUCED 

To take care of 61 additional positions due to increased enroll- 
ment and to fill vacancies due to resignations other than those 
created by teachers who left one county to go to another, the 
county white high schools needed 231 teachers at the beginning 
of the school year 1928-29. This was smaller than the number 
required in the two years preceding, 240 and 260, respectively. 
Of those new to the counties in October, 1928, 147 were inexperi- 
enced teachers recently graduated from college, 56 had had prev- 
ious experience in other states, 20 had previously taught in 
county high schools but were not in service there in 1927-28, and 
8 were previously teachers in the county elementary schools. 
(See Tables 82 and 83.) 



October 

1926 

1927 

1928 



New to Maryland 
Counties 

Per 

No. Cent 



260 
240 
231 



28.4 
24.6 
22.3 



TABLE 82 



Change in 
No. of 
Teaching" 
Positions 

124 

62 
61 



Number New to Counties, 
Who Were 

Experienced 

But Not 
in Md. County 
Inexpe- High Schools 
rienced Preceding Year 
166 94 
153 87 
147 84 



Including the transfers from one county to another, the coun- 
ties varied in the percentage of white high school teachers 
new to the county from 5 per cent in Kent to 57 per cent in Cal- 
vert. Calvert, St. Mary's, and Garrett had over 50 per cent of 
their high school teaching staffs new to the count v. (See Table 
83.) 

The counties varied in the number of inexperienced teachers 
employed from none in Kent, 2 in Calvert and St. ]\Iary's, to 9 in 
Frederick, Carroll, Cecil, and Worcester, 10 in Baltimore and 
Harford, and 11 in Allegany. Washington County employed 11 



138 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



teachers who had had experience in other states before coming 
to Maryland, Montgomery 8, Prince George's 7, Anne Arundel 5, 
and Allegany, Garrett, and Talbot 4 each. (See Table 83.) 

Allegany employed 6 teachers who had previously taught in 
Maryland but who were not in service in 1927-28. 



TABLE 83 

Number and Per Cent of White Hifth School Teachers New to Maryland 
Counties in October, 1928, Showin" Those Inexperienced, 
Experienced and from Other Counties 



County 


New to 
County 


Change in 

No. of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1927- 
Oct., 1928 


Number 

In- 
experi- 
enced 


New to County Oct., 1928 
who were Experienced 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


But 
New 

to 
State 


In 

Counties 
but not in 

Service 
1927-1928 


In Ele- 
men- 
tary 

Schools 


From 
other 
coun- 
ties 



Total and 








Average . . . 


t269 


25. 


9 


Kent 


1 


4. 


8 


Caroline 


5 


17. 


9 


Frederick 


15 


18. 


9 


Howard 


5 


20. 





Baltimore 


19 


20. 


4 


Wicomico 


9 


20 





Somerset 


6 


20 


7 


Allegany 


22 


20 


8 


Dorchester .... 


8 


22 


2 


Queen Anne's . . 


5 


23 


8 


Anne Arundel. . 


12 


24 


5 


Carroll 


18 


25 





Charles 


4 


25 





Prince George's 


18 


26 


1 


Washington . . . 


22 


29 


3 


Montgomery, . . 


22 


29 


7 


Cecil 


12 


30 


.0 


Harford 


15 


33 


.3 


Worcester 


13 


33 


.3 


Talbot 


11 


34 


.4 


Garrett 


18 


54 


.6 


St. Mary's 


5 


55 


.6 


Calvert 


4 


57 


.2 



61 



+ 1 

+ 2 



+ 2 



+ 4 
+ 1 
— 1 

+ 8 

+ 1 

+ 3 

+ 4 

+ 7 

+ 15 

+ 3 
+ 4 
+ 2 
+ 3 

+ 2 



147 



o 
9 
4 
10 



11 
7 

3 

5 
9 
4 
7 
8 

8 
9 
10 
9 
6 

7 
2 
2 



56 
1 



5 
2 

'7" 
11 

8 
2 



20 



8 



38 



2 
4 
2 



1 
1 

2 

1 

3 

3 
1 



1 

4 
4 
1 

6 
1 
1 



flncludes 38 transfers from county to county, making the per cent new to the high 
schools of the 23 counties as a whole 22.3. Eight transfers from elementary school are 
also included reducing the per cent of high school teachers new to the 23 counties as a 
whole to 21.5. 



Inexperienced and Out of State Teachers in White High Schools 139 



Garrett employed 6 teachers who transferred from other coun- 
ties, Harford, Frederick, and Worcester 4 each, and Carroll and 
Prince George's 3 each. (See Table 83.) 

Inexperienced and Out of State Teachers 

Of the 147 inexperienced teachers employed in Maryland coun- 
ties in October, 1928, 106 or 7,2 per cent received their training 
in colleges of Maryland. Western Maryland trained 37 of this 
group, the University of Maryland 27, Goucher 15, Hood 11, 
Washington College 7, St. Joseph's 3, St. John's 2, and the re- 
maining schools 1 each. Of the 41 remaining, 9 received their 
training in colleges of Pennsylvania, 5 in New York State 
schools, 4 each in Washington, D. C. and Virginia, 3 in Delaware, 
2 each in Kentucky and Ohio, and the training of the remainder 
had been taken in a number of different states. (See Table 84.) 

TABLE 84 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended, by Inexperi- 
enced White High School Teachers Employed in Maryland 
Counties in October 1928 



STATE OF 
COLLEGE 
ATTENDED 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


>. 

£ 
c 

O 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Hi 
(0 

e 

c 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total 

Maryland .... 
West. Md . . 
Un.of Md.. 
Goucher. . . . 
Hood 


147 


11 


5 


10 


2 
2 
2 


5 


9 


9 

5 
1 
2 
2 


4 
2 

1 


7 


9 


7 


10 


4 


8 


7 


3 


2 


5 


6 


8 


7 


9 


106 
37 
27 
15 
11 
7 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
9 
5 
4 
4 
3 
2 
2 

7 


5 
3 

1 
1 


2 
1 


6 
1 
2 
2 


5 
2 


8 
7 


7 
3 
1 

1 
2 


7 
1 
5 


7 
1 
2 
2 


10 
2 
4 
2 


3 
1 
2 


2 

1 
1 


7 
2 
3 
2 


2 
1 


1 


4 
1 

3 


4 
2 

2 


5 
1 
1 
1 

2 


6 
4 
1 

1 


6 
4 
2 






1 








Washington 
St. Joseph's 
St. John's. . 
J. H. U. . . 
Blue Ridge . 
Notre Dame 
TowsonN.S. 

Pennsylvania 

New York. . . . 

Wash.,D.C... 

Virginia 








2 


1 
1 










1 




















1 








1 
















1 




1 






































1 




























1 


















































1 


















































1 




















3 
1 


1 


1 
1 






1 


1 






1 
















1 


2 




1 






































4 
2 
















1 


































1 




Delaware .... 
Kentucky. . . . 
Ohio 








1 


1 


















1 




































1 


1 




1 
















1 






















Arkansas 






























1 








Georgia 




1 








































Indiana 










1 


































1 
1 










































W. Va 












































Unknown .... 


1 


1 








1 






1 






1 








1 










1 























140 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Of the 56 teachers who entered the service in Maryland coun- 
ties in October, 1928, after having taught in other states, 13 had 
been trained in Maryland colleges, 11 in colleges of Virginia, 6 
in Pennsylvania schools, and the remainder were scattered in 
many states. As stated before, Montgomery, Washington, and 
Prince George's employed most of the teachers who received 
their training and experience prior to teaching in Maryland out- 
side of the state. (See Table 85.) 

TABLE 85 

State of College Attended by Experienced White High School Teachers 
Employed in Maryland Counties in October, 1928, Who Had Had 
Their Teaching Experience in Other States 



state of 

COLLEGE 
ATTENDED 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundol 


o 
_S 

'3 

ca 


Calvert 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Kent 


>i 
i-i 

u 

c 

5 

c 
o 


ja 
'a) 
M 

o 

o 


St. Mary's 


Talbot 


c 
o 

IS 

OQ 


Total 

Maryland 


56 


4 


5 


3 


1 


2 


2 


3 


4 


1 


8 


7 


1 


4 


11 


13 
11 
6 
2 
3 
2 
3 
2 
2 


1 
1 


2 




1 






2 


1 

2 


1 


1 
1 
1 


2 






4 
3 
2 


Virginia 


1 
1 






2 


Pennsylvania 












1 
1 
1 


1 


Washington, D. C 


1 














Tennessee 
















1 
1 
1 






1 


West Virginia 
























New York 














1 








1 


1 


North Carolina 




1 


































2 








Colorado 




















1 








Delaware 
























1 




Florida 




1 


















1 




Georgia 
























Kentucky 


1 




























Massachusetts 




1 
























Maine 














1 














New Jersey 












1 
















Oklahoma 


1 


























Vermont 










1 


















Connecticut 






1 
1 






















Texas 

























































In order to keep positions filled when teachers resigned dur- 
ing the school year 1928-29 and to take care of new positions 
created, it was necessary to employ 43 high school teachers in 
addition to the number of teaching positions. Six counties 
needed no additional appointees, seven needed only 1 each, four 
employed 2 additional, one county 3 additional, Allegany and 



Experience of White High School Teachers 



141 



Carroll 4 each, Frederick and Garrett 5, and Baltimore County 7. 
Charles, Kent, Garrett, and St. Mary's had the largest percentage 
of change in their staffs during the school year. (See Table 86.) 

TABLE 86 

Number and Per Cent of White Hi^h School Teachers Employed in Excess 
of the Number of Teaching? Positions in Order that Positions Be 
Kept Filled During the School Year Ending July 31, 1929 



County 



REPLACEMENTS 
Number Per Cent 



Total and Average 43 4.3 

Calvert 

Dorchester. . .- 

Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Washington 1 1.4 

Prince George's 1 1.5 

Anne Arundel 1 2.1 

Cecil 1 2.5 

Worcester 1 2.G 



County 

Caroline. . . 
Allegany. . 
Howard . . . 
Harford. . . 
Carroll. . . . 
Frederick . . 
Somerset . . 
Baltimore . 
Charles. . . 

Kent 

Garrett . . . 
St. Mary's. 



REPLACEMENTS 
Number Per Cent 



3.5 
3.7 
4.2 
4.4 
5.8 
6.8 
0.9 
7.0 
12.5 
14.0 
14. G 
22.2 



EXPERIENCE OF WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

For the 1,093 teachers in service in county white high schools 
in October, 1929, the median experience was 4.5 years, an in- 
crease of .2 over October, 1928. In four counties, Calvert, St. 
Mary's, Howard, and Cecil, one half of the high school teachers 
employed in October, 1929, had had less than 3 years' experience. 
This means that the turnover of high school teachers in these 
counties is particularly high and their schools serve as training 
centers for many young teachers who leave as soon as they can 
obtain positions elsewhere. 

At the other extreme, high school teachers in Queen Anne's, 
Kent, Baltimore, and Allegany Counties stay on in the service of 
these counties, for one half of their teachers have had experience 
of at least 6 to 8 years. 

Up to the fourth year of experience the number of teachers 
having had no experience, one year, two and three years, is con- 
siderably lower for each succeeding year of experience. The num- 
ber having had 4, 5 and 6 years of experience is practically the 
same, which would indicate that most of the teachers who* have 
remained in the county high schools for four years are likely to 
continue in this field of work. 

Of the 1,093 county white high school teachers in service in 
October, 1929, 412, or 38 per cent, had had less than 3 vears of 
experience; 554, or 50 per cent, had had from 3 to 15 vears of 
service, and 127, or 12 per cent, had been teaching more' than 15 
years. (See Table 87.) 



142 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



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Experience and Sex ok W ihtk High School Teachers 



14a 



MORE MEN TEACHING IN HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number of men teachin«: in county white hi^h schools 
shows the continued steady increase noted since 192o. In 1929 
an increase of 15 over the previous year brought the number of 
men teacliing* to 348, or 34.5 per cent of the county white high 
school teaching staff. (See Tabic 88.) 

TABLE 88 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County White High Schools 



Year Number Per Cent Year Number Per Cent 

1923 253 36.9 1927 307 33.7 

1924 271 36.2 1928 333 34.3 

1925 283 35.1 1929 348 34.4 

1926 303 35.0 



The counties vary greatlj^ in the proportion of men teachers 
employed, from 17 per cent in Anne Arundel and 24 and 25 per 
cent in Baltimore and Prince George's, to 49 and 57 per cent, re- 
spectively, in St. Mary's and Calvert Counties. In the two last 
named counties the high schools are small, having but two 
teachers in most cases. (See Table 89.) 



TABLE 89 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Emph)yed in County White Hi^h 

Schools for Year Endinj; July 31, 1929 



COUNTY 



Total and Average 

Anne Arundel .... 

Baltimore 

Prince George's. . . 

Cecil 

Montgomery 

Worcester 

Talbot 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Somonsot 

Frederick 



Men Teachino 



Number Per Cent 



348 . 3 
8 

22.3 

17 

12 

17 

12 

10 

7 

7 
10 

25.6 



34.5 



17 

24 
25 
30 
30 
31 
31 .8 
32 . (•) 
33 . 3 
34 . 5 
34 . (5 



COUNTY 



Dorchester . 
Harford . . . 
Charles . . . . 
Howard . . . . 
Wicomico. . 
.■\llcgany . . . 
Clarrctt . . . . 

Carroll 

Washington 
Caroline . . . . 
St . Mary's . 
Calvert . . . . 



Men Teachinc 



Number Per Cent 



13 
16. 

6 

9 
17 
43 
14 
28 
33 
13 

4 

4 



For counties arranged alphabetically see Table VIII, page 315. 

High schools having a larger proportion of men on the staff 
may make a greater appeal to boys than those which have a snuill 
proportion of men teachers. 



144 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



NUMBER OF APPROVED HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 151 approved white high schools in the counties 
for the school year 1928-29, 141 of the first group and 10 of the 
second. One school whose work was approved but whose enroll- 
ment was too low to permit an appropriation from State-aid for 
second group schools is excluded. The only change from the pre- 
ceding year is a decrease in second group schools. (See Table 
90.) 

TABLE 90 

Number of Approved High Schools in Maryland Counties, 1920-1929 



Year 


White High Schools 


Colored High Schools 


Total 


Group 


Group 

o2 


Total 


Group 


Group 

"2 



82 


*69 


tl3 


4 




t4 


115 


*92 


t23 


5 




t5 


127 


*103 


t24 


6 


*4 


t2 


139 


*117 


t22 


9 


*7 


t2 


142 


*120 


t22 


13 


*8 


t5 


148 


*130 


tl8 


16 


*11 


t5 


150 


*136 


tl4 


16 


*12 


t4 


152 


*137 


tl5 


19 


*13 


t6 


153 


141 


12 


21 


14 


7 


§151 


141 


§10 


24 


14 


10 


69 


72 


-3 


20 


14 


6 



1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

Increase over 1920 



** First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and 
two teachers. They give a four-year course. 

Second fjrroul) schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12, and 
one teacher. They t?ive a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore County givinp: a one-year 
course are classi ed aas second Rroup schools, as is also the Green Street Junior High School, 
which has grades 7 to 9, inclusive. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 
t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

§ Excludes one school approved for its work but not given State-aid because of low 
enrollment. 

For individual high schools see Table XXXVII, pages 352-357. 

When distributed by counties the only changes in white high 
schools from the preceding year were the abandonment of the 
second group school at Winfield in Carroll County and of Ger- 
mantown in Montgomery County, the omission of the Eldorado 
second group school from Dorchester because of small enroll- 
ment, and the addition of a second group school at Kempton in 
Garrett and one at Old Post Road in Harford County. (See 
Table 91.) 

A map showing the distribution of first and second group high 
schools in the counties is included as Chart 16. 



Number of Approved White High Schools 



145 



TABLE 91 

Number of Approved High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1929 



County 



Number of Approved High Schools 



White 



Total 



Group 



Colored 



Total 



Group 



Total Counties. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett . 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Marj-'s 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



flol 

11 
4 

10 
3 
6 

11 
8 
4 

t6 
9 
6 
9 
6 
4 
9 
9 
5 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 



tl56 



141 

10 
4 
6 
3 
6 

11 
8 
4 
6 
8 
5 
7 
5 
4 
9 
9 
5 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 



146 



tio 

i 


24 

1 
1 


14 

1 
1 

1 


10 




4 












1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 






1 




1 
1 
1 
1 






t 
1 
1 
2 
1 




















1 
1 
3 
1 


1 






1 
2 
1 




1 










2 
2 
1 
2 
3 

1 


2 
1 
1 
1 






1 






1 

3 






1 






tio 


25 


15 


10 



* Junior high school. 

t Excludes one high school receiving no State aid because of low enrollment. 

RELATION OF ENROLLMENT AND TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY 

WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
One half of the county white high schools had less than 90 
pupils belonging on the average and less than 5 teachers. Sixty- 
seven schools had over 100 pupils belonging on the average. 
There was a decrease in the number of high schools with 2 and 3 
teachers and an increase in the number with 4 and 5 teachers. 
The distribution of enrollment and teaching staff for the 9 
schools having an enrollment over 500 and 25 or more teachers 
is given in a note. (See Table 92.) 



146 1929 Report of State Department of Education 




Relation of Enrollment to High School Teaching Staff 147 



The wide range in the provision of teachers is evident for the 
37 schools with an average number belonging ranging from 51 
to 75. Five of these schools had .2 teachers and 5 had 5 teachers, 
while 16 had 4, and 11 had 3 teachers. The maximum State aid 
available for a school with this enrollment includes provision for 
3 academic teachers and 1 special teacher. On the other hand, 
the enrollment for which 4 teachers were provided, varied from 
1 school with from 26 to 40 pupils belonging to 4 with from 101 
to 125 pupils. A similar variation is found for schools having 
7 teachers. (See Table 92.) 



TABLE 92 

Relation of Teaching StaflF and Size of Enrollment (Average Number Be- 
longing) in Maryland County High Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1929 



Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Number of Teachers Employed in White Approved 
High Schools 


Total 
No. 
Schools 


*1 


*2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


1 

9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 + 


15 or less 


1 

5 












































1 

5 
11 
15 
37 
16 
15 
8 
10 
8 
2 
1 
3 
5 
2 
2 


16- 25 












































26- 40 


6 
7 

5 


4 
6 
11 


1 

2 
16 
7 
4 






































41- 50 








































51- 75 




5 
6 
8 
2 




































76-100 




2 
2 
2 


1 
1 

4 

5 
3 
































101-125 






































126-150 






































151-175 










3 
2 


2 
1 


2 
1 


























176-200 






































201-225 














1 

1 
3 
2 
























226-250 








































251-275 












































276-300 




















1 




2 




















301-325 




















1 


1 
1 
















326-350 
























1 


















351-375 






































376-400 


































1 


1 










2 


401-425 










































426-450 
















































451-475 
















































476-500 
















































Over 500 












































t9 


9 


Total 












































6 


18 


21 


30 


21 


6 


14 


5 


3 


4 


7 


1 


2 


1 


2 




1 


1 








9 


152 











* Represents mid point of interval. 



t Includes grades 7. 8, and 9 of Green St. Junior High School. Details as follows for 



the 9 schools: 


















No. Belonging 


Total 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 31 


32 


576-600 


1 






1 










601-625 


2 


i 








i 






651-675 


1 


1 














676-700 


Z 






i 


1 








701-725 


1 












1 




801-825 


1 












1 


1076-1100 


1 















Total 2 .. 2 1 1 1 1 

For individual high schools, see Table XXXVII. pages 352-357. 



1 



148 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

BASIS OF ALLOWANCE OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL AID 

The size of the enrollment and attendance and the number of 
academic and special teachers employed determine the allotment 
of State aid to high schools. The maximum allowance possible, 
provided the salaries paid are at least double the amount avail- 
able for State aid, viz., $900 for the principal, $600 for each of the 
first two academic teachers, $450 for the third academic teacher, 
$450 for each of the first two special teachers, are shown in Table 
93. 

TABLE 93 



State Aid to High Schools — Section 197 of School Law 









Number of 




MAXIMUM AMOUNT 








Academic 


Number 


OF STATE AID FOR 


Number of 


Average 


Teachers 


of 




Pupils 




Daily 


Including 


Special 


Academic Special 


Enrolled 


Attendance 


Principal 


Teachers 


Teachers Teachers 








First Group Schools 




OA 


54 


25 — 47 


2 


.4 


$1 500 $180 


55 — 


89 


48 — 79 


3 


1 


2 100 450 


90— 


124 


80 — 109 


4 


2 


2 550 900 


125— 


159 


110 — 143 


5 


23^ 


2 700 975 


160— 


194 


144—174 


6 


3 


2,850 1,050 


195— 


229 


175 — zOO 


7 




o nnA 1 1 0K 
o,U00 1 , Izo 


230— 


264 


% OAT OOT 

1 207 — 237 


8 


4 


O 1 KA 1 OAA 

3,150 1,^0U 


265— 


299 


238 — 269 


9 


4M 


O QAA 1 OQT KA 

o , oUU 1 , Zo/ . OU 


300— 


334 


270—300 


10 


4^ 


3,450 1,275 


335— 


369 


301—332 


11 ""A 


43^ 


3,600 1,302.50 


370— 


404 


333—363 


12 


5 


$5,000 


405— 


439 


364—395 


13 




nnn 
.) , uuu 


440— 


474 


396—426 


14 




5,000 


475— 


509 


427—458 


15 




5,000 


510— 


544 


459—489 


16 


6 


5,000 


545— 


579 


490—521 


17 




5,000 


580— 


614 


522—553 


18 • 


63^ 


5,000 


615— 


649 


554—584 


19 




5,000 


650— 


684 


585—616 


20 


7 


5,000 


685— 


719 


617—647 


21 




5,000 


720— 


754 


648—679 


22 


m 


5,000 


755— 


789 


680—710 


23 




5,000 


790— 


824 


711—742 


24 


8 


5,000 


825— 


859 


743—773 


25 


8^ 


5,000 


860— 


894 


774—805 


26 


8^ 


5,000 


895— 


929 


806—836 


27 


8M 


5,000 


930— 


964 


837—868 


28 


9 


5,000 


965— 


999 


869—899 


29 


9^ 


5,000 


1,000—1 


,035 


900—932 


30 




5,000 


Baltimore City Senior High Schools 




6,000 








Second Group Schools 




15 




12 


1 




650 



State Aid and Sizk of Class White High Schools 



149 



MORE PUPILS PER TEACHER IN HIGH SCHOOL 

The average number belonging per county white high school 
teacher for the school year 1929 was 21.5, an increase of .5 over 
the number in 1928. The number per teacher varied from 16.6 
in Carroll to 27.0 in Baltimore County. The number of teachers 
used as a divisor in Baltimore County includes the time of P. A. L. 
leaders who conducted regular classes in physical education. If 
they are excluded the average per teacher is 28.7. The counties 
at the top of the chart have a number of schools which are un- 
derstaffed, if the provisions of the law and by-law are considered 



CHART 17 



AVERAGE limiBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH XHOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 

i3altlinore 
Washington 

WlCOTliCO 

Somerset 

Frederick 
Calvert 

Kent 
Charles 

Caroline 
Allegany 
Harford 
Jt. Mary's 
Dorchester 
Anne Arundel 
Prince George's 19.6 
Montgomery 2 0. 9 

Queen Anne 's 
Talbot 
Cecil 
Garrett 
Worcester 
Howard 
Carroll 

Baltimore City 23.8 
State 21.3 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIII, page 320. 



150 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



the standard requirement in providing teachers. Except for 
eight counties, Charles, Montgomery, Garrett, Worcester, Anne 
Arundel, Harford, Washington, and Somerset, the number of 
pupils per teacher in individual counties was higher in 1929 than 
in 1928. (See Chart 17.) 

Carroll County provided special teachers of music, manual 
training or agriculture, home economics, and commercial subjects 
for all of its high schools, which naturally decreased the enroll- 
ment per teacher. In allowing for State high school aid and in 
calculating the State Equalization Fund, no appropriation is 
made for teachers in excess of the number indicated as allowed 
for in Table 93. 

All the four counties at the bottom of Chart 17 employed 
teachers of vocational agriculture and home economics. One half 
of their salaries was paid from the funds furnished by the Fed- 
eral Government. These counties also had music taught in most 
of their high schools. The superintendents of these counties be- 
lieve that the high school pupils in small schools should not be 
deprived of instruction in the special subjects merely because the 
high school they attend is small. Another factor which keeps the 
classes small in Carroll and Worcester is the use of old buildings 
which have small rooms. In Worcester the new buildings now 
under construction will make possible larger classes, but for Car- 
roll there seems little chance in the immediate future for modem 
buildings, since a bond issue has not been authorized by the legis- 
lature. (See Chart 17.) 

SALARIES INCREASE SLIGHTLY IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

With teachers of more years of experience due to a lower turn- 
over, it is to be expected that the average salary per teacher in 
county white high schools will show a gain from 1928 to 1929. 
The average per teacher and principal in 1929 was $1,557, an in- 
crease of $13 over 1928. The gradual increase in the average 
salary from 1917 to 1929 is shown in Table 94. 



TABLE 94 

Average Salary Per County White High School Teacher 1917-1929 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


High School 


High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


$ 798 
841 
908 
1,017 
1,289 
1,345 
1,436 


1924 


SI, 477 
1,485 
1,517 
1,534 
1,544 
1,557 


1918 


1925 


1919 


1926 


1920 


1927 


1921 


1928 


1922 


1929 


1923 





Size of Class and Salary Whiti: High Schools 



151 



Average salaries in the individual counties ranged from $1,378 
in Wicomico at the bottom of the chart to $1,887 in Baltimore 
County at the top. All of the counties except Wicomico, Dor- 
chester, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Harford, Charles, and Wash- 
ington had higher salaries in 1929 than in 1928. The largest 
increases occurred in Howard, Cecil, Montgomery, and Anne 
Arundel Counties. The average salary in senior high schools in 
Baltimore City was $1,000 higher than that in the average 
county. (See Chart 18.) 



CHART 18 



AVERAGIi SALARY PER TEACiDiR Bi WHITL HIGH SCHOOLS 



Co'onty 


1926 


1927 


1920 


Co. iverace 


♦1517 $1534 11544 | 


Baltimore 


1798 


1842 


1867 1 


Allegany 


1622 


1656 


1629 1 


Anne Arundel 


1522 


1496 


1593 1 


^;onteoraery 


1634 


1553 


1567 1 


Queen Anne '3 


1522 


1557 


1590 1 


Frederick 


1559 


1593 


1579 1 


Washington 


1510 


1545 


1602 1 


Charles 


1612 


1508 


1546 1 


Harford 


1527 


1495 


1524 1 


Carroll 


1451 


14?7 


1507 1 


Garrett 


146d 


1525 


1467 1 


Talbot 


1530 


1460 


1476 1 


Howard 


1437 


1395 


1403 1 


Carol Ine 


1427 


1447 


1478 1 


Calvert 


1401 


1469 


1431 1 


St. Kary'a 


1335 


1407 


1427 1 


Kent 


1423 


1344 


1392 1 


Pr. George's 


1414 


1453 


1449 1 


>Doreh03ter 


1443 


1434 


1454 1 


Cecil 


1409 


1416 


1364 1 


Worcester 


1423 


1452 


1^22 1 


Somerset 


1376 


1393 


1419 1 


Wleomloo 


1334 


1333 


1373 1 


Balto. City 


E684 


E572 


E530 1 


State 


1834 


1809 


1816 1 



1 88? 



1640 



1619 



1598 



1592 



1552 



IS44 



1517 



1498 



I4B6 



1484 



I4?'8 



I47S 



1467 



1464 



1456 



1453 



1446 



1446 



1432 



1424 



1378 



2579 



For counties arianKetl aliiliabetically, see Table XIV. i)aKC :V2l. 



152 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Distribution of Salaries in October, 1929 

The distribution of salaries of 949 assistant teachers em- 
ployed in county white high schools in October, 1929, showed a 
range from $950 to $2,900 with a median salary of $1,350. The 
mode fell at $1,200. These averages are the same as those for 
October, 1928. The salaries of teachers of vocational agricul- 
ture include an allowance for expense of travelling between 
schools. Most of the salaries found in the upper ranges are for 
these teachers of vocational agriculture. (See Table 95.) 

TABLE 95 

Distribution of Salaries of White High School Teachers in Service 

October, 1929 



ASSISTANT TEACHERS PRINCIPALS 



$ 950 




$1 


850 


13 


$1 


500 


2 


$2,400 


10 


or less 


*1S 


1 


900 


20 


1 


550 


4 


2,450 




1,000 


5 


1 


950 




1 


600 


1 


2,500 


14 


1,050 


1 


2 


000 


30 


1 


650 


3 


2,550 




1,100 


2 


2 


050 


2 


1 


700 


2 


2,600 


2 


1,150 


31 


2 


100 


5 


1 


750 


3 


2,650 


2 


1,200 


154 


2 


150 


1 


1 


800 


6 


2,700 


8 


1,250 


112 


2 


200 


3 


1 


850 


10 


2,750 


1 


1,300 


103 


2 


250 


1 


1 


900 


5 


2,800 


3 


1,350 


94 


2 


300 


3 


1 


950 


9 


2,850 




1,400 


94 


2 


350 


1 


2 


000 


8 


2,900 


5 


1,450 


27 


2 


400 


6 


2 


050 


2 


2,950 




1,500 


77 


2 


450 




2 


100 


7 


3,000 


7 


1,550 


24 


2 


500 


3 


2 


150 


4 


3,050 


1 


1,600 


48 


2 


600 




2 


200 


7 




1,650 


7 


2 


700 




2 


250 


4 


3,250 


1 


1,700 


25 


2 


800 


2 


2 


300 


5 


3,500 


5 


1,750 


8 


2 


900 


1 


2 


350 


1 


3,600 


3 


1,800 


33 


















Total , 








949 




Total 






145 


Median . 








$1,350 




Median . 






$2,200 















* Includes eleven paid-time teachers. 



For high school principals, whose salaries ranged from $1,500 
to $3,600, the median salary was $2,200, slightly higher than for 
a year ago. The modal salary fell at $2,500. Salaries, of course, 
vary with size of school, so that it is natural to find such a wide 
spread in the amounts paid. The maximum, according to the 
State schedule, is $2,350. (See Table 95.) 

It is interesting to find that the counties are paying in excess 
of the minimum prescribed in the law for 434 assistant teachers 
and 62 high school principals, or to over 40 per cent of the entire 
number. This probably indicates a need for revision of the 
State's minimum salary schedule for high school teachers and 
principals. (See Table 95.) 



CURRENT EXPENSE COST PER COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL 

PUPIL $96 

The cost of educating the average pupil belonging in the Mary- 
land county white high schools in 1929, exclusive of general con- 
trol costs, charges for debt service and capital outlay, was $96, 
an increase of 8 cents over 1928. Expenditures ranged from $81 
in Washington County to $116 in Garrett. Eight counties — Gar- 
rett, Worcester, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, Carroll, Calvert, 
Howard and Allegany, had costs over $104, while six counties, 

CHART 19 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL BLLONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GblNERAL CONTROL 



County 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Co. Average 


1 97 


$ 98 


1 96 


Garrett 


109 


115 


105 


Worcester 


105 


106 


107 


Montgomery 


97 


94 


97 


Queen Anne*s 


124 


112 


112 


Carroll 


135 


128 


125 


Calvert 


108 


104 


88 


Howard 


102 


101 


116 


lllegany 


111 


128 


108 


Anne Arundel 


92 


75 


&J 


Cecil 


09 


97 


97 


Dorchester 


99 


99 


98 


Talbot 


112 


107 


102 


Somerset 


92 


90 


87 


Kent 


111 


96 


95 


Baltimore 


94 


96 


94 


Charles 


78 


78 


79 


Pr. George's 


93 


103 


93 


Harford 


84 


86 


82 


Caroline 


98 


99 


97 


Frederick 


86 


87 


85 


St. Mary's 


58 


83 


88 


Wicomico 


94 


89 


91 


Washington 


67 


76 


77 


Balto. City 


136 


137 


137 


State 


109 


110 


108 



153 



154 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



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02 



Cost Per Pupil in White High Schools 



155 



Washington, Wicomico, St. Mary's, Frederick, Caroline and Har- 
ford, spent less than $86 per white high school pupil. One-half 
of the counties showed increases in cost, and the remainder de- 
creases from 1928 to 1929. (See Chart 19 and Table 96.) 

Salary Cost Per Pupil Lower 

Salary costs per pupil belonging vary with the relationship be- 
tween number of pupils and number of teachers — i. e., size of 
class, number of special subjects offered, and salary per teacher. 
The latter is dependent for teachers on training and years of 
experience, and for principals also on size of school. The salary 
cost per pupil in 1929 — $72.46 — was 87 cents lower than for the 
preceding year. Since the average salary per teacher was slightly 
higher, this reduction was due to the increase in number of 
pupils per teacher. (See Table 96.) 

Ten of the counties showed increases in cost per pupil for sal- 
aries. In eight of these counties, Worcester, Washington, Mont- 
gomery, Harford, Garrett, Charles, Somerset and Anne Arundel, 
the number of pupils per teacher decreased from 1928 to 1929, 
and Cecil, Kent, Montgomery and Anne Arundel showed salary 
increases of good size. (See Chart 18, page 151.) 

Carroll and Howard Counties had salary costs per white high 
school pupil of $90 and $86, respectively, and Garrett, Worcester 
and Queen Anne's spent for salaries between $80 and $83 per 
white high school pupil. All of these counties gave opportunities 
for work in all of the special subjects in practically all of their 
schools. For the vocational work offered, the Federal govern- 
ment paid one-half of the salaries of the teachers. If the amount 
contributed by the Federal government is eliminated from ex- 
penditures in these counties, the cost to the county and State per 
high school pupil would have been $88 in Carroll, $79 in Howard, 
$71 in Garrett, $80 in Worcester and $78 in Queen Anne's. 

It may be seen from Table 97 that the provision of vocational 
courses is not necessarily increasing costs to the county and 
State. Seven of the fifteen counties giving courses in vocational 
education have salary costs per white high school pupil lower 
than the average for the ,23 counties of the State, while the re- 
mainder have higher costs. It is the variety of special subjects 
offered as well as the size of sections and salary schedule which 
determine salary costs per pupil. 

Five counties, Wicomico, Washington, Kent, Charles and 
Somerset, spent from $61 to $65 per white high school pupil for 
salary costs. In all of these counties, salaries were below the 



156 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 97 

Comparison of 1929 Salary Cost Per White High School Pupil in Counties 
Giving Vocational Instruction Inclusive and Exclusive of Federal Aid 

Salary Cost per White High School Pupil 





Including 


Excluding 




r eaeiai Aia 


r eaeral Aid 


(Average for 23 counties) „ 


$72.46 


$69.82 


Carroll _ 


90.49 


88.39 


Howard _ 


86.42 


78.72 


Garrett 


82.61 


70.67 


Worcester 


81.90 


79.75 


Queen Anne's 


80.64 


77.77 


Montgomery _ _.. 


78.40 


76.34 


Anne Arundel 


78.22 


76.46 


Allegany 


76.83 


75.34 


Harford 


70.76 


67.66 


Charles 


70.01 


68.30 


Prince George's 


69.64 


67.46 


Frederick „ 


69.35 


66.94 


Dorchester 


67.86 


66.61 


Washington „ 


64.96 


62.33 


Somerset 


62.02 


60.47 



average for the counties, and size of classes was above the aver- 
age. Baltimore County, with the highest salaries and largest 
classes among the counties, spent $5 less per high school pupil 
for salaries than the average for the counties. The amount spent 
per pupil in Baltimore County in 1929 was lower than in 1928. 
(See Table 96 page 154.) 

The expenditures for the salaries of teachers of vocational 
agriculture, home economics, and industrial work are shown in 
Table 98. The sources of the funds are shown in the first three 
columns. One half of the salary was paid by the Federal gov- 
ernment, four tenths by the county, and one tenth by the State. 
The counties are ranked according to the total expenditure for 
salaries in each type of work. Garrett County has a regular 
teacher of home economics in each of its five first group high 
schools and an agricultural teacher in all but one. In Washing- 
ton more than $10,000 was spent for agricultural and trade and 
industrial courses, and in Allegany, Frederick, Prince George's, 
Howard and Harford the vocational salaries totaled between six 
and ten thousand dollars. (See Table 98.) 

Costs of Instruction Other than Salaries Lower than in 1918 

The average county spent $6.35 per pupil for costs of instruc- 
tion other than salaries in 1929, which was 40 cents less than the 
amount expended in 1928. The amount spent includes not only 
county expenditures, but also the appropriation of 98 cents by 
the State for books and materials for each pupil belonging and 
other funds available for the purpose in counties receiving the 
Equalization Fund. 



Salary Cost of Vocational Teachers 



157 



TABLE 98 

Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland (bounties for Year 

Ending July 31, 1929 



COUNTY 



Expenditures for Salaries of County 
Vocational Teachers from 



County 


State 


Federal 


Total 


Funds 


Funds 


Funds 





En- 
roll- 
ment 



$ 3,116 


67 


$ 779 


17 


$ 3,895 


84 


$a7,791 


68 


148 


2,798 


02 


699 


51 


3 , 497 


51 


6.995 


04 


tl28 


1,920 


00 


480 


00 


2,400 


00 


4.800 


00 


78 


1,906 


68 


476 


68 


2,383 


32 


4 . 766 


68 


t70 


1,766 


40 


441 


60 


2,208 


00 


4,416 


00 


44 


1,573 


43 


393 


38 


1,966 


79 


a3,933 


60 


58 


°1,524 


00 


°381 


00 


° 1,905 


00 


°3,810 


00 


°80 


1,440 


00 


360 


00 


1.800 


00 


3,600 


00 


177 


1,342 


50 


335 


62 


1,678 


11 


3,356 


23 


60 


1 , 156 


67 


289 


17 


1,445 


83 


2.891 


67 


134 


955 


18 


238 


80 


1,193 


97 


2,387 


95 


26 


880 


00 


220 


00 


1,100 


00 


ab2 , 200 


00 


18 


826 


40 


206 


60 


1 , 033 


00 


2 , 066 


00 


tl6 


760 


00 


190 


00 


950 


00 


1 . 900 


00 


30 


484 


00 


121 


00 


605 


00 


1.210 


00 


8 


$22,449.95 


$ 5,612 


53 


$28,062.37 


$a56, 124.85 


t875 


$ 2,780 


00 


$ 701 


42 


$ 3,468 


58 


$a6.950.00 


228 


1.112 


00 


284 


42 


1.383 


58 


2,780 


00 


81 


1,046 


40 


268 


02 


1,301 


58 


a2,61() 


00 


75 


940 


00 


241 


42 


1,168 


58 


a2,350.00 


52 


500 


00 


131 


42 


618 


58 


a 1,250 


00 


25 


480 


00 


126 


42 


593 


58 


1 , 200 


00 


18 


480 


00 


126 


42 


593 


58 


1 .200 


00 


25 


448 


80 


118 


62 


554 


58 


1 . 122 


00 


39 


$ 7.787 


20 


$ 1.998 


16 


$ 9,682.64 


$al9,468.00 


543 


$ 2,756 


19 


$ 701 


54 


$ 3.507 


71 


$ 6,965 


44 


*116 


2,232 


50 






2 . 232 


50 


4 , 4()5 


00 


*87 


1,274 


00 


131 


00 


1 , 405 . 00 


2.810 


00 


*42 


318 


00 


79 


50 


397 


50 


795 


00 


*119 


$ 6,580.69 


$ 912 


04 


$ 7,542. 


71 


$15,035 


44 


*364 


$36,817 


84 


$ 8.522. 


73 


$45,287. 


72 


$90,628.29 


1,782 



Agriculture 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Harford 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Howard 

Prin('(^ Cieorge's 

Montgomery 

Washington 

\Vorcester 

Queen Anne's 

Anne Arundel 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Total 

Home Economics 

Garrett 

Prince George's 

Allegan}' 

Howard 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Total 

Industries 

Washington 

§Bureau of Mines 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel (Colored) 

Total 

Grand Total 



a Includes expenditure for related science, 
b For eleven months only. 

° Includes following for MHrllK>ro Colored Hijrh School : County, $155.99 ; State. f39.0I ; 

Federal, ^Hj.'i.OO : Enrollment. 19. 
t Excludes enrollment in unit courses. 

§ Includes University of Mar>-land as well as Bureau of Mines. The work is conducted 

in AllcKany and Garrett Counties. 
* Evening classes except 69 day i)uplls in Ha^erstown. 



158 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

The counties varied in expenditures for instruction costs other 
than salaries per pupil from $2.48 in Queen Anne's to $11.46 in 
Allegany. Queen Anne's has spent less than any other county in 
the State for these purposes for the past three consecutive years, 
while for the third year Allegany has spent more than any other 
county in the State for these purposes. Garrett and Montgomery 
devoted between $9 and $10 per pupil and Carroll and Cecil be- 
tween $7 and $8 to books, materials and "other costs" of instruc- 
tion. (See Table 96 page 154.) 

With the change from formal study of one textbook to the use 
of much reference material and extensive reading recommended 
for the social studies, literature, science, home economics and 
agriculture, it is necessary to make very careful use of funds 
appropriated for the tools of instruction. For a class of 20 
pupils the cost need not be greater if five different books are 
ordered, four of each kind, than if 20 copies of the same text are 
ordered for the entire class. If the former plan is adopted, a well 
trained teacher will have members of the class work as indi- 
viduals or groups, with the beginnings of a reference library, 
which can be gradually increased each year by adding another 
set of four volumes. With this plan her pupils will gain more 
than if each pupil had one copy of the same book. The budgeting 
of funds for laboratory, shop and home economics material on a 
definite allowance per pupil will, in many cases, bring about a 
more careful use of materials. (See Table 96 page 154.) 

Heating and Cleaning Costs Increase 16 Cents Per Pupil 

The average cost of heating and cleaning high school buildings 
was $7.12 per pupil belonging — an increase of 16 cents over 1928. 
Costs varied from between $10 and $12 in Montgomery, Somer- 
set and Calvert down to less than $6 in St. Mary's, Talbot, Wash- 
ington, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Frederick and Charles. In 
Charles the cost per pupil was $4.84 for heating and cleaning. 

One-half of the counties showed increases in cost per pupil for 
operation. Large increases in Montgomery were due to in- 
creased wages for janitors and greater expenditures for fuel, 
while in Somerset and Dorchester the increases were due to 
higher fuel costs. In Caroline, Carroll, Charles and Howard, less 
was expended for fuel in 1929 than in 1928, which was true also 
for Baltimore County not only for fuel but also for ''other costs 
of operation." Calvert County charged the entire wages of jani- 
tors in the three high school buildings to the high school prior to 
the 1929 report. In that report costs were pro rated between 
high and elementary schools. (See Table 96, page 154.) 

Lower Expenditures for Repair of Hiffh School Buildings and Equipment 

The amount expended per pupil for repair and replacement of 
buildings and equipment was $3.14 in 1929, ten cents less than 
in 1928. Expenditures varied from 90 cents per pupil belonging 



Cost Per Put^h, ix Whitk High Schools 



159 



in Kent to over $8 in Prince George's. Eight counties — Howard, 
Caroline, Calvert, Frederick, Anne Arundel, Queen Anne's, Balti- 
more and Talbot^ — spent between one and two dollars per pupil 
for repaii's and replacements. Only four counties — Doi'chester, 
Cecil, Carroll and Prince George's — spent over $4 per pupil for 
repairs. 

The amount expended for repairs usually fluctuates with the 
budget. If it is pared to the minimum, repairs must wait, even 
though it would be greater economy in the long run to keep the 
buildings in good condition. Counties which have many old 
buildings must expend more to keep them in repair than must be 
expended by counties which have been able to construct modern 
buildings in recent years. 

Dorchester, Allegany, Somerset and Washington spent over 
one dollar more on repairs in 1929 than they spent in 1928. On 
the other hand, Carroll, Montgomery, Cecil, Garrett, Anne Arun- 
del, Frederick, Calvert and Kent spent over one dollar less on 
repairs in 1929 than in 1928. {See Table 96, page 154.) 

Auxiliary Agencies Cost Nearly $7 Per White High School Pupil 

The expenditure per pupil belonging for auxiliary agencies, 
which is the term representing transportation, health, library 
and other community activities of the county high schools, was 
$6.93, an increase of $1.39 per pupil over 1928. One of the chief 
items in the increase was the transportation of a greater num- 
ber of high school pupils and the abandonment in certain counties 
of charges formerly made for transportation of high school 
pupils. 

The counties varied in cost per pupil for auxiliary agencies 
from 37 and 50 cents per pupil in Harford and Carroll Counties, 
respectively, which transported no high school pupils at county 
expense, to over $27 per pupil in Calvert, which for the first time 
made transportation free to high school pupils. Formerly in 
Calvert, pupils got to high school entirely at their own expense. 
Charles, Garrett and Anne Arundel also changed their policy re- 
garding charges to high school pupils, thus increasing county 
costs for auxiliary agencies considerably. (See Tabic 96, page 
154.) 

More Hisrh School Pupils Transported 

The number of county white high school pupils transported at 
public expense increased from 3,912 to 4,635, with an expendi- 
ture for 1929 totalling $128,334. This meant a cost per pupil 
transported of $28, an increase of $4 over 1928. The increase is 
largely explained by the fact that several counties which had 
previously made chai'ges to high school pupils using transporta- 
tion facilities changed their policy to one of providing free trans- 
portation entirely at the expense of the county. The policy of 



160 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 99 

Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools for School Year 

Ending July 31, 1929 



COUNTY 



Transportation 



o 

a X 

MM 

c 

^§ 

o 

Ph 



a 



o o 
<3 



o. I* 

P ^ 

o 



Libraries 



T3 

C 

a 



o 



Amount per 



o 
o 
-a 

u 
02 



u 



Health 



01 

a 



o 



a 

3 

i) 

D. 

C 
3 

o 

s 





4,635 


a$128,335 


$28 




107 


o3,911 


37 




221 


6,533 


30 




263 


9,930 


38 




343 


8,518 


25 




188 


6,257 


33 




337 


9,054 


27 




202 


6,872 


34 




294 


8,487 


29 




129 


3,598 


28 


Baltimore 


727 


17,399 


24 


Talbot 


216 


5,067 


23 




320 


8,409 


26 




363 


7,887 


22 




115 


1,998 


17 


Allegany 


133 


7,706 


58 




175 


5,104 


29 




183 


2,175 


12 


Cecil 


35 


2,539 


72 


F'rederick 


101 


3,715 


37 




183 


3,176 


17 



































5,358 



135 
330 
151 



73 
479 
610 
14 
355 
198 
443 
199 
30 
393 
1,349 
103 
46 
30 
10 
20 
40 
350 



$35 



27 
83 
30 



10 
80 
153 
3 
36 
33 
63 
22 
5 
36 
225 
17 
6 
3 
1 
7 
4 
39 



$5.30 



6.43 
11.38 
3.92 



2.04 
13.97 
13.10 

.87 
3.88 
6.32 
9.93 
3.60 
1.26 
3.59 
18.48 
3.60 
1.15 

.41 

.15 
2.47 

.58 
7.76 



$10,684 



38 
24 
264 

8'348 



827 

' 15 
536 
75 



150 

404 
3 



$.49 



.05 
.04 
.27 

'3^18 



.72 

.01 
.31 
.12 



.11 

^36 



a Excludes $432 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 

the State is to encourage free transportation of high as well as 
elementary school pupils, and, in furthering this policy, counties 
sharing in the State Equalization Fund have all of their expendi- 
tures for transportation of both high and elementary school 
pupils considered in calculating the financial needs of the county. 
If transportation of high school pupils is entirely free, the county 
receives a larger amount from the State Equalization Fund. (See 
Table 99.) 

The number of white high school pupils transported at public 
expense increased by over 100 in Anne Arundel and Calvert 
Counties, and by from 30 to 100 pupils in Baltimore, Howard, 
Wicomico, Dorchester, Washington, Worcester, Garrett and Kent 
Counties. Perhaps part of the increase in the number trans- 
ported is explained by the decision to eliminate charges which 
had formerly been required of pupils attending high schools in 
Anne Arundel, Calvert, Garrett, Cecil and Charles Counties. 

The cost per high school pupil transported varied from $12 in 
Caroline and $17 in Prince George's and Howard to $72 per pupil 



Cost of Transportation and Libraries, White High Schools 161 



in Cecil. In seven counties the cost per pupil transported ex- 
ceeded $30— in Cecil $72, Allegany $58, Somerset $38, Fredei-ick 
and Calvert $37, Garrett $34 and Kent $33. At the lower end of 
the scale costs were below $25 per high school pupil transported 
in Caroline, Prince George's, Howard, Montgomery, Baltimore 
and Talbot. In all of these counties, except Talbot, high school 
pupils transported paid something toward the cost of their trans- 
portation. The policy of charging was discontinued in Caroline 
at the beginning of the school year in September, 1929. (See 
Table 99.) 

Wigh School Libraries Considered More Important 

There was an increase of $800 in the amount expended from 
public funds for libraries in county high schools. This made the 
total $5,358 in 1929. The amount expended from public funds 
for libraries per school was $35, and per teacher $5.30. Large 
increases from 1928 to 1929 in expenditures were made in Anne 
Arundel, Washington, Garrett and Allegany. The amount per 
teacher was highest in Washington, $18 ; in Garrett $14, in Anne 
Arundel $13, in Somerset $11, in Wicomico $10, and in Harford 
$8. Kent and Calvert were the only counties with no expendi- 
tures, and Prince George's, Frederick, Carroll, Charles, Cecil and 
Howard spent less than $1.30 per high school teacher for library 
books. Without a good reference library, good teaching of the 
social studies, of literature, science, home economics and agri- 
culture, is almost impossible. The counties that realize this are 
to be commended, and those which are appropriating very little 
public money for this important requirement for modern teach- 
ing need to be made conscious of its importance. (See Table 99.) 

MARYLAND UBRARY COMMISSION SENDS BOOKS TO THE COUNTIES 

Schools and libraries, in ever increasing numbers are bringing 
books within the reach of boys and girls in a way that has not 
been possible in the past. The closer cooperation between the 
schools and the State Library Commission has been responsible 
for a wider use and greater supply of books in the village and 
rural schools. These books have been selected to meet two 
special needs — recreational reading and supplementary material. 
The child today, as an investigator and a doer, not a memorizer 
as formerly, requires books and more books in the class room. 

Maryland has many schools with inadequate library facilities. 
In an effort to overcome this difficulty, 32 libraries with a total 
of 1,100 books were distributed to 28 diffei'cnt high schools by 
the Maryland Public Library Advisorv Commission. (See Table 
99A.) 

Traveling school libraries are collections of books which are 
loaned by the Maryland Public Library Commission for a period 

* Information furnished by courtesy of Adeline J. Pratt, Director of State Public 
Libraries. 



162 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 99A 



Libraries and Special Collections Supplied to County White Hig^h Schools by 
Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission 1928-29 



COUNTY 


Number of Schools 


N^iiTTiViPr of 

u i. 11. ft.^ V J, yj I 

Teachers 
Requesting 

T .ii nrfi n 


NUMRER OF 


Supplied 

with 
Libraries 


Requesting 
but not 
Supplied with 
Libraries 


Libraries 

SMinT~\lip<H 


Volumes 


Teachers 
Supplied with 
Special 
Packages 


Total 


20 

O 
* 

2 


11 

° 1 
* 1 
1 


33 

° 1 
* 1 

aS 


32 

O 
* 

4 


1,100 

o 
* 

135 


28 

° 2 
* 2 
5 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel. . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 


Caroline 
















2 
4 


1 
1 


A 

4 

5 


3 
8 


100 
275 




Cecil 


G 
1 

t 
♦1 


Charles 


Dorchester .... 
Frederick 


tl 
*3 


t 
*1 


tl 
*4 


tl 
*4 


t30 
*140 


Garrett 


Harford 


t2 


t3 
1 


to 
1 


t4 


tl40 


tl 


Howa rd 


Kent 








1 
1 


Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 


1 




1 


.1 


35 




Queen Anne's. . 
St. Mary's 


1 




1 


2 


70 


1 




Somerset 


2 

b 

c 
* 

2 




2 

b 

c 
» 

4 


2 

b 

c 
• 

3 


70 

b 

c 
* 

105 


1 
b 
c 
•1 

3 


Talbot 


h 

c 
* 

1 


Washington . . . 
Wicomico 


Worcester 



n Includes one librarian who distiibutcd books to other teachers in the school. 

b Talbot County Library in order to supplement their collection borrows books from the Commis- 
sion and recirculates to all schools in the county re(iuesting them. 

c Washington's county-wide library service takes care of thtrbook needs of the county without 
outside help. 

* Limited library service given to schools by county librarj-. 

t Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to county seat on the days when the 
libraries are open. 

° The Cumberland Library supplied books to the High Schools in Cumberland. 

of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for four more 
months. The books are selected with respect to the grades for 
which they are intended. Thirty books are included in cases sent 
by parcel post ; thirty-five in those sent by express. 

For the purpose of meeting special requirements such as school 
essays, debates or individual needs and professional reading for 
the teachers, collections of from one to ten books are loaned for 
one month to anyone living in Maryland who is without access 
to a public library. Twenty-eight high school teachers took ad- 
vantage of this service during 1928-29. 

Because of insufficient funds available in 1928-29, the Com- 
mission was unable to supply 11 high school teachers with libra- 
ries. Orders were not filled in some instances because of im- 
proper applications. The blanks had not been signed by three 
guarantors; in other cases the year and subjects taught were not 
indicated. Often the teacher failed to enclose the dollar which 



Libraries, Health and Capital Outlay Per High School Pupil 1G3 



is needed to cover part of the cost of transportation. In a few 
instances books of a previous loan had been lost or damaged and 
the proper reimbursement had not been made. Since the appro- 
priations available for the purchase of books have been increased 
in the State budget for 1930 and 1931, it is expected that it will 
be possible to fill all requests which meet the necessary require- 
ments. 

Health Expenditures Greater 

An increase of $1,400 in expenditures for the health of county 
white high school pupils brought the 1929 total to $10,684, or 49 
cents per pupil. Baltimore County spent most of this money — 
$8,347 for the work of the Playground Athletic League in physi- 
cal education and other services in its high schools. The ex- 
penditure per pupil was $3.18. Montgomery spent $827, or 72 
cents per pupil, Carroll $404, or 36 cents per pupil, Washington 
$536, or 31 cents per pupil, Anne Arundel $264, or 27 cents per 
pupil. Over one-half of the counties used no public funds for 
health work for white high school pupils, and five counties spent 
less than $100 for this purpose. (See Table 99.) 

Capital Outlay Per White High School Pupil Doubled 

In 1929 the capital outlay per white high school pupil was over 
$41, an increase of $19 over 1928. In Dorchester and Montgom- 
ery the capital outlay per white high school pupil was over $230, 
and in Talbot it was $150. Other counties which spent over 
$25 per high school pupil were Cecil, Charles, Frederick, Garrett, 
Washington and Allegany. The capital outlay in Queen Anne's, 
Calvert, St. Mary's and Kent was less than $2 per high school 
pupil. (See Table 96, page 154.) 

Capital outlay for the most part has been possible in Mary- 
land because of the use of the proceeds of bond issues, although 
some of the counties which had no bond issues used funds from 
the levy for this purpose. The constant growth in the high 
school population, which shows no signs of diminishing, forces 
the counties to construct buildings for high school purposes. 
Even where the total population is not growing, the high school 
population shows gains every year. The boys and girls of today 
are not equipped to meet the complex problems of modern society 
without education beyond the elementary school, and labor con- 
ditions make it inadvisable and impossible for them to enter in- 
dustrial pursuits at the age when most of them complete the 
elementary school. 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN 

FEWER CHILDREN IN COLORED SCHOOL CENSUS 

The .biennial school census taken in November, 1928, showed 
that there were 42,058 colored children of ages 5 to 18 years in 
the Maryland counties. This was a decrease of 254 under the 
1926 enumeration in which 42,312 colored children were re- 
corded. The decreases occurred for both boys and girls of ages 
under seven years and over ten years. The total decrease would 
be much greater if it were not compensated by increases ranging 
from 100 to 400 for ages from 7 to 10 years. The number of 
colored boys exceeded the number of girls for all but five of the 
age groups enumerated, although the excess of boys was neither 
as marked nor as consistent as in the census of white children. 
The decrease in the number of colored children of ages 5 to 18 
years enumerated probably reflects the continued migration from 
the rural sections to the cities, especially to Baltimore and large 
cities in the north. (See Tables 1 and 2, pages 11 and 12.) 

The number of colored children of ages 7 to 16 years inclusive 
(the ages of compulsory school attendance), reported as attend- 

TABLE 100 

Number and Per Cent of Colored Children Enumerated of Ages 7-16 Years, 
Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School, 

November, 1928 



NUMBER 
In Private 

COUNTY In and In No 

Public Parochial School Total 
School School 



Total and Average: 

1928 25,780* 762 4,653 31,195* 

1926 25,378* 655 4,882 30,915* 



Talbot 1 , 008 

Somerset 1,710 

Howard 602 

Kent 913 

Washington 306 

Wicomico 1 , 535 

Baltimore 1,801 

Allegany 262 

Caroline 867 

Anne Arundel 2,552 

Harford 666 

Frederick 855 

Prince George's 3,089 

Queen Anne's 943 

Worcester 1 , 542 

Cecil 403 

Charles 1,399 

Carroll 278 

Dorchester 1 , 389 

Montgomery 1,554 

St. Mary's 1,159 

Calvert 945 



10 


82 


1, 100 


26 


166 


1,902 


42 


73 


717 


7 


113 


1.033 




39 


345 


10 


199 


1,744 


32 


239 


2.072 




34 


296 


2 


114 


983 


82 


382 


3.016 


5 


103 


774 


11 


138 


1,004 


199 


531 


3,819 


4 


154 


1, 101 


3 


261 


1.806 




84 


487 


89 


343 


1.831 


4 


65 


347 




334 


1,723 


11 


392 


1.957 


214 


403 


1,776 


11 


404 


1.360 



PER CENT 

In Private 
In and In No 

Public Parochial School 
School School 



82.6 


2 


.5 


14.9 


82.1 


2 


.1 


15.8 


91 .6 




.9 


7.5 


89.9 


1 


.4 


8.7 


83.9 


5 


.9 


10.2 


88.4 




.7 


10.9 


88.7 






11.3 


88.0 




.6 


11.4 


86.9 


1 


6 


11.5 


88.5 






11.6 


88.2 




2 


11.6 


84.6 


2 


7 


12.7 


86.0 




7 


13.3 


85.2 


1 


1 


13.7 


80.9 


5 


2 


13.9 


85.6 




4 


14.0 


85.4 




2 


14.4 


82.8 






17.2 


76.4 


4. 


9 


18.7 


80.1 


1 . 


2 


18.7 


80.6 






19.4 


79.4 




6 


20.0 


65.3 


12 





22.7 


69.5 




8 


29.7 



^Includes 2 in Garrett County. 



164 



1928 Census of Colored School Children 
CHAKT 20 



165 



County 



In Private and 
Parochial Schools 




83.9 
88.4 
88.7 
88.0 

88.5 
86.9 
83.2 
84.6 
86.0 
85.2 
80.9 
85.6 
85.4 
82.8 
76.4 
60.1 
80.6 
79.4 
65.3 
69.5 







5.9 









II 




11.4 1 



PER CENT OF COLORED CHIIDRilN OF AGES 7-16 '£EAR3, IUCLU3IVE 

EinJ?.lERATED iromOLR, 1928 
IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE and PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, and IN NO SCHOOL 

Total 
No. of In 

Colored Public In No 
Children Schools School 

Total and 

Co. Av. * 31,195 



Talbot 1,100 

Somerset 1,902 

Howard 717 

Kent 1,033 

Washington 345 

Wicomico 1,744 

Allegany 296 

Baltimore 2,072 

Caroline 983 

Anne Arund. 3,016 

Harford 774 

Frederick 1,004 

Pr. Ceo. 3,819 

Qu. Anne's 1,101 

Vi'orcester 1,806 

Cecil 487 

Charles 1,831. 

Carroll 347 

Dorchester 1,723 

Montgomery 1,957 

St. Gary's 1,776 

Calvert 1,360 








1397 1 


3 




5.2 












i8.r 1 



4.9 



i8.r 







19.4 






0.0 








12.0 



•includes 2 in Garrett County 



ing public schools (25,780), showed a total increase of 402 over 
a similar figure for 1926, which is a reflection of increases in two- 
thirds of the counties and decreases in the remaining third. Ac- 
cording to the census data, the per cent of colored children at- 
tending public schools increased from 82.1 in 1926 to 82.6 in 
1928, and the per cent attending no school dropped from 15.8 to 
14.9. Colored children of ages 7 to 16 years who were too men- 
tally and physically handicapped to attend school totalled 200, 
and some of the 2,731 of ages 15 and 16 years were graduates of 



166 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



the elementary school and therefore not required by law to attend 
school. (See Table 100 and Chart 20.) 

Talbot ranked first in the State with 91.6 per cent of its colored 
children of ages 7 to 16 years in public schools and only 
7.5 per cent attending no school. From 19:26 to 1928 Worcester, 
Carroll and Calvert reduced the percentage of non-school at- 
tendants by 8.4, 6.6 and 6.0, respectively. In Kent, Cecil, Talbot, 
Howard, Queen Anne's, Wicomico and Montgomery there was a 
decrease in colored non-school attendants during the two-year 
period of at least 2 per cent. On the other hand, the three coun- 
ties that had the lowest percentage of non-school attendants in 
1926 — Frederick, Caroline and Allegany — showed increases that 
changed their rankings to 12, 9 and 8, respectively, in 1928. In 
Dorchester the per cent of non-school attendants increased from 
12.8 to 19.4. The increase in number and per cent of non-school 
attendants in these counties may be due to a more complete 
enumeration in the later year rather than to an actual increase in 
the number of colored children of school age not attending school. 

In Chart 20 the black bar represents the per cent of children 
attending no school. There were only two counties, Talbot and 
Somerset, with fewer than 10 per cent of the colored children of 
ages 7-16 years out of school. In 1926 there were four. At the 
bottom of the chart only three counties — Calvert, St. Mary's and 
Montgomery — had 20 per cent or more of colored children of 
compulsory attendance ages not in school. In 1926 seven coun- 
ties fell in this group. (See Chart 20, page 165.) 

PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE 

Leaving the census data, the reports from the teachers and 
principals of the county public schools showed a total colored 
public school enrollment of 28,937 for the school year ending in 
June, 1929. The range was from Prince George's and Anne 
Arundel, with about 3,000 colored children in public schools, to 
Washington, Carroll and Allegany, which had less than 400. In 
Garrett County there is practically no colored population. The 
average number belonging in the county colored schools was 
23,915. Both the number belonging and the enrollment figures 
were lower in 1929 than in 1928, but despite this, the average 
number attending in 1929 was 21,582, or 60 greater than the 
average number attending the preceding year. This increase 
may seem slight, but in the face of a decreasing total enrollment, 
even a small increase in the number actually attending school 
means a really significant improvement in the regularity of 
school attendance. (See Table 101.) 

Six counties — Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Somerset, 
Wicomico, Harford and Carroll showed increases in enrollment, 



Census, Enrollment, Attendance of Colored Children 



1G7 



TABLE 101 

Enrollment, Averajie Number Belonging?, and Average Number Attending 
in County Colored Schools tor Year Ending July 31, 1929 







Average 


Number 






Average 


Number 




Total 








Total 






County 


Enroll- 






County 


Enroll- 








ment 


Belong- 


Attend- 




ment 


Belong- 


Attend- 






ing 


ing 






ing 


ing 



Total Counties, 1929 
Total Counties. 1928 
Total Counties, 1920 

Prince George's 

Anne Arundel 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Charles 

Dorchester 



*28,937 


25.915 


21,582 


Talbot 


1 ,252 


1,166 


1 , 060 


*28,994 


25.922 


21 ,522 


St. Mary's 


1.180 


1 .045 


815 


30, 174 


t 


17,795 


Calvert 


1,167 


996 


664 


Kent 


1 .016 


897 


744 


3,080 


2 , 765 


2 , 307 


Frederick 


1,012 


917 


831 


2,909 


2,636 


2,247 


Caroline 


972 


856 


724 


2,001 


1 ,818 


1 , 554 


Queen Anne's 


864 


740 


595 


1 ,979 


1 ,761 


1 ,493 


Harford 


774 


690 


593 


1 , 879 


1 , 637 


1 , 386 


Howard 


660 


592 


469 


1 , 773 


1 ,516 


1 , 253 


Cecil 


520 


447 


359 


1 , 695 


1,518 


1,349 


Washington 


398 


359 


325 


1 , 687 


1.491 


1,153 


Carroll 


353 


313 


242 


1,662 


1,452 


1,156 


Allegany 


324 


303 


263 








Baltimore City. . 


♦22,018 


19,977 


17.547 








State 


*50,955 


45,892 


39,129 



t Data not available until 1923. * Excludes duplicates. 

For counties arranged alphabetically, see Tables IH-VI, pages 310-313. 

number belonging and attending colored public schools. Talbot, 
with a lower enrollment than the year preceding, had an increase 
in the number belonging and attending, while St. Mary's and 
Charles, like the State as a whole, had a higher average atten- 
dance with a lower enrollment and number belonging. On the 
other hand, Baltimore and Worcester had a lower attendance 
accompanying a larger enrollment. The remaining eleven coun- 
ties had decreases in public school enrollment and attendance 
from 1928 to 1929. These counties include Cecil, Dorchester, 
Caroline, Queen Anne's, Kent, Calvert, Frederick, Howard, 
Montgomery, Washington and Allegany. (See Table 101.) 

LENGTH OF SCHOOL YEAR AND INITIAL TEACHERS' MEETING 

Seventeen counties held teachers' meetings for their colored 
teachers before the opening of schools in 1928. This includes all 
counties in the State having colored schools except Allegany, 
Baltimore, Charles, Frederick and Talbot. In Caroline, Carroll, 
Kent and Washington the initial meeting lasted for two days. 
These meetings are probably of real value in making known at 
the very beginning of the year the general policies and goals that 
are to be carried out in the following months, in developing an 
esprit de corps, and in securing uniformity and accuracy in 
records and reports. The necessity for the initial meeting in- 
creases or decreases with the percentage of new and inexperi- 
enced teachers brought into the system each vear. (See Table 
102.) 



168 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 102 

Length of Session in Colored Schools, Year 1928-29 



County 



School Year, 1928-29 



Number 
of Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day of 
School 



Last 
Day of 
School 



Average Days in Session 



County 



Allegany 





9/3 


6/21 


Anne Arundel 


1 


9/6 


5/15 


Baltimore 





9/4 


6/21 


Calvert 


1 


9/4 


5/3 


Caroline 


2 


9/24 


5/29 


Carroll 


2 


9/3 


6/7 


Cecil 


1 


9/6 


6/14 


Charles 





10/1 


5/31 


Dorchester 


1 


9/24 


5/24 







9/4 


5/10 


Harford 


1 


9/11 


5/31 


Howard 


1 


10/1 


6/3 


Kent 


2 


t9/24 


t5/31 


Montgomery 


1 


9/11 


5/17 


Prince George's 


1 


9/10 


5/31 




1 


9/25 


5/31 


St. Mary's 


1 


10/1 


6/7 


Somerset 


1 


9/17 


5/17 


Talbot 





Xio/i 


5/31 


Washington 


2 


9/4 


6/7 




1 


9/10 


5/10 


Worcester 


1 


9/17 


5/17 






§9/17 


*6/28 







Colored 
High 
School 



Colored 

Ele- 
mentary 
School 



County Average . 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Washington .... 

Carroll 

Harford 

Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's . . . 

Caroline 

Kent 

Anne Arundel. . . 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery . . . 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Howard 



Calvert 

Baltimore City. 
State Average . 



173.0 
197.2 



189.1 
186.2 
178.1 



172.6 
166.6 
166.1 
180.2 
184.1 



163.1 
162.0 
162.0 
162.0 
176.1 
184.0 
167.0 
180.3 



188.8 
182.1 



167.2 

197.0 
195.1 
186.9 
185.6 
180.9 
172.4 
172.1 
165.3 
164.8 
163.7 
162.5 
162.3 
162.1 
161.8 
161.8 
161.8 
161.2 
161.1 
161.1 
160.9 
160.2 

159.7 

190.0 

177.1 



t High School opened 9/10 and closed 6/7. 
$ High School opened 9/17. 

§ Deferred two weeks because of infantile paralysis epidemic. 
* Senior High schools closed 6/14, other schools 6/28. 
For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VI, page 313. 

The county colored elementary schools were open in the aver- 
age county for 167 days. In five counties — Allegany, Baltimore 
Cecil, Washington and Carroll — the colored elementary schools 
were open more than 180 days, the number required for white 
schools. In only one county, Calvert, did the colored elementary 
schools as a whole fall below the 160 day session required by law 
for colored schools, but even so the session was longer than for 
the preceding year. Only five counties — Washington, Carroll, 
Anne Arundel,Calvert and St. Mary's — had a longer session in 
1929 than in 1928. In Baltimore City the colored elementary 
schools were open 190 days, making the average for the State 
177. 

The session for the average county colored high school was 
183 days. In no county were the colored high schools open fewer 
than the required 160 days, and in six counties they averaged 
more than 180 days. (See Table 102.) 



Length of Session and Attendance in Colored Schools 



169 



Of the 542 colored schools in the Maryland counties, 489 were 
open for at least 160 days. In nine counties — Allegany, Balti- 
more, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Harford, Prince George's, Wash- 
ington and Worcester — every colored school met the legal re- 
quirement of a 160 day session. In the entire State 49 schools 
were open fewer than 160 days and only 4 schools were open 
fewer than 140 days. St. Mary's showed splendid improvement 
in reducing the number of schools with short sessions from 14 
in 1928 to 2 in 1929. Montgomery, on the other hand, had 9 
more schools in 1929 than in 1928 that failed to meet the min- 
imum requirement. Increases in number of colored schools hav- 
ing too short a session also occurred in Howard, Dorchester, 
Kent, Frederick, Queen Anne's and Calvert. (See Table 103.) 



TABLE 103 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Less Than the 
Number of Days Required by Law, Year Ending July 31, 1929 







Colored Schools Open 




Colored Schools Open 






Less Than 








Less Than 






160 


140 




160 


140 


County 




Days 


Days 


County 


Days 


Days 




1929 


49 


4 


Queen Anne's .... 


1 


1 


Total 


1928 


41 


10 


Somerset 


3 






1927 


84 


13 


Kent 


4 












Howard 


5 




Talbot 




1 




Calvert 


7 




Frederick 






1 


Anne Arundel 


6 


1 






2 


Dorchester 


6 


1 


St. Mary's. . . . 




2 






10 




Wicomico 




2 











PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE HIGHER 

The per cent of attendance in the county colored elementary 
schools was 82.7 for 1929. This is an increase of 1 per cent over 
1928 and of 6.5 per cent over a similar figure for 1923. Talbot, 
Frederick, Washington, Wicomico, Harford and Allegany ranked 
highest in the State, with a percentage of attendance of 86.0 or 
higher. Of these, however, all but Frederick and Harford had a 
lower per cent of attendance than in 1928. Calvert had only two- 
thirds the average number belonging in average attendance. 
This may be a major factor in its large percentage of non-promo- 
tions. (See Chart 22, page 178.) St. Mary's and Charles, though 
under 80 per cent in attendance, showed marked improvement 
over 1928. In the years 1923 to 1929 St. Mary's and Anne Arun- 
del made the greatest gains in the attendance of their colored 
elementary school children, having raised their percentage of at- 
tendance by 15.1 and 13.6, respectively. (See Tabic 104.) 



170 1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 104 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools, 1923-1929 



County 


1923 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County 


1923 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County Average . . 


76 


2 


81 


4 


82 


6 


82 


7 


Kent 


73 


4 


84 


3 


85 


2 


82 


3 




















Worcester 


80 


1 


82 


6 


83 


5 


82 


1 


Talbot 


84 


3 


90 


3 


91 


2 


90 


5 


Queen Annie's 


73 


1 


73 


2 


81 


7 


80 


1 


Frederick 


84 


6 


87 


5 


89 


9 


90 


3 


Cecil 


74 


4 


82 


5 


80 


6 


79 


4 


Washington 


81 


7 


91 





92 





89 


6 


Howard 


71 





77 


2 


78 


3 


79 


3 


Wicomico 


84 


8 


89 


9 


89 


9 


88 


1 


Dorchester 


74 


2 


76 


5 


77 


9 


78 


6 


Harford 


79 


9 


85 


4 


85 


9 


86 





St. ]Mary's 


62 


9 


68 


9 


72. 


7 


78 





Allegany 


87 


4 


88 


9 


89 


8 


86 







66 


8 


70 


4 


72 


9 


76 


7 


Anne Arundel. . . . 


71 


2 


80 


8 


81 


8 


84 


8 


Carroll 


72 





74 


1 


76 


5 


76 


6 


Baltimore 


75 


4 


85 


3 


84 


8 


84 


8 


Calvert 


65 


3 


66 


5 


69 


6 


66 


6 


Somerset 


80 


5 


87 


7 


85 





84 


7 




















Caroline 


76 


4 


85 


3 


85 


4 


84 


4 


Baltimore City . . . 


. 87 





87 


5 


87 


4 


87 


6 


Montgomery 


80 


8 


81 


9 


85 


1 


84 


4 


















Prince George's.. . 


76 


4 


81 


9 


83 


8 


83 





State Average .... 


79 


9 


83 


8 


84 


6 


84 


8 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table V, page 312. 

In 1929 there were 5,987 or 22.9 per cent of the colored ele- 
mentary children in school fewer than 100 days, and the number 
attending less than 120 days totalled 9,045 or 34.6 per cent of 
the total enrollment. The number of children in school for fewer 
than 100 and 120 days is gradually being reduced. There were 
623 fewer present less than 100 days and there was a reduction 
of 518 in the number attending under 120 days in 1929 under 
1928. Comparison with 1925 shows still greater gains in in- 
creasing the span of days of actual attendance at school. (See 
Table 105.) N 

From 1928 to 1929 in St. Mary's, Anne Arundel, Dorchester 
and Carroll there was a reduction of at least 5.0 in the per- 
centage of colored children attending both under 100 and under 
120 days. In St. Mary's the percentage attending under 100 
days was 14.7 lower than in 1928, and for those present fewer 
than 120 days the reduction in per cent was as much as 16.1. 
Washington, Queen Anne's and Howard are the only counties 
that showed a significant increase in the per cent attending for 
fewer than 100 and 120 days, but despite this increase Wash- 
ington still ranked third in the State. This increase in number 
of days attended is probably helping to decrease the number of 
non-promotions. (See Table 105.) 

LATE ENTRANTS ARE FEWER 

The number of colored children entering school after the first 
month because of employment, indifference or neglect showed 
remarkable improvement over the preceding year. There were 
eleven counties — Allegany, Washington, Somerset, Baltimore, 
Wicomico, Talbot, Cecil, Frederick, Caroline, Kent and St. Mary's 
which had less than ten per cent of their colored elementary 
pupils entering after the first month for the above reasons. In 
1928 there were only five counties with as few as 10 per cent en- 
tering after the first month for these reasons. The average 
county for 1929 showed only 11.6 per cent entering late because 



Attendance and Late Entrants, Colored Schools 



171 



TABLE 105 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 
100 and 120 Days, Year Ending July 31, 1929 



Number Present Per Cent Present 

Lender Under Lender Under 



County 100 Days 120 Days 100 Days 120 Days 

Total and Average . . . 



1929 


5,987 


9,045 


22.9 


34.6 


1928 


6,610 


9,563 


24.8 


35.9 


1927 


7,643 


10,836 


29.0 


41.1 


19zb 


8,0/8 


1 1 , 295 


29.5 


At O 

41 . 3 


1925 


9,463 


13,195 


33.2 


46.3 


Allegany 


16 


26 


6.0 


9.8 


Baltimore 


222 


333 


12.3 


18.5 


Washington 


49 


61 


14.8 


18.5 


lalbot 


144 


229 


13.6 


21 .6 


Frederick 


102 


189 


11.8 


21.8 


Wicomico 


213 


337 


15.2 


24.0 


Harford 


114 


187 


15.3 


25.1 


Prince George's 


491 


753 


18.2 


27.9 


Cecil 


97 


133 


22.4 


30.6 


Anne Arundel 


526 


824 


19.9 


31.2 


Montgomery 


368 


574 


21.6 


33.7 


Caroline . . . 


201 


300 


22.8 


34.0 


Somerset 


404 


649 


22.3 


35.8 


Kent 


212 


327 


23.7 


36.5 


Carroll 


75 


125 


23.4 


39.1 


Worcester 


422 


643 


27.2 


41.5 


Howard 


165 


275 


26.2 


43.7 


St. Mary's 


335 


515 


29.3 


45.1 


Queen Anne's 


244 


370 


29.9 


45.3 


Dorchester 


472 


679 


31.7 


45.7 


Charles 


519 


720 


33.7 


46.8 


Calvert 


596 


796 


52.6 


70.2 



of employment, indifference or neglect as opposed to 16.5 per 
cent in 1928. No county in 1929 had more than 27.9 per cent of 
late entrants for these causes, while in 1928 Dorchester showed 
45.7 per cent. Of the 11.6 per cent of the total enrollment en- 
tering after the first month because of employment, indifference 
or neglect, 5.1 per cent were 13 years old or more and employed, 
1.2 per cent were under 13 years and illegally employed, and 5.3 
per cent entered late due to negligence or indifference. 

The greatest improvement over 1928 was found in the group 
entering late because of negligence and indifference. For these 
pupils the per cent was 2.5 lower than in the preceding year. 
Charles, Anne Arundel and Dorchester showed excellent reduc- 



172 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



tions, but Calvert still had one fifth of its total colored enrollment 
entering late because of negligence and indifference. In Dor- 
chester and Queen Anne's the per cent of children entering late 
because of employment was exceedingly high when compared 
with the other causes of late entrance and with the same cause 
in other counties. The 100 day provision in the law permits late 
entrance for children 13 years old or over, but certainly keeping 
children under 13 years out of school for employment is illegal. 
In every county except Kent, Montgomery and Howard (and Bal- 
timore where the per cent was the same) there was a reduction 
in the per cent of colored children entering school late because 
of illegal employment. No county had more than 6.3 per cent 
entering late because of illegal employment, whereas in 1928 Dor- 
chester had as many as 12.0. (See Table 106.) 



TABLE 106 

Number and Per Cent of Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School After the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference or 
Neglect, for School Year Ending July 31, 1929 





Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 


County 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 



County Average 
1929 


3,280 
4,739 
5.204 
5,393 

1 


11 
16 
17 
18 


6 
5 
8 
1 

4 


5 
6 
7 
8 


1 

5 
9 
3 


5 
7 
7 
6 


3 
8 
5 
9 

4 


1 
2 
2 
2 


2 
2 
4 
9 








1928 








1927 








1926 








Allegany 


1 


2 




Washington .... 
Somerset 


3 




8 




8 








2 


1 




110 


5 


6 


2 


6 


2 


2 




8 


4 


8 


13 


Baltimore 


114 


5 


6 


2 


1 


3 


3 




2 


3 


11 


5 


Wicomico 


89 


5 


8 


2 


9 


2 


9 






5 


10 


2i4 


Talbot 


76 


6 


6 


4 


3 


1 


9 




4 


10 


7 


9 


Cecil 


32 


6 


6 


4 


5 


1 


9 




2 


12 


6 


6 




70 


7 


4 


4 


3 


2 


9 




2 


11 


9 


7 


Caroline 


83 


8 


8 


7 





1 


3 




5 


18 


4 


10 


Kent 


85 


9 





6 


9 




5 


1 


6 


17 


3 


20 


St. Mary's 


108 


9 





4 


2 


4 


1 




7 


9 


13 


12 


Prince George's. 


298 


10 


1 


3 


8 


4 


8 


1 


5 


7 


14 


19 


Carroll 


38 


11 





4 


1 


6 


9 






8 


18 


2H 


Charles 


182 


11 





2 


9 


7 


1 


1 





6 


19 


15 


Worcester 


207 


12 


1 


6 


9 


3 


9 


1 


3 


16 


12 


18 


Montgomery. . . 


223 


12 


2 


6 





5 


5 




7 


14 


15 


11 




108 


13 


7 


7 


8 


5 


6 




3 


20 


16 


8 


Howard 


98 


14 


3 


7 


3 


6 


1 




.9 


19 


17 


14 


Queen Anne's. . . 


133 


15 


5 


11 


5 


1 


3 


2 


.7 


21 


5 


21 


Anne Arundel. . 


441 


15 


9 


4 


6 


10 





1 


.3 


13 


21 


16 


Calvert 


328 


27 


1 


6 


4 


19 


4 


1 


.3 


15 


22 


17 


Dorchester 


453 


27 


.9 


11 


.6 


10 





6 


.3 


22 


20 


22 



Late Entrants and Withdrawals, Colored Schools 



173 



WITHDRAWALS ARE FEWER 

In 1929, 2,171 or 7.6 per cent of the total enrollment of colored 
children withdrew from the elementary schools for causes other 
than removal, transfer or death. This included 3.7 per cent who 
withdrew for emploj^ment, 1.1 per cent for mental and physical 
incapacity, .9 per cent because over or under compulsory at- 
tendance ages, 1.5 per cent for poverty, and .4 per cent for other 
causes. Withdrawals for employment and for ages over and 
under those requiring compulsory attendance were lower than in 
1928, but those for physical and mental incapacity and poverty 
were higher. Allegany, Baltimore, Talbot, Carroll and Wicomico 
had fewer than 5 per cent of their colored children withdrawn 
for these causes and in all but seven counties there were fewer 
than in 1928. These seven counties w^ere Queen Anne's, Dor- 

TABLE 107 



Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending June 30, 1929 



County 


Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer or Death 


WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING 


CAUSES 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


PER 


CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 


Number 


Per Cent 


Employ- 
ment 


Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Poverty 


Other 
Causes 


Total and Av . 




























1929 


2,109 


7 


5 


2, 171 




G 


3 


7 


1 


1 


.9 


1.5 


.4 


1928 


2,130 


7 


4 


2,231 


7 


8 


4 


1 


1 





1.1 


1.2 


.4 


1927 


2,340 


8 





2,489 


8 


5 


4 


3 


1 


2 


1 2 


1.5 


.4 


1926 


2,446 


8 


2 


2,697 


9 


9 


4 


9 


1 





1 .h 


19 


6 


1925 


2,459 


8 


6 


3,5X5 


12 


3 


6 


4 


1 


1 


1.7 


2.6 


. 5 


AUeganv 


10 


3 


6 


8 


2 


9 


1 


4 




4 


.4 


.4 


.3 


Baltimore 


227 


11 


2 


65 


3 


2 


1 


4 




8 


.4 


. 5 


. 1 


Talbot 


99 


8 


6 


42 


3 


6 


2 


8 
2 




3 


.5 






Carroll 


25 


7 


2 


14 


4 


1 


3 




3 


.6 






Wicomico 


120 


7 


9 


72 


4 


8 


2 


3 


1 


5 


.9 


.1 




Prince George's 


255 


8 


6 


155 


5 


3 


2 


1 


1 





1.3 


.7 


.3 


Anne Arundel . . 


138 


5 





149 


5 


4 


2 


6 


1 


1 


.6 


.6 


.5 


Montgomery . . . 


127 


6 


9 


104 


5 


7 


2 


1 




7 


1.0 


1.0 


.9 


Frederick 


76 


8 


1 


56 


6 





3 





1 


7 


.4 


.8 


. 1 


Washington .... 


30 


8 


3 


23 


6 


4 


1 


1 


1 


4 


.5 


3.1 


.3 


Charles 


112 


6 


8 


125 


7 


6 


3 


9 




9 


.9 


1.8 


. 1 


Cecil 


50 


10 


3 


38 


7 


9 


4 


8 


1 


5 


.6 


.8 


2 


Howard 


54 


7 


9 


60 


8 


8 


4 


8 


1 





1.8 


.7 


^5 


Calvert 


77 


6 


4 


107 


8 


8 


5 





1 





.6 


1.6 


. 6 


Somerset 


154 


7 


8 


179 


9 


1 


2 


2 




6 


.6 


5.6 


.1 


Caroline 


63 


6 


7 


94 


10 





6 


7 




5 


1.5 


.5 


.8 


St. Mary's 


61 


5 


1 


122 


10 


2 


4 


5 


1 


3 


1 .7 


2.1 


.6 


Harford 


45 


5 


7 


81 


10 


3 


2 


4 




9 


2.3 


3.9 


.8 


Kent 


53 


5 


6 


103 


10 


9 


7 


5 




9 


1 . 1 


1.2 


2 


Worcester 


154 


9 





212 


12 


5 


5 


3 


2 


7 


1.4 


2.6 


.5 


Dorchester .... 


138 


8 


5 


229 


14 


1 


6 


4 


1 


5 


1.6 


3.8 


.8 


Queen Anne's . . 


41 


4 


8 


133 


15 


5 


12 


5 




5 


1.6 


.8 


.1 



174 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

Chester, Worcester, Somerset, Charles, Harford and Frederick. 
In Somerset, Worcester and Dorchester the increases were most 
marked, and in each of these counties poverty was given as the 
chief cause of the increase. (See Table 107.) 

ENROLLMENT BY GRADE 

The enrollment in colored schools was 5,900 in the first grade, 
4,250 in the second grade, 3,900 in the third grade, and only 
2,300 in the seventh grade. These enrollments indicated a de- 
crease from 1928 to 1929 in the number of pupils in grades 1 to 4, 
inclusive, and an increase in each grade above the fourth. The 
high school enrollment, however, is growing rapidly and in 1929 
increased by 293 or 23 per cent over the 1928 enrollment. The 
number of boys exceeded the number of girls in every grade from 
one to six, inclusive. In grade seven the girls took the lead with 
an excess of 310 and continued their advantage in numbers in 
every year of high school. (See Table 108.) 



TABLE 108 

Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools 



GRADE 


Number 


in Each Grade, 
1929 


Per Cent in Each Grade Based on 
Average in Grades 2, 3 and 4 


















Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1929 


1928 


1927 


1925 


1 


3,094 


2,824 


5,918 


148 


158 


166 


187 


2 


2,258 


1,997 


4,255 


107 


106 


104 


102 


3 


2,064 


1,870 


3,934 


99 


98 


100 


102 


4 


1,973 


1,817 


3,790 


95 


96 


95 


96 


5 


1 , 637 


1 , 632 


3,269 


82 


78 


78 


74 


6 


1,334 


1,329 


2,663 


67 


65 


60 


51 


7 


981 


1,291 


2 , 272 


57 


51 


45 


37 


8 


26 


30 


56 


1 


2 


5 


3 


I 


317 


478 


795 


20 


15 


13 


11 


II 


163 


250 


413 


10 


9 


7 


5 


III 


95 


145 


240 


6 


5 


4 


3 


IV 


57 


78 


135 


3 


3 


3 


1 


Grand Total . . 


13,999 


13,741 


27,740 























If the assumption is made, that the average enrollment in 
grades 2, 3 and 4 represents the probable number of children 
entering school each year, then the per cent that the enrollment 
of each grade is of the estimated number entering, shows what 
happens to these entrants. If the same number of children enter 
the first grade each year and if each child is promoted to the next 
higher grade each year, and if every child remains in school 
through high school graduation, then the grade enrollment would 
in each case be 100 per cent of the number of entrants. This of 



Grade Enrollmknt and Graduates, Colored Schools 



175 



course is a hypothetical situation, but a comparison of the actual 
situation with the assumed one, gives considerable information. 

The first grade enrollment, instead of being 100 was 148. In 
other words 48 out of every 148 children in the first grade, i. e. 
32 per cent, nearly one-third, were repeaters. Unless there were 
many children who repeated the first grade a second time, 48 out 
of every 100 children who entered the first grade were considered 
failures and were forced to repeat the year's work. Although 
the number of first grade repeaters is still very large, it has been 
materially reduced in the past few years. (See Table 108.) 

Approximately 57 out of each 100 entrants reach grade 7. 
This is an increase of 6 over the corresponding figure for 1928 
and of 20 over the number four years ago. About one fifth of 
the entrants to the elementary school reached the first year of 
high school in 1929 and 3 of each 100 colored entrants to ele- 
mentary school survived to the last year of high school. The 
figures for the first three years of high school indicate growth 
over the corresponding figures for preceding years. (See Table 
108.) 

GRADUATES OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

The number of colored pupils completing the work of the pub- 
lic elementary schools has been increasing each year. In June, 
1929 there were graduated 1,810 colored children or 6.9 per cent 
of the total elementary school enrollment.* There were 284 more 
graduates than for the preceding year and the number from 1923 
to 1929 almost doubled. In 1928 the graduates included 5.7 per 
cent of the total enrollment in elementary schools and in 1923 
only 3.3. Although there were more boys enrolled in the colored 
elementary schools, the number of girl graduates exceeded by 
344 the number of boy graduates. Of the increase in graduates 
in 1929 which totalled 284, however, 191 were boys and 93 were 
girls, making the difference between number of bov and girl 
graduates almost 100 less than in 1928. (See Tabic 109.) 

TABLE 109 
Colored County Elementary School Graduates 



Number 



Year Boys Girls 

1923 350 637 

1924 427 706 

1925 487 705 

1926 483 820 

1927 542 909 

1928 .542 984 

1929 733 1,077 



Per Cent 



Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


987 


2*3 


4.3 


3.3 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1.303 


3.5 


6.1 


4 8 


1.451 


4.0 


6.8 


5 4 


1 . 526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1.810 


5.5 


8.4 


6 9 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 



176 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 21 



County 



PER CENT 0? GRADUATES 
IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED ELEJSIITARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 

1929 

Number 

Boys Girls ■■iPer Cent Boys r7777 Per Cent Girls 



V//////A 



Total and 


733 




Co. Average 




1077 


Cecil 


16 


35 


St. Mary's 


43 


73 


Carroll 


18 


13 


Wicomico 


61 


72 


Somerset 


59 


111 


Caroline 


34 


46 


Kent 


24 


51 


Howard 


18 


34 


Talbot 


40 


47 


Worcester 


52 


70 


Harford 


23 


34 


Dorchester 


44 


68 


Frederick 


26 


38 


Washington 


11 


13 


Allegany 


7 


9 


Pr. George's 


66 


92 


Queen Anne's 


20 


26 


Charles 


31 


55 


Montgome ry 


35 


51 


Baltimore 


43 


47 


Anne Arundel 


41 


67 


Calvert 


21 


25 



8.4 




114. 4 ////////////////////////////////////X 






113.3 V///////////////////////////////A 


18?^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




3.4 






n 0. 7 V////////////////////////X 


6.3 




112.7 V/////////////////////////////A 






111.3 V/////////////////////////A 



"zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzn 



v////////////m 



6.6 





8 '/////////////A 



67 I 5.1 



V////A 



25 I ^,^'/////7A 



With only one exception, Carroll, the individual counties 
showed the same preponderance of girl over boy graduates. This 
is indicated by the difference in length of the black and cross- 
hatched bars in Chart 21. The counties are ranked on the basis 



Graduates and Non Promotions, Colored Elementary Schools 177 



of the ratio of all graduates to total enrollment.* For boys the 
range in per cent of graduates to total enrollment was from 3.1 
in Anne Arundel to 10.8 per cent in Carroll and for girls from 4.5 
in Calvert to 14.4 in Cecil. Cecil and Carroll, which were first 
and third in rank, respectively, had small enrollments in the col- 
ored schools. St. Mary's ranked second with 7.2 and 13.3 per 
cent of boys and girls, respectively. The improvement in St. 
Mary's is so marked that it has risen from the very lowest rank 
in 1928 to second highest in 1929. In 1928 in St. Mary's a large 
number of the seventh grade colored children were not promoted. 
Since there is no high school for colored children in St. Mary's, 
the elementary schools held these children another year and their 
graduation in 1929 undoubtedly accounts for a portion of this 
most marked increase. 

Carroll County moved from 17th place in 1928 to 3rd place 
in 1929. Although the number of graduates in 1929 was more 
than twice as large as in the preceding year, the numbers in- 
volved are small and therefore subject to rather marked fluctua- 
tion. Montgomery had a much lower number and per cent of 
graduates in 1929 than in 1928. (See Cfmrt 21.) 

NON-PROMOTIONS IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of colored pupils who were not pro- 
moted in 1929 showed the same steady decrease as in previous 
years. There were 3,230 boys and 2,361 girls, 417 fewer boys 
and 296 fewer girls than in 1928, who were considered unfit to 
undertake work in a higher grade the succeeding year. For the 
first time since these figures have been recorded, have the boys 
not promoted included fewer than a fourth of all boys enrolled 
and the girls fewer than a fifth. It is encouraging to find that 
the non-promotions in 1929 are just over one half of the number 
in 1923, six years ago. (See Table 110.) 

TABLE 110 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary 

Schools 

Number Per Cent 



Year Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 

1923 5,722 4,616 10,338 38.3 31.1 34.7 

1924 5,173 4,104 9,277 35.5 28.5 32.0 

1925 4,800 3,700 8,500 33.2 26.3 29.8 

1926 4,359 3.334 7,693 31.5 24.6 28. 1 

1927 4,015 3,091 7,106 29.5 23.3 26.4 

1928 3,647 2,657 6,304 27.1 20.2 23.7 

1929 3,230 2,361 5,591 24.2 18.5 21.4 



* Exclusive of withdrawal.s for removal, transfer and death. 

In the counties the per cent of colored elementary school boys 
who failed varied from 13.9 per cent in Carroll to 37.8 per cent 



178 



1929 Eeport of State Department of Education 



CHART 22 



mOHR MTD PER CEliT OF COUITrf COLORED ELEI.ZirTARY PUPILS NOT PROI-IOTED 

1929 



County 
Total and 



Number 
Boys Girls 



24 



Co. Average 
Carroll 
Talbot 
Allegany 
pr. George's 267 
Washington 3o 
Caroline 
Somerset 
Charles 
Cecil 
Wicomico 
Kent 

St. Mary's 
Anne Arun. 
Dorchester 
Worcester 
Howard 
Montgomery 

Harford 
Frederick 



3230 2361 

£3 
93 



116 
221 
167 
49 
176 
110 
139 
316 
178 
197 

75 
236 

95 
124 



Queen Anne's 
Baltimore 

Calvert 



126 
240 

220 



Per Cent 3oys ^ZZZZlPer Cent Girls 
I 16.5 7/////^^^^^ 



20 
201 
24 
54 

133 
134 
36 
117 

80 
106 
255 
151 
148 

66 

159 
76 
81 
71 
201 
157 




1 h . V///// //////A 



1 n . 3 V//// ///////A 



24-4 



13.3 y////////A 



1 7 .8 V///////////^//A 



1 9 .4 V///////////////A 



23.8 



1 Q .4 V//////////////A 



20 . 2 y////////////////A 



1 ^.^V///////////////A 



21 . Z//////////////////7\ 



25.4 



2.\ .0 '//// //////////////A 



19 . 1 '///////////////A 



29.0 



1 fl. r. ////////////////A 



22.8 //////////////// ////A 



28 . 4 V/////////////////////////A 



in Calvert. For girls there was a range from 12.3 per cent in 
Talbot to 28.4 per cent in Calvert. Calvert which had the largest 
percentage of failure for both boys and girls, had a much lower 
percentage of attendance in colored schools than any other 
county in the State. (See Chart 22 and Table 104, page 170.) 



NoN Promotions in Colored Elementary Schools 



179 



Carroll, Talbot, Allegany and Prince George's had fewer than 
20 per cent of their boys not promoted. The first three counties 
just mentioned, as well as Caroline and Cecil, had under 15 per 
cent of the girls as failures. St. Mary's, which had the highest 
percentage of failures in its colored elementary schools in 1928, 
ranked twelfth in 1929, having reduced the failures for boys 
from 41.7 to 23.4 per cent and for girls from 35.8 to 19.4. In 9 
counties the number and per cent of failures for both boys and 
girls were lower than in 1928, the reductions being largest in 
Talbot, Caroline, Anne Arundel, Charles, St. Mary's, Worcester, 
and Frederick. In four counties, however, Harford, Howard, 
Kent and Washington, the number and per cent of failures for 
both boys and girls increased from 1928 to 1929. (See ChaH 
22.) 

Non-promotions by grade are showm in Chart 23. The 1929 
figures were lower in every grade than the corresponding ones 
for the preceding year, with the exception of those for eighth 
grade boys and fifth grade girls. The reductions were less 
marked in Grades 1 and 2, but from Grades 3 to 7, inclusive, the 
decreases, except for girls in Grade 5, were noteworthy. (See 
Chart 23.) 

CHART 23 



Number 
Grade Bosrs Girls 



1929 NQIJ-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES 
COUNTY COLORED ELELENTARY SCHOOLS 



Per Cent Boys ^///a Per Cent Girls 



1 

2 

3 
4 

3 
6 
7 
8 



1063 
433 
377 
445 
347 
324 
235 
6 




982 I ^ ft 



881 I 14.1 ///// ////////A 

204 TiSr^^ ^^^f 

209 




225 I T.-^.fl '/// /////////T 

193 \T^^^^^^^^ 

205 ft^^^^^ ^^^^^TX 

2 1^^^^ 



In all except the first grade there were more bovs than girls 
not promoted, although the percentages of boys and girls not pro- 
moted were slightly lower than in the preceding vear. More 



180 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



than a third of all the boys and girls enrolled in the first grade, 
and nearly one-half of the colored children who entered school 
for the first time during the school year 1928-29, failed of pro- 
motion. This can be explained in part by the number of children 
in the first grade who attended school for a very short session. 
Little or no transportation is provided for colored pupils, and it 
is often impossible for the very young children to walk the re- 
quired distance in very rainy or cold weather. The first grade 
included 37 per cent of all non-promotions reported for the col- 
ored elementary schools. 

The problem for teachers and supervisors of colored schools is 
to make even greater efforts to keep so many children from being 
discouraged at the very beginning of their school career. It may 
prove helpful in reducing failures to discourage the enrollment 
of underage and immature children and to emphasize the need 
for the employment of teachers well trained in primary methods. 
(See Chart 23.) 

COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

The figures for enrollment, average number belonging, and 
average attendance in the county colored high schools, show 
marked increases over corresponding figures for 1928. The en- 
rollment of 1,610 is 278, or 20.9 per cent higher than in 1928, 
and the 1,451 belonging and 1,344 in average attendance indicate 
increases over 1928 of 27.6 and 28.5 per cent, respectively. The 
number of high school graduates is also increasing, and in 1929, 
121 colored pupils successfully completed a four-year high school 
course. (See Table 111.) 

TABLE 111 

Enrollment, Attendance, Average Number Belonging and Graduates in 
Approved Colored County High Schools of Maryland, 1916-1929 







Average 




Four- Year 


'ar Ending 


Enrollment 


Number 


Average 


High School 


July 31 




Belonging 


Attendance 


Graduates 


1921 


251 




189 




1922 


368 


* 


292 


' 5 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 



*Average number belonging not available before 1923. 

For individual high schools, see Table XXXVII, pages 352-357. 

The increase in the number of colored children taking ad- 
vantage of high school opportunities can be seen from the ratio 
of the number belonging in high schools to the total number of 



NoN Promotions and Colored High Schools 



181 



colored children in both elementary and high schools combined 
for 1929 and for previous years. In 1929 the county colored 
high school population included 5.6 per cent of all colored chil- 
dren in public schools. This is to say that of every 100 colored 
children in public elementary and high schools in 1929, 5.6 were 
in high schools and 94.4 in elementary schools. In 1928, only 4.4 
per cent were in high school, and in 1924 only 2 children out of 
every 100 in school were beyond the elementary grades. 

Four counties — Allegany, Wicomico, Talbot and Washington — 
had more than 10 per cent of their colored public school children 
in high school. There were only four counties — Queen Anne's, 
Montgomery, Charles and Carroll — which had high schools 
within their borders that fell below the State average of 5.6 per 
cent. Baltimore, Calvert, Harford, Howard and St. Mary's are 
not included in Table 112, because they had no high schools 
within their county boundaries. Baltimore County, however, 
paid the tuition at the Frederick Douglass Junior-Senior High 
School in Baltimore City of 18 junior and 59 senior high school 
pupils. These pupils were seventh grade graduates who success- 
fully passed examinations given by the county school authorities. 
Were these pupils included, Baltimore County would have had 
4.1 colored pupils in high school for every 100 pupils in the total 
made up of the Baltimore County elementary school enrollment 
plus the high school pupils in Baltimore City whose tuition was 
paid by Baltimore County. But the Baltimore Countj^ children 
were included for Baltimore City, thus helping to raise the ratio 
for Baltimore City from 9.8 to 10.2. (See Table 112.) 

TABLE 112 



Ratio of Average Number Belonging in Colored High Schools to Number 
Belonging in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined 



County 


1924 


19: 


27 


19: 


28 


19; 


29 


County 


1924 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County Average.. 


2.0 


3 


.9 


4 


.4 


5 


.0 


Worcester 




5.2 


5.0 


6 3 


















Dorchester 


4.7 


4.6 


5 . 5 


5.9 


Allegany 


11.9 


15 


.6 


15 


.1 


13 


.9 


Prince George's . . 


1 . o 


2.9 


2.1 


5.9 


Wicomico 


6.0 


7. 


.2 


8, 


.4 


11. 


.9 


Caroline 


2.3 


5.6 


5 . 5 


5.6 


Talbot 


3.0 


6 


.2 


8 


.4 


11 


.1 


Carroll 


4.0 


5.8 


4.7 


4.2 






7, 


.2 


10 


.6 


10 


.9 


Charles 


1.8 


3.2 


3.6 


4.1 


Frederick 


6.7 


7. 


8 


9. 


,8 


9, 


,8 


Montgomery 






1.6 


4.0 


Kent 


3.0 


4. 


8 


6 


1 


8. 


5 


Queen Anne's . . . 


2.0 


3^1 


2.8 


1 .9 


Somerset 


1.6 


6 


3 


6 


.9 


8. 


1 












Cecil 




8. 


6 


5 


8 


7. 


2 


Baltimore City . . 


9.2 


10.0 


9 9 


10 2 


Anne Arundel . . . 


2,5 


4. 


6 


5. 


9 


6. 


4 




























Total State. . . 


4.7 


6. 1 


6.7 


7.6 



The increase in Prince George's is xery marked and resulted 
from the establishment of two new high schools. (See Table 
112.) 



182 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



COLORED HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IMPROVED 

The per cent of average number belonging in average atten- 
dance in the Maryland county colored high schools in 1929 was 
92.6, an increase of .6 over the 1928 figure. In no county was 
the per cent of attendance under 85, and Carroll, Caroline and 
Charles were the only counties that did not attain at least 90 
per cent for the year. Anne Arundel, which was lowest in the 
State in 1928, moved up to almost the middle position in 1929, 
with an increase in per cent of attendance from 84.9 to 91.5. 
Improvement was also quite marked in Prince George's and Alle- 
gany. The only counties that showed decreases under 1928 fig- 
ures were Wicomico, Worcester, Caroline and Cecil. In Balti- 
more City the per cent of attendance was 90.3, making the figure 
for the State as a whole 91.3. (See Table 113.) 

TABLE 113 

Per Cent of Attendance in County Colored High Schools, 1923-1929 



County 


1923 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County 


1923 


1927 


1928 


1929 


County Average . . . 


. 89 


.3 


90. 


.7 


92 


.0 


92 


.6 


Anne Arundel. ... 


88. 


9 


89. 


7 


84. 


9 


91, 


.5 


















Worcester 






94 


.1 


95 


. 1 


91 


.4 


Washington 






96. 


.6 


97 


.2 


97. 


.4 


Kent 


86 


^3 


86 


.5 


90 


.0 


91 


.2 


Dorchester 


87 


4 


93. 


2 


92 


.4 


94 


.8 


Cecil 






85. 


.4 


91 


.2 


90 


.9 


Talbot 


87. 


.3 


90. 


9 


92 


.9 


94 


.7 


Prince George's.. . 






81 


.6 


86 


.2 


90 


.3 


Somerset 






94. 


1 


94 


.2 


94. 


6 


Charles 


88 


A 


88, 


,6 


87, 


.4 


89 


.2 


Allegany 


93^ 


5 


92. 


7 


91 


.7 


94. 


.5 


Caroline 


85. 


.6 


91. 


4 


90 


,0 


87. 


.3 


Wicomico 


90. 


5 


92. 


3 


97 





93 


.9 


Carroll 






66. 


.7 


87. 


.8 


85. 


.9 


Frederick 


90 


. 5 


92. 


3 


93 


.1 


93 


.6 




















Montgomery 










91 


.8 


93 


. 5 


Baltimore City. . . 


. 88 


.8 


89 


.1 


90 


.0 


90 


.3 


Queen Anne's 






89. 


^8 


88 


.3 


92 


.1 




































Total State 


88 


.9 


89. 


.7 


90 


.8 


91, 


,3 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table V, page 312, and for individual high 
schools, see Table XXXVII, pages 352-357. 

MORE COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED 

There were 14 first group colored high schools in thirteen of 
the Maryland counties in 1929, all except one giving a four-year 
course. Somerset had two first group schools, one giving only a 
three year course. There were ten second group schools, one in 
Carroll giving three years of work and the remainder having two 
years of work. The latter group included three in Worcester, 
two in Prince George's, and one in Montgomery, Queen Anne's, 
Talbot and Wicomico. There were two new second group schools 
organized in Prince George's and one in Wicomico County. Bal- 
timore, Calvert, Harford, Howard and St. Mary's had no high 
schools for colored pupils within their borders, but Baltimore 
County paid the tuition in the Baltimore City colored junior- 
senior high school for those colored pupils whom it considered 
capable of profiting by such education. (See Tables 90 and 91, 
pages 144 and 145.) 



Colored High School Enrollment and Graduates 



183 



MOKE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 

Fifty boys and 71 girls were graduated from the county col- 
ored four-year high schools. In 19.28, the graduates numbered 
42 boys and 75 girls. More pupils were graduated from the col- 
ored high schools in Washington, Prince George's, Talbot, 
Charles, Caroline and Carroll in 1929 than in 1928, the increases 
being most marked in the last three counties. The greatest de- 
creases in number of graduates occurred in Dorchester and 
Wicomico. (See Table 114.) 

TABLE 114 

1929 Colored County Four- Year Hiffh School Graduates and Those who 
Entered Bowie Normal School in September, 1929 



1929 Four- Year Junior Entrants 
Graduates Bowie Normal School 
County Fall, 1929 





Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




1 


2 


1 


1 


Prince George's 


2 


6 


1 


2 




5 


8 


1 


3 


Talbot 


3 


10 


1 


3 




5 


5 


2 


1 


Anne Arundel 


5 


6 




3 


Dorchester 


4 


4 


i 


1 


Frederick 


4 


4 


*1 


1 




2 


2 




1 


Caroline 


3 


7 


"i 


1 


Wicomico 


10 


6 


1 


2 


Carroll 


2 


° 5 


1 




Allegany 


2 


3 






Cecil 


2 


3 






Total 


50 


71 


11 


19 


Per Cent 






22.2 


26.8 


Baltimore City 








2 


St. Francis Academy 








2 


Washington, D. C 








1 


Graduates of ])revious years: 










Counties 






1 


4 


Bowie Normal 






1 


1 


Baltimore City 








2 


Washington, D. C 








*1 










1 


Grand Total 






13 


33 



♦Withdrawn. 

For individual hiph schools, see Table XXXVII. papres 352-357. 

Entrants to Bowie Normal School in 1929 

When Bowie Normal School opened in the fall of 1929 it had 
to draw its junior class membership entirely from the graduates 
of the county high schools. The high school department of the 
Bowie Normal School, which up to this time had prepared more 
pupils for the normal school than any other institution, had been 



184 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



discontinued the preceding year. A lower normal school enroll- 
ment was consequently to be expected. In addition, however, the 
counties sent but 30 of their high school graduates to the normal 
school, 16 fewer than the year before. The total number of en- 
trants in the fall of 1929 was 46, contrasted with 77 in 1928. 
Four of the counties, however, Talbot, Frederick, Washington 
and Carroll, did send an increased number of graduates to the 
Bowie Normal School. (See Table 114.) 

Activities of 1928 Graduates of Colored High Schools 

The work in the four year colored high schools is evidently 
creating an interest in further education as well as laying the 
foundations on which this education can be based. Of the 42 
boys who were graduated in June, 1928, from the county high 
schools, 10 attended normal school, 13 went to college or trade 
schools, 2 took college preparatory work, and 1 was in a 
music school during the year 1928-29. This makes a total of 
26 boys — 62 per cent of all boy graduates — who received during 
1929 some form of education beyond the regular high school. 
Thirty-five of the 75 girl graduates attended normal school, 8 
went to college or trade schools, and 2 studied in schools giving 
training in art, music or home economics. Thus 45, or 60 per 
cent of all the girls graduated in 1928, were continuing their edu- 
cation during the school year 1928-29. Of the remainder, 6 girls 
were in training for nursing, 2 boys and 3 girls were reported 
as working at home, 5 boys and 13 girls were in domestic service, 
6 girls were married, and 2 boys were farming and 2 in indus- 
trial work. 

COURSES AND SUBJECTS GIVEN IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS IN 

1928-29 

All of the colored high schools except those in Talbot and Wor- 
cester offered the academic course. In these two counties the 
general course was given. (See Tahle XXXVI, pages 346-351.) 

Every high school for colored pupils provided courses in Eng- 
lish, mathematics and social studies. Moreover, every pupil en- 
rolled received instruction in English, and except in Annapolis 
and Elkton, the entire high school enrollment in all four years 
received instruction in mathematics. In only four high schools- — 
Annapolis, Pomonkey, Rockville and Princess Anne — were social 
studies courses not given to every high school pupil in all of the 
years. Of the total county high school enrollment, 95 per cent 
received instruction in the social studies. Only one colored high 
school — Hagerstown— offered no science. In 14 of the 24 high 
schools the entire enrollment took courses in science, and for the 
State as a whole 84 per cent of the boys and 85 per cent of the 
girls were instructed in science during 1928-29. The per cent 
of the enrollment which took the social studies and science is far 



Graduates and Subjects, Colored High Schools 



185 



larger than in 1928. Latin was again offered in 12 high schools, 
but was chosen by a smaller percentage of all the county high 
school boys and girls than previously — 24 per cent of the boys 
and 25 per cent of the girls. French was offered in Cumberland 
and Rockville instead of Latin. Ten high schools gave no courses 
in foreign languages. 

Manual training was available in 13 high schools and was 
chosen by every boy in these schools with the exception of Cris- 
field. For the State as a whole, fewer than 60 per cent of the boys 
received instruction in this special subject. In Marlboro, agri- 
culture was given instead of manual training. Home economics 
was given to the girls in 16 high schools. Three-quarters of all 
the girls in the Maryland county high schools had work in home 
economics. Music was given to the total enrollment in seven 
high schools. Only two schools, Pomonkey and Princess Anne, 
had physical education, and in the latter the pupils took art 
courses as well. 

ENROLLMENT AND SCHOOL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CITY OF 

BALTIMORE 

In Baltimore City the average number belonging in colored 
day schools totalled 19,977, of whom 2,028 were in the last four 
years of high school. The high schools were open for 188.8 days, 
with a percentage of attendance of 90. 

In addition to the regular elementary junior and senior high 
schools, Baltimore City had a vocational school for the colored 
boys and one for the colored girls. In the second semester of 
1928-1929, 283 boys and girls were enrolled in these schools. 

The evening shools enabled those who were busy in the day- 
time to continue their work in either the elementary, secondarj^ 
or vocational schools. The total evening school enrollment 
included 2,862 colored people. Of these 1,334 were in elementary 
classes, 424 were doing high school work and 1,104 were taking 
vocational work. (See Table 137, page 221.) 

The summer schools enrolled 2,377 pupils, and 1,925 of these 
remained until the end of the session. Of those who completed 
the session, 1,636 had taken review work and 289 advanced work. 
(See Table 136, page 220.) 

THE TEACHING STAFF IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

Certification Improved 

In October, 1929, there were 631 colored elementaiy school 
teachers holding regular first grade certificates. This means 
that 86.7 per cent of all the colored elementary teachers had a 
normal school education or its equivalent and had fulfilled the 
summer school requirement for teachers in service. Four teach- 
ers held provisional first grade certificates. These figures show 



186 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



marked improvement over 1928. In the earlier year there were 
only 598 colored elementary teachers, or 81.4 per cent, with reg- 
ular first grade certificates. This means a gain from 1928 to 
1929 of 33 in number and 5.3 in per cent holding first grade cer- 
tificates. (See Table XII, page 319.) 

There were corresponding decreases in the number and per 
cent holding second and third grade certificates, the number hold- 
ing second grade certificates being lower by 31, and holding third 
grade certificates by 5. There were still 23 teachers holding 
third grade certificates, one of them having a provisional certifi- 
cate. 

As in 1928, Allegany and Kent have 100 per cent of their col- 
ored elementary teachers holding regular first grade certificates. 
There are five counties — Prince George's, Cecil, Montgomery, 
Carroll and Washington — which have at least 90 per cent of their 
teachers with first grade certificates. In but two counties, Caro- 
line and Harford, were there fewer than 80 per cent of the teach- 
ers holding first grade certificates. 

In five counties — Montgomery, Frederick, Charles, Caroline, 
and Dorchester — the per cent of teachers holding regular first 
grade certificates in October, 1929, exceeded by more than 10 the 
corresponding percentages for 1928. Only three counties — 
Queen Anne's, Worcester and Calvert — showed lower figures 
than in 1928. 

Of 73 colored high school teachers, 89.0 per cent held regular 
certificates. In eleven counties every colored high school teacher 
was regularly certificated. (See Table XII, page 319.) 

The certification status of the counties can be improved only 
if each vacancy is filled by a teacher with a first grade or regular 
certificate. Those teachers who are already in the service but 
who hold second and third grade certificates can raise their cer- 
tificates only by continued summer school attendance, and to a 
limited degree, by correspondence courses. 

Summer School Attendance 

Of the colored teachers in service in October, 1929, 231 or 
28.6 per cent were reported by county superintendents as having 
attended summer school in 1929. This number was 20 fewer 
than for the preceding year. The law requires summer school 
attendance within the first three years of teaching, and there- 
after once in every four year period, if the teaching certificate is 
to be held valid. A county should, therefore, over a period of 
years, average at least 25 per cent of the teaching force in atten- 
dance at summer school. Great variation from year to year is 
to be expected, especially where the colored teaching force is 
small and where the number of inexperienced teachers appointed 
is large. (See Table 115.) 



Training and Summer School Attendance of Colored Teachers 187 



TABLE 115 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Colored Teachers in Service in 
October, 1929 Reported by County Superintendents as Attending 

Summer Schools in 1929 



County 



Teachers Employed 

Oct.. 1929 Who 
Attended Summer 
School, 1929 



Number 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 



Total and Average. 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Washington 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. . . . 

Harford 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's . . . . , 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester 

W^icomico 

Howard 

Carroll 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Frederick 



231 


28 


6 


t5 


50 





24 


47 


1 


6 


46 


2 


14 


40 





tl6 


37 


2 


17 


36 


2 


30 


36 


1 


9 


36 





6 


35 


3 


•t9 


33 


3 


t8 


33 


3 


tr2i 


28 





11 


26 


2 


11 


24 


4 


4 


22 


2 


t3 


21 


4 


10 


18 


5 


7 


17 


9 


•5 


17 


2 


5 


15 


6 


6 


12 





4 


11 


4 



Total 

Hampton Institute 

Morgan College 

Bowie Normal School 

Howard University 

Columbia 

University of Pennsylvania . . . 

Temple University 

Petersburg 

St. Paul Acad. & Nor. School. 

West Chester 

Pittsburgh 

Virginia State Normal College. 

Shippensburg 

Ocean City, N.J 

Cornell 

A. & T. College 

Indianapolis T. C 

Indiana State Teacher's Coll.. 
Geneseo State Nor. School. . . . 



231 

tt***122 
41 

♦••*19 

13 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
4 
2 

•2 



* Includes one who attended 6 weeks at another school and is included twice. 
t Includes supervisor. 

t Includes one teacher who attended for 12 weeks. 



Allegany, which ranked highest in 1929, with 50 per cent in 
summer school attendance, was next to the lowest in 1928, and, 
on the other hand, Frederiek dropped from the highest percent- 
age in 1928 to the lowest in 1929. Eleven counties had more than 
one-third of their colored teachers in summer school in 1929, and 
in four of the counties — Allegany, Baltimore, Washington and 
St. Mary's — this was true of at least 40 per cent of the teaching 
staff in colored schools. In 1928 only one county had less than 
20 per cent doing summer school work, whereas the 1929 figures 
show six counties — Frederick, Dorchester, Kent, Carf^line, Talbot 
and Somerset — in this group. (See Table 115.) 

As in previous years, Hampton Institute drew the largest num- 
ber of Maryland teachers — 122. Morgan College had tlie next 
largest group — 41 — and Bowie Normal School, which enrolls for 
the summer session only those with second and third grade cer- 
tificates, had only 19 Maryland teachers. (See Tabic 115.) 

Experience of Teachers in Coh>red Schools 

In October, 1929, the median years of experience of 802 col- 
ored elementary and high school teachers was 3.4 years, .1 higher 



188 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



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EXPERIEN'CE AND TURNOVER IN" COLORED SCHOOLS 



189 



than for the preceding year. Forty-seven per cent had less than 
three years of experience, and only 13 per cent more than 15 
years. The counties ranged from a median experience of 1.6 to 
1.8 years in Carroll, Somerset, Talbot, Kent, and Dorchester to 
between 8 and 9 years in Harford, Washington and Baltimore 
Counties. (See Table 116.) 

Whereas 183, or 23 per cent, of the county colored teachers 
were inexperienced in October, 1928, this was true of but 158 
teachers, or 19.7 per cent, a year later. The number and per cent 
with one year of experience showed a corresponding increase. 
This indicates a tendency toward longer service. There is a 
considerable drop between the number of teachers with one year 
of experience and with two years. Because of the small number 
of county high schools for colored pupils and the recency of our 
normal school courses, the counties have had to depend for a 
large part of the teaching staff on those trained in other States 
or in Baltimore City. When opportunities nearer home arise, 
those from outside the county are likely to leave the county 
schools. These conditions emphasize the advantage it will be to 
the counties to develop their high schools as preparatory schools 
for the normal school, so that they may depend on their own 
county graduates to return for service in their elementary 
schools. (See Table 116.) 

Turnover Reduced 

The year 1928-29 was characterized by 23 fewer changes in 
the teaching staff than were found in the preceding year. There 
were 46 additional teachers required in order to keep the 797 
positions filled. This included 6 per cent of the staff. Six coun- 
ties — Allegany, Carroll, Harford, Queen Anne's, Somerset and 
Washington — had no changes during the year in the colored 
teaching staff, and other counties had to replace from 1 to 5 

TABLE 117 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Cx)lored Teachers Who Beiran 
Teaching in the Fall of 1928 and Who Left Service Before the 
End of School Year in 1929 



County X 


umber 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


40 


5.8 


Howard 


1 


5.3 






St. Marv's 


9 


5.7 


Allep;anv 






Cecil 


1 


5.8 


Carroll 






Frederick 


O 


5.9 


Harford 






Montgomery 


3 


0.6 








Caroline 


9 


0.0 


Soniorsot 






Charles 


3 


0.8 


Washington 






Baltimore .... 


4 


7.9 


Wicomico 


1 


2.3 


Dorchester 


5 


10.0 


Worcester 


1 


2.3 


Talbot 


5 


13.4 


Prince (leorge's . . . 


3 


3.8 


Kent 


5 


15.7 


Anne Arundel 


3 


4.0 


Calvert 


5 


19.2 



190 



1929 Eeport of State Department of Education 



teachers, which included from 2 to 19 per cent of the staff. Dor- 
chester, Talbot, Kent and Calvert Counties each had 5 changes 
during the year. (See Table 117.) 

Increase in Men Teaching in Colored Schools 

For the first time since 1923 the number of men teaching in 
county colored schools showed an increase. In the year ending in 
June, 1929, there were 104 men, 11 more than for the preceding 
year. The increase was largely due to the employment of the 
men who were graduated from the Bowie Normal School. Ap- 
proximately one in each eight teachers in county colored schools 
was a man. In 1924, five years earlier, one out of every six 
county colored teachers was a man. Women are probably better 
adapted to give instruction in the primary grades than are men. 
For the upper grades and high school it is probably more de- 
sirable that a number of men be employed. (See Table 118.) 

TABLE 118 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County Colored Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1923 135 18.3 

1924 129 16.9 

1925 126 16.5 

1926 108 14.0 



Year Number Per Cent 

1927 107 13.8 

1928 93 11.8 

1929 104 13.0 



Three counties, Calvert, Charles and Howard, employed no 
men for the colored schools. In Harford, Worcester, Wicomico, 
Somerset and Carroll from one-fourth to one-fifth of the teachers 
were men. The policy of employing men for positions which re- 
quire work in the primary grades is questionable and may, in 
some cases, explain the high percentage of failure in the first 
grade. (See Table 119.) 

TABLE 119 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County Colored 
Schools for Year Ending^ July 31, 1929 



Men Te.\chers 


COUNTY 


Men TE.A.CHER8 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


103.6 


13.0 


Frederick 


3.8 


11.2 






Dorchester 


5.7 


11.4 






Queen Anne's 


3 


13.5 






Anne Arundel 


10.2 


13.7 






Washington 


2 


15.4 


i ' 


5^8 


Talbot 


6.2 


16.7 


3,1 


8.9 


Baltimore 


9 


17.7 


7 


9.0 


Carroll 


3 


22.2 


4.4 


9.7 


Somerset 


12 


22.6 


3.1 


9.7 


Wicomico 


10 


22.7 


3 


9.9 


Worcester 


9.9 


23.2 


1 


10.0 


Harford 


6.2 


24.6 



COUNTY 



Total and Average 

Calvert 

Charles 

Howard 

Cecil 

St. Mary's 

Prince George's. . . 

Montgomery 

Kent 

Caroline 

Allegany 



For number of men teachers arrang-ed alphabetically by counties, see Table VIII. page 

315. 



Men Teachers and Size of Class, Colored Schools 



191 



AVERAGE SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

SMALLER 

For the school year 1928-29 there were 33.3 pupils belonging 
on the average for every colored elementary teacher in the Mary- 
land counties. This was .4 smaller than the corresponding size 
of class in 1928. The slight increase in the number belonging 
per teacher in the Baltimore City colored elementary schools 
(34.7 in 1929) made the size of the average class for the State 
as a whole (33.9), identical with the corresponding number for 
1928. (See Chart 24.) 

The average size of class ranged from 41.4 in Allegany to 25.0 
in Carroll. Six counties — Allegany, Calvert, Prince George's, 

CHART 24 



AVERAGE NIKHER BELCmWG PER 1KACHER IN COLORED KLKMEHTARY 3CEQ0I3 



County 
Co. Avei-age 

Allegany 
Calvert 
Pr. George's 
Anne Arandel 
Montgomery 
Worcester 
Charles 
Scsnerset 
Baltimore 
Queea Anne's 
Wicomico 
Talbot 
Ho?fard 
St. Mary's 
Caroline 
Dorchester 
Washington 
Kent 
Cecil 
Harford 
Frederick 
Carroll 

Baltimore City 36.4 
State 34.3 




For average number belonKinK teacher by counties arranKctl aliihabeiically, see 

Table XIII. page 320. 



192 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Anne Arundel, Montgomery, and Worcester — had on the average 
more than 35 pupils belonging for every teacher in the colored 
elementary schools. Five of the counties — Carroll, Frederick, 
Harford, Cecil and Kent had fewer than 29 pupils belonging per 
colored elementary teacher. In fourteen counties there was a 
smaller number belonging in 1929 than in 1928, and in St. 
Mary's, Cecil, and Calvert there were at least two fewer pupils 
per teacher. (See Chart 24.) 

A check of the enrollment and attendance data during 1928-29 
showed that there were 38 colored schools where the attendance 
justified the employment of an additional teacher. There were 
five such schools in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Montgomery and 
Prince George's; three in Dorchester, Wicomico and Worcester; 
two in Charles and Somerset ; and one in Calvert, Caroline, How- 
ard, Queen Anne's and Talbot. In every case it is because of a 
lack of classrooms that these schools are understaffed. (See 
Chart 24.) For the counties arranged in alphabetical order see 
Table XIII, page 320 and Table XXXIII, page 341.) 

The average number belonging per teacher in the county col- 
ored high schools was 23.1, an increase of 1.6 pupils over the 
1928 figure. The range was from 36.2 in Wicomico and 32.0 in 
Worcester to 8.7 in Carroll, 11.4 in Allegany, and 11.7 in Queen 
Anne's. The greatest changes appeared in the large increase in 
pupils per teacher in Carroll, Cecil, Prince George's, Somerset, 
Wicomico and Worcester and the decreases in Caroline, Anne 
Arundel, Allegany, Charles and Queen Anne's. (See Table XIII, 
page 320, and also Table XXXIV, page 342.) 

INCREASE IN AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER 
Elementary Schools 

The average salary of the county colored elementary school 
teacher was $621 for the school year 1928-29. This was $19 
higher than the 1928 average salary and an increase of 119 per 
cent over the average salary 10 years ago. (See Table 119.) 



TABLE 119 

Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1917-1929 



Year Ending 


Average 


Year Ending 


Average 


i June 30 


Salary 


June 30 


Salary 


' 1917 


$228 


1924 


$532 


1918 


279 


1925 


546 


1919 


283 


1926 


563 


1920 


359 


1927 


586 


1921 


442 


1928 


602 


1922 


455 


1929 


621 


1923 


513 







Size of Class and Salaries in Colored Schools 193 

( HART 25 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TSiACHER IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



1929 



County 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Co. Average 


$ 563 $ 586 # 602 


Allegemy 


972 


1 265 


1063 


Baltimore 


1171 


1196 


1184 


Washington 


713 


806 


792 


Cecil 


658 


712 


699 


Pr. George's 


586 


655 


680 


Harford 


610 


599 


616 


Anno Arundel 


538 


575 


586 


Carroll 


576 


585 


557 


Kent 


530 


569 


576 


Montgoraery 


520 


545 


556 


Howard 


555 


538 


559 


Wicomico 


522 


529 


557 


Frederick 


536 


555 


552 


Calvert 


503 


528 


544 


Talbot 


483 


489 


534 


Queen Anne's 


487 


513 


509 


Charles 


490 


475 


518 


Cfiroline 


460 


490 


484 


Somerset 


450 


427 


472 


Worcester 


447 


462 


486 


St. Mary's 


434 


468 


474 


Dorchester 


440 


451 


437 


Baltimore City 1317 


1470 


1510 


State 


857 


947 


985 




The average colored elementary teacher's salary ranged from 
$1,197 in Allegany and $1,175 in Baltimore County to $499 in 
Dorchester. Dorchester was the only county in 1929 in which 
the average salary was less than $500. In 1928 this was the case 
in five counties. Every county except Baltimore and Washing- 
ton, which were already near the top, showed increases in aver- 
age salary over the 1928 figures. The increases were $40 or more 
in Allegany, St. Mary's, Somerset, Carroll and Caroline. (See 
Chart 25.) For average salary per teacher with the counties 
arranged in alphabetical order, see Table XIV, page 321, and 
Table XXXIII, page 341.) 



194 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



High Schools 

The average salary for the school year 1928-29 for the teach- 
ers in the county colored high schools was $879 with a range 
from $1,485 and $1,143 in Allegany and Washington Counties, 
respectively, to $659 in Somerset. In five counties — Somerset, 
Dorchester, Caroline, Worcester and Kent — the average salary 
paid colored high school teachers was less than $800 ; and in only 
four counties — Allegany, Washington, Anne Arundel, and Fred- 
erick, did the average salary exceed $900. The salaries vary 
with the training and experience of the teacher, the length of the 
school year, and the existence of a salary scale above the State 
minimum. (See Table XIV, page 321, and Table XXXIV, page 
342.) 

Salaries in October, 1929 

The distribution of salaries of 728 teachers in county colored 
elementary schools as of October, 1929 showed only 64 receiving 
a salary below $520, which is the minimum required for a teacher 
holding a first grade certificate. These 64 teachers held certifi- 
cates lower than first grade which are no longer being issued. 
The poorly certificated teachers are gradually dropping out since 
there were 91 with salaries under $520 a year ago. The median 
salary was $560, the same as for the preceding year. (See Table 
120.) 

TABLE 120 

Distribution of Salaries of Colored Teachers in Service in Maryland, 

October, 1929 



ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
Salary No. Salary 

Under $520 64 $1,120. . 



No. 



520. 

560. 

600. 

640. 

680. 

720. 

760. 

800. 

840. 

880. 

920. 

960. 
1,000. 
1.040. 
1,080. 



266 
52 
90 
22 
77 
38 
26 

7 
29 

8 

2 
4 
1 
5 



1.160. 
1,200. 
1.240. 
1,280. 
1,320. 
1.360. 
1.400. 



7 

8 
3 
4 
1 
2 
9 



1,700. . 
Total . . 
Median 



3 

. 728 
$560 



HIGH SCHOOLS 



Salary 

Under $600 

640 

680 

720 

760 

800 

840 

880 

920 

960 

1,000 

1,040 

1,080 

1,120 

1,160 

1,200 



No. 

al 
8 
4 

12 
8 
7 
4 
8 
1 
5 
4 
2 
1 



Salary 

;i,240. . 
1,280. . 
1,320. . 
1.360. . 
1.400. . 
1,440. . 
1,480. . 
1 .520. . 
1,560. . 



No. 

3 
1 



1 



1,860. . 
Total . . 
Median 



1 

74 

$800 



a Includes one teaching in elementary and high school. 

Of the 74 high school teachers in service in October, 1929, only 
one received a salary lower than the minimum required for a 
teacher holding a regular high school certificate. This teacher 
held a provisional certificate. A year ago 8 teachers held pro- 
visional certificates. The median salary was $800. (See Table 
120.) 



COST PER COLORED PUPIL 

The average current expenditure per colored elementary pupil 
in the Maryland counties in 1928-29, exclusive of general control 
and fixed charges, was $24.31. This is an increase of $1.34 over 
the corresponding cost in the preceding year. 

Expenditures in the different counties varied from $42 in Bal- 
timore to $18 in Worcester and Charles. Only two counties, Car- 

( HART 2H 



COST PER PUPIL Br:L0::3i:TG COLCH-D KLcl^'i^NTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURREOT EXPIirSLG iJCCLUDIITG GiJiiiRAL COOTROL 




For counties arrant^ed alphabetically, see Table 145. pa^re 237. 

195 



196 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



roll and Prince George's, showed lower expenditures in 1929 than 
in 1928. The nine counties which ranked highest in 1929 per 
pupil cost and which spent at least $25 per colored elementary 
pupil, with the exception of Frederick, are identical with the 
counties which ranked highest in average salary per teacher. 
This is to be expected, since the teacher's salary is the major item 
in current expense. On the other hand, although Frederick 
ranked 13th in the average salary per teacher, the comparatively 
small size of the average class (see Chart 24, page 191) brought 
the per pupil cost up to seventh from the highest in the State. 
Size of class and salary of teacher are the main factors in de- 
termining cost per pupil in colored elementary schools. (See 
Chart 26.) 

In 19:28 there were eight counties in which the cost per pupil 
was less than $20. In 1929 this was true of only four — Calvert, 
Somerset, Worcester and Charles — and in these counties the av- 
erage number belonging per teacher was high — between 34.8 and 
38.3 pupils. In all of these counties the attendance in one or 
more schools justified the employment of additional teachers. 
(See Chart 26.) See also columns 8 and 16, Table 145, page 237, 
and for actual expenditures in colored elementary schools see 
Table XXXIII, page 341. 

In colored high schools, the cost per pupil ranged from $29 in 
Somerset, $31 in Worcester, and $36 in Wicomico, to $105 and 
$163 in Carroll and Allegany, respectively. The average for the 
counties of the state was $49, for Baltimore City, $161, and for 
the state as a whole $101. (See Table 145, page 237 and also 
Table XXXIV, page 342.) 

There was no colored high school in Baltimore County, but the 
county paid $10,410 in tuition for 59 senior and 18 junior high 
school pupils who attended the Frederick Douglass Junior-Senior 
High School in Baltimore City. This was a larger amount than 
was expended for current expense of colored high school pupils 
in any other county. The charge was $150 per senior high school 
pupil and $95 for each pupil attending junior high school. 

Cost Per Colored Pupil Transported 

There were 247 elementary and 23 high school pupils trans- 
ported to colored schools at public expense during 1928-29. These 
pupils were transported in 11 counties and the expenditures for 
transportation totaled $5,907. This amount does not include the 
cost to the State for transporting 32 children to the Bowie Nor- 
mal Demonstration School. The average cost per colored ele- 
mentary school pupil transported was $26, and for colored high 
school pupils the average expenditure was $14. 

To stimulate transportation of colored children to larger con- 
solidated schools, a portion of the Rosenwaid Fund is being set 
aside. During 1928-29 no county received Rosenwaid aid for 
transportation of colored pupils, but Calvert and Caroline are to 
be reimbursed during 1929-30. 



Cost Per Colorfjd Pupil 



197 



Aid for Libraries from Rosenwald Fund 

In order to stimulate expenditures for libraries in colored 
schools those in charge of the Julius Rosenwald Fund arranged 
during the school year 1927-28 to provide well-chosen school 
libraries of 75 or 105 volumes, the expense ($120) to be shared 
equally by the Rosenwald Fund, the county, and the school. In 
1927-28, ten schools in nine counties and in 1928-29 twelve 
schools in nine counties (three counties, Montgomery, Prince 
George's, and Wicomico, appearing on both lists), took advan- 
tage of this opportunity to provide library facilities for the col- 
ored pupils. The schools and counties which obtained these 
libraries are listed below: 



1927-28 



County 

Caroline 
Charles 
Frederick 
Harford 
Kent 

Montgomery 
Prince George's 

Talbot 



School 
Federalsburg 
Pomonkey 
Frederick 
Bel Air 
Coleman 
Sandy Spring 
Marlboro 
Easton 
St. Michael's 
Sharptown 



County 
Anne Arundel 
Calvert 
Carroll 
Cecil 

Montgomery 



1928-29 

School 
Bro\Mi's Woods 



Prince George's 

St. Mary's 
Somerset 

Wicomico 



Pr. Frederick 
Westminster 
Elkton 
Rockville 
[ Brentwood 
BerwjTi 

Highland Park 
Abell 

Wicomico Sharntown Somerset Crisfield 

j Nanticoke 
I Salisbury 

The supervisor of colored schools in Dorchester County is de- 
veloping rural library service for her schools. A small collection 
of books has been accumulated and a flexible method for circula- 
ting them inaugurated. 

Capital Outlay and Rosenwald Aid 

The capital outlay in the counties in 1928-29 amounted to only 
$58,283 for the colored schools which was less than half of the 
amount spent in 1928. Calvert, Cecil, Dorchester, Talbot, and 
Washington reported no expenditure for land or buildings for the 
use of colored pupils, and in Allegany, Queen Anne's, and Kent 
the amounts were so small that they were practically negligible. 
The only expenditures of real significance occurred in Prince 
George's, Baltimore, Anne Ai-undel, and Charles Counties. (See 
Table 152, page 246, and the last columns in Tables XXXIII and 
XXXIV, pages 341 and 342.) 

Aid was received from the Rosenwald Fund by Prince 
George's, Anne Arundel, Montgomery, and Charles Counties. 
The total amount, $5,550, was smaller than that received in any 
year since 1924. It served the purpose, however, as an incentive 
in the construction of 22 rooms, 15 of which were in Prince 
George's County. Since the fund has been distributed, Marvland 
counties have received $84,700. Every :\Iaryland County, ex- 
cept the three in the extreme west, which have verv few colored 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



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RosENWALD Aid and Value of School Property 



199 



people in their population, has been a recipient of the fund at one 
time or another since 1919. The amounts received have varied 
from $800 in St. Mary's and Dorchester to $11,600 in Anne 
Arundel and $19,050 in Prince George's which have the largest 
colored population in the State. Since the war 286 rooms have 
been constructed for the use of colored pupils, in 269 of which 
the Rosenwald fund acted as a specific stimulus. Thirty-six per 
cent of the rooms now in use by colored pupils have been con- 
structed since the close of the war and meet modern standards 
for buildings. (See Table 121.) 

( HART 27 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY PhR COLURLD PUPIL BELONGING 



County 
Co. Average 
Allegany 
Baltimore 
Washington 

I.'ontsoDiery 
Frederick 
Pr. George's 
Harford 
""Ic oral CO 
Carroll 
Cecil 
Talbot 

Anne Arundel 
Charles 

Howard 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Kent 

St. I.lary's 
Jomerset 
'•iueen Anne 's 

3alto. City 
Total otate 



1927 
4 37 

177 
82 

115 

31 
56 
42 
49 
44 
41 
62 

42 
33 
34 

25 
24 
15 
22 
23 
19 
20 
14 
16 

197 
104 



$ 42 
171 
107 
112 

66 
65 
45 
48 
45 
40 
37 

41 
39 
32 



1929 












189 
105 



For counties airanKetl alphabetically, see Table l")?, patje 254, 



200 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED PUPILS 

INCREASED 

The 1929 value of school property per colored pupil belonging 
continued the gradual increase shown in previous years. The 
value for the average county was $46, an increase of $4 over 
1928. (See Chart 27.) 

The range in value was from $172 in Allegany to $17 in Queen 
Anne's. Six counties — Allegany, Baltimore, Washington, Mont- 
gomery, and Frederick — had valuations per colored pupil higher 
than $60, while at the opposite extreme in nine counties — Queen 
Anne's, Somerset, St. Mary's, Kent, Worcester, Calvert, Dor- 
chester, Caroline and Howard, the value per colored pupil was 
under $30. The three counties that had increases of as much as 
$10 over the 1928 figure were Prince George's, Baltimore, and 
Dorchester. In Dorchester the increase was due to a revalu- 
ation of the school property from the point of view of cost of 
replacement rather than to additional capital outlay during the 
year. (See Chart 27.) 

TABLE 122 



Number of Colored Elementary and High Schools Having Following 
Number of Teachers, School Year 1928-1929 



COUNTY 


COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
HAVING FOLLOWING NUMBER 
OF TEACHERS 


COLORED HIGH 
SCHOOLS HAVING 
FOLLOWING NUMBER 
OF TEACHERS 


cn 

CO 
0^ 

O 
rH 


1 


m 

1 


1 

n 


1 


1 


1 

<£> 


00 

1 

t> 


1 

00 


o 

»— ( 

1 

Oi 


1 

1 

d 


o 
H 


1 or Less 


N 

1 

t-i 


« 

1 

CO 


1 

CO 


1 


1 

lO 


j 

CO 


00 
1 


4-> 
o 

Eh 


Total 


373 

1 
25 
20 
17 
16 
10 

9 
28 
36 
15 
14 
12 
20 
27 
a24 
14 
21 
18 
16 

5 

9 
16 


108 


22 


6 


4 


3 
1 


1 


1 






1 


519 

2 
42 
30 
21 
20 
11 
12 
S4 
41 
22 
18 
15 
24 
34 
45 
18 
28 
30 
22 

6 
19 
25 


5 


6 


5 


6 
1 


1 






. 1 


24 

1 
1 


Allegany 










Anne Arundel . . 
Baltimore 


15 
6 
3 
1 
1 
3 
5 
4 
5 
3 
2 
3 
5 

18 
4 
7 
9 
3 


1 

1 

3 














1 














1 


1 


2 




1 
























Calvert 




























Caroline 
























1 










1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


Carroll 




















1 












Cecil 




















1 
1 












Charles 


1 
1 

2 
































Dorchester 






















1 
1 










Frederick 
































Harford 




1 




























Howard 


1 
1 

2 
2 


































Kent 
























1 










1 

1 

3 
1 


Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 
St. Mary's 






















1 
1 














1 














2 
1 




































































1 
2 


1 
1 


1 














i 
1 

3 


1 


1 












2 
2 
1 
2 
3 


Talhot 
















1 








Washington. . . . 
Wicomico 




1 












1 












6 
5 


2 
2 


1 

2 






1 










1 










Worcester 

























































a Includes Bowie Normal Elementary School. 



Value of School Property, Size of Schools 



201 



SIZE OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

Of the 519 colored elementary schools in the Maryland Coun- 
ties in 1928-29, 373 had one teacher, 108 two teachers, and 22 
three teachers. The largest county colored elementary school in 
Maryland was in Annapolis and had between 10 and 11 teachers. 
Baltimore and Wicomico each had a colored elementary school 
with a teacher to a grade. (See Table 122.) 

The number of colored elementary schools varied from 2 in 
Allegany and 6 in Washington County to over 40 in Dorchester, 
Anne Arundel and Prince George's, which had 45. (See Table 
122.) 

TABLE 123 

Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1929 





Colored Elementary Teachers 


School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 




Total 










Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


683 


422 


61.8 


1921 


694 


408 


58.8 


1922 


708 


406 


57.3 


1923 


712 


403 • 


56.6 


1924 


728 


395 


54.4 


1925 


721 


397 


55.1 


1926 


728 


394 


54.1 


1927 


725 


382 


52.7 


1928 


734 


378 


51.5 


1929 


734 


372 


50.7 



TABLE 124 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending? July 31, 1929 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 

County Number Per Cent 

Total and Average. .:. . 372 50.7 

Allegany 1 15.9 

Wicomico 9 23.1 

Prince George's 23 32.9 

Anne Arundel 25 37.1 

Somerset 18 37.5 

Baltimore 20 39.3 

Worcester 16 40.3 

Washington 5 45.5 

Frederick 15 49.3 

Talbot 10 50.0 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 

County Number Per C«nt 

Harford 14 55.6 

Caroline 16 59.3 

Cecil 9 60.0 

St. Mary's 21 60.2 

Montgomery 27 62.8 

Howard 12 63.2 

Calvert 17 65.4 

Queen Anne's 14 66.4 

Charles 28 68.3 

Kent 20 69 . 4 

Dorchester 36 77.4 

Carroll 10 83.3 



202 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Excluding the teacher in the Bowie Normal Demonstration 
School, there were 372 colored teachers, 50.7 per cent of all the 
colored elementary staff who gave instruction in one-teacher 
schools in 1928-29. There were 6 fewer teachers in one-teacher 
schools than for the preceding year and 50 fewer than in 1920. 
Whereas over 60 per cent of the colored elementary teachers 
were in one-teacher schools in 1920, this was true of just over 
one-half of the teachers in 1929. (See Table 123.) 

The counties varied greatly in the per cent of colored elemen- 
tary teachers in one-teacher schools. Allegany, Wicomico, and 
Prince George's had less than a third of their teachers in the one- 
teacher schools, but Carroll, Dorchester, Kent, Charles, and 
Queen Anne's had two-thirds or more of their schools with this 
type of rural organization. Wicomico, Somerset, Washington, 
Frederick, St. Mary's, Montgomery, Howard, and Charles, each 
had one fewer one-teacher school in 1929 than in 1928. Balti- 
more, Dorchester, and Prince George's each had one more one- 
teacher school in 1929 than they had in 1928. (See Tables 122 
and 124.) 

The colored high schools in the counties had from 1 to 8 teach- 
ers. The Stanton High School in Annapolis with 8 teachers was 
much larger than any other colored county high school. Easton 
came next with 5 teachers. Of the 24 high schools 22 had from 

1 to 4 teachers. There were 5 high schools which had 1 teacher 
and 5 which had 3 teachers, and there were 6 schools which had 

2 teachers and 6 more which had 4 teachers. There was one 

TABLE 125 



Relation of Teaching Staff in Colored High Schools and Size of 
Enrollment for Year Ending July 31, 1929 



Average Number 
Belonging 


Number of Teachers 


Total 
Number 

High 
Schools 


fl 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


1-15 


*2 














2 


16-25 


















26-40 


*5 


2 












7 


41-50 




2 


1 


1 








4 


51-75 




2 


1 


2 








5 


76-100 






4 










4 


101-125 


















126-150 








1 








1 


151-175 












1 


1 


Total 


*7 


6 


6 


4 






1 


24 













t Mid point of interval. 



* Second group schools. 



Size of Colored High Schools, Physical Education 



203 



more high school with 3, 4, and 5 teachers in 19,29 than was re- 
ported for 1928. (See right half of Table 122, page 200.) 

The relation between teaching staff and number belonging in 
high school is shown in 'Table 125. The enrollment in high 
schools with 2 teachers varied from 26 to 75, and in those with 4 
teachers from 41 to 150. On the other hand, schools with from 
41-50 belonging had from 2 to 4 teachers. Each of the seven 
second group schools had one teacher. (See Table 125.) 

THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS 

In 1929 under the auspices of the Playground Athletic League, 
4,608 colored boys and 5,371 girls from the Maryland counties 
took the preliminary badge tests. This included 70 per cent of 
the boys and 75 per cent of the girls enrolled from grade 4 
through the fourth year of high school, inclusive. There were 
338 more boys and 213 more girls than in 1928 who undertook 
to meet the requirements of the tests. Although the number of 
entrants was greater than in the preceding year, the total num- 
ber of boys actually winning badges was lower. Bronze, silver, 
gold, and super-gold badges were earned by 922 boys and 1,830 
girls. This is 3.2 fewer boys and 3 more girls than in 1928. (See 

TABLE 126 

Per Cent of Colored Boys and Girls Passing Preliminary 
and Final Badge Tests 1929 





BOYS 




GIRLS 


COUNTY 


Number 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 




Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 




Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 



Total and average. . . 


4,608 


922 


70 


14 


Frederick 


277 


65 


tlOO 


25 


Montgomery 


454 


90 


tlOO 


24 


Carroll 


104 


17 


tlOO 


20 


Harford 


205 


28 


tlOO 


16 


Charles 


322 


65 


96 


19 


Calvert 


173 


27 


90 


14 


Queen Anne's 


158 


50 


87 


28 


Howard 


134 


29 


85 


18 


St . Mary's 


206 


64 


81 


25 


Caroline 


209 


50 


77 


18 


Prince George's 


502 


49 


76 


7 


Wicomico 


325 


31 


74 


7 


Baltimore 


288 


125 


73 


32 


Anne Arundel 


379 


72 


64 


12 


Talbot 


145 


46 


51 






127 


10 


48 


'1 


Cecil 


60 


10 


48 


8 


Worcester 


183 


51 


47 


13 


Dorchester 


167 




41 




Somerset 


190 


43 


35 


8 


Allegany 










Washington 



















Total and average 

Frederick 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Carroll 

Howard 

Charles 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Wicomico 

Caroline 

St . Mary's 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel. . . . 
Prince George's. . 

Kent 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Allegany 

Washington 



5,371 


1,830 


76 


26 


323 


122 


tlOO 


43 


213 


61 


tlOO 


35 


418 


94 


tlOO 


25 


98 


12 


tlOO 


17 


166 


50 


100 


30 


364 


132 


99 


36 


200 


81 


96 


39 


178 


49 


96 


26 


428 


116 


90 


24 


217 


62 


89 


26 


256 


118 


87 


40 


339 


157 


85 


39 


491 


217 


72 


32 


537 


144 


72 


19 


182 


57 


66 


21 


83 


21 


61 


15 


184 


101 


55 


30 


236 




54 




226 


112 


50 


25 


232 


124 


44 


24 



















t Number entered reported as more than public school enrollment from trrade 4 through 
fourth year hisrh school, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death. 



204 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Table 126 and for the distribution by types of badges, see Table 
XVIII, page 325.) 

The individual counties varied considerably in the per cent of 
boys and girls enrolled in grade 4 through fourth year high 
school, inclusive, who entered the preliminary tests. Frederick, 
Montgomery, Carroll, and Harford had 100 per cent of both their 
boys and girls entered in the badge tests. In Howard every girl 
took part in these try-outs. On the other hand, Allegany and 
Washington had no colored children who took the badge tests, 
and Somerset, Dorchester, Worcester, Cecil, Kent and Talbot 
were reported as having 51 per cent or less of the boys and 66 
per cent or less of the girls entering. The per cent of the boys 
who won badges ranged from 32 per cent in Baltimore and 28 in 
Queen Anne's to none in Dorchester. The per cent of girls who 
won badges was as high as 43 per cent of the enrollment in Fred- 
erick, 39 per cent in Calvert and Baltimore, and 35 per cent in 
Harford. (See Table 126.) 

There were 5,294 colored boy entrants from 438 schools in 
track and field events. These figures showed that there were 
1,037 more entrants and 3 more schools represented than in 1928. 
In twenty counties of the State dodge ball teams were organ- 
ized and in 12 counties the girls played volley ball as well as 
dodge ball. Altogether there were 550 teams and 6,509 entrants 
in these sports. 

Girls also participated in a number of relay events. There 
were 24 teams with 232 entrants in the run and catch events and 
299 teams with 2,867 entrants in the flag relays. The counties 
having run and catch relay teams were the same as those having 
girls' volley ball teams. (See Table XIX, page 326.) 

Four-fifths of all the colored schools in the Maryland counties 
sent teams and entrants to the county athletic meets. In Har- 
ford and Queen Anne's every school was represented, and in 
Prince George's, Frederick, Caroline, Howard, and Carroll more 
than 90 per cent of the colored schools had delegates at these 
events. Probably because of their small colored population, Alle- 
gany and Washington had no county athletic meets for the col- 
ored children. In Saint Mary's, Worcester, Dorchester, and 
Talbot, however, only between half and two thirds of the schools 
were represented by teams and entrants. (See Table 131, page 
215.) 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

In 1928-29 there were 340 Parent-Teacher Associations in 65.5 
per cent of the county colored schools. Of the 29 colored schools 
in Baltimore County there was only one which did not have an 
organized P. T. A. Baltimore and Queen Anne's County led the 
State with more than 94 per cent of their schools having organi- 
zations of parents and teachers. At the other extreme were 
Cecil, Washington, and Carroll where less than 20 per cent of the 



Physical Education, Parent Teachf:r Associations 



205 



colored schools had these cooperative associations. There were 

increases of more than 13 in the per cent of schools having P. T. 

A.'s, in Charles, Howard, Talbot, and Dorchester. Decreases of 

16 per cent or more occurred in Washington, Harford, Kent, and 

Worcester. (See Chai^t 28.) 

CHART 28 



PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 



County 

Total and 
Co. Average 

Baltimore 
Qu. Anne* 3 
Pr. George '3 

Charles 

Anne Arundel 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Harford 

Howard 

Somerset 

Kent" 

Dorchester 

Allegany 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Carroll 

Washington 

CecU 



Number 
1928 1929 



Per Cent 
1928 1929 




BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Enrollment 

During 1928-29 the Bowie Normal School had an enrollment 
of 128, 21 more than in 1928 and by far the largest enrollment 
of normal school students in its history. There was no high 
school department and hence there were no high school graduates 
from Bowie Normal School in 1928-29. The junior enrollment in 
the fall of 1929, therefore, had to be enlisted entirely from grad- 
uates of the county high schools. The junior normal school en- 
rollment in the fail of 1929 (46) was lower by 30 than that for 



* 



206 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 127 
Enrollment at Bowie Normal School 



Summer 

Year Juniors Seniors Total Graduates School 

1924* 11 ..11 .. 67 

1925* 16 10 26 10 103 

1926* 24 12 36 12 80 

1927* 58 22 80 22 81 

1928* 55 54 109 50 53 

1929 76 52 128 46 36 

Fall of 1929. . • 46 67 113 



* High School enrollment is not shown. 

the school year 1928-29. With this smaller junior class, the total 
enrollment has been reduced to 113 in the fall of 1929. (See 
Table 127.) 

Graduates and Their Teaching Positions 

Graduates at the Bowie Normal School numbered 46 in 1929. 
This is 4 less than in 1928, but more than twice as many as were 
graduated in 1927. The 46 graduates of 1929 were all teaching 
in the county elementary schools in October, 1929, and all except 
5 returned to teach in their home counties. For the home coun- 
ties of the graduates and the counties in which they are teaching, 
see Table 128. 

TABLE 128 



Home and Teaching County of Bowie Graduates of 1929 





Home 


Teaching 




Home 


Teaching 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 




No. 


No. 




No. 


No. 








Frederick 


2 


2 


Total 


46 


46 


Kent 


1 


1 






Prince George's. . . . 


7 


7 


Anne Arundel 


^ 5 


4 


Queen Anne's 


3 


3 


Baltimore 


b 1 





Somerset 


2 


2 


Calvert 


1 


1 


St. Mary's 


2 


2 


Caroline 


1 





Talbot 


2 


« 3 


Carroll 





b 2 


Wicomico 


3 


d 4 


Cecil 


b 1 




Worcester 


d 3 


2 


Charles 


2 


2 


Bowie Dem. School 





» 1 


Dorchester 


10 


10 









a One from Anne Arundel County is teaching in Bowie Demonstration School, 
b One from Baltimore County and one from Cecil County are teaching in Carroll 
County. 

o One from Caroline County is teaching in Talbot County, 
d One from Worcester County is teaching in Wicomico County. 



Medical Examinations and Follow-Up 

Special emphasis was placed on physical examinations and fol- 
low up during the school year 1928-29. Every student was ex- 
amined by a physician employed by the school and there was a 
resident nurse. Cases needing immediate care were treated. 
During the school year 11 students had tonsilectomies and 24 
students received the services of the Campus Dental Clinic. 

Hours for Practice Teaching Increased 

The number of hours of required practice teaching was in- 



Bowie Normal School 



207 



creased to 160. The hours given to practice work in the rural 
schools were changed from 30 to 50. 

Use of Library Increased 

Use of the library was emphasized. Courses conducted on the 
basis of reference work rather than text books brought more 
pupils in touch with the facilities of the school library. There 
were about 1,600 bound volumes and 500 bulletins available to 
the students. During the regular session the circulation totaled 
more than 4,000 volumes. 

Contact Between Normal School and County Hijjh Schools Kept Up Throu^^h 
Athletics and Music Activities 

The high school pupils in the counties were kept in touch with 

the Bowie Normal School through the foot-ball, basket-ball, and 

base-ball games played with the high school teams. The Bowie 

Normal School Band toured the State and furnished music for 

all but three of the county athletic meets. The Glee Club and 

Quartet brought the school before the public by singing over the 

WBAL Radio Station. 

Summer Session Had Small Enrollment 

The summer session of the Bowie Normal School is intended 
for teachers who hold second or third grade certificates. As the 
number of teachers holding these lower grades of certificates is 
growing smaller, the summer enrollment at Bowie must of neces- 
sity decrease. In 1929 there were only 36 enrolled for the sum- 
mer session. (See last column in Table 127, page 206.) 

Eight courses in high school subject-matter and twelve in 
professionalized subject-matter were offered during the summer 
session. The elementary demonstration school was in session 
and formed the center of the summer school activities. 

Size of Faculty and Number of Practice Centers 

The faculty in the fall of 1929 included the principal, 8 in- 
structors, 2 teachers in the demonstration school, a nurse, a regis- 
trar-secretary, a matron, and 3 clerks. The nurse, second teacher 
in the demonstration school and two clerks were positions not 
provided for the preceding year. In addition, there were 17 
critics cooperating in the training centers, an increase of 8 over 
the previous year. 

Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal 

The current expenditures for instruction and dormitory for 
the year 1928-29, exclusive of any charges for capital outlay, 
were analyzed to determine the total cost of educating a student 
in the regular and in the summer session. All except 6 of the 
127 enrolled during the regular session, and all except 14 of those 
in the summer school, were boarding students. 

The total cost of instructing a day student in the regular ses- 
sion was $216 and for the summer session $52. The total cost 



- / 

208 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

for instruction, room, and board for a dormitory student was 
$403 in the regular session and $75 in the summer school. When 
the amounts paid in fees for board by students were deducted 
the cost to the State per boarding student during the regular 
session was $287, and for the summer session $56. The decreased 
enrollment in the regular session, due to the closing of the high 
school department, explained the increase in the State's cost of 
instruction per student from $184 in 1928 to $211 in 1929. Ex- 
penditures for the summer session were lower in 1929 than in 
1928. (See Table 129.) 





TABLE 129 






Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School 1928-29 






REGULAR SESSION 


SUMMER 


SESSION 




Instruction Dormitory 


Instruction 


Dormitory 


Administration: 

Educational 

Instruction 


EXPENDITURES 

$2,318.92 

2.016.34 
18,096.46 

5,155.26 822,882.43 


$21.05 
19.86 
1 , 749 . 25 
64.05 


$527.16 


Total Cost 


, $27,586.98 $22,882.43 
RECEIPTS 


$1,854.21 


$527.16 


Receipts from Fees 


612.41 13.607.76 


59.46 


401.15 


Cost to State 


$26,974.57 $9,274.67 
COST PER STUDENT 


$1,794.75 


$126.01 


Enrollment 

Total Cost per Student 


128 122 
$215.53 $187.56 


36 
$51 . 51 


22 
$23.96 


Total Cost per Boarding Student 


$403 . 09 


$75 


47 


Average Fee per Student 

Cost to State per Student 


$4.78 $111.53 
$210.75 $76.03 


$ 1.65 
$49 . 86 


$18.24 
$ 5.72 


Cost to state per Boarding Student. 


$286.78 


$55 


58 



Improvements to the Property 

During the summer of 1929 the girls' dormitory, the dining 
room, the pump house, and garage were painted. About 10,000 
additional square feeet of cement walks were laid at a cost of 
$1,500. The roads on the campus were resurfaced with gravel. 

The inventory at Bowie Normal School as of September 30, 
1929, indicated the total value of the property was $176,303, 
distributed as follows: Land $8,600; improvement of land, 
$1,971; buildings, $132,524; equipment, $33,066; and live stock 
$142. 

COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL FOR COLORED TEACHERS 

During 1928-29 there were 17 men and 108 women enrolled 
in the Coppin Training School for Colored Teachers in the City 
of Baltimore. A number of students withdrew before the end 
of year, so that the average number belonging was 96 students. 
The school was open for 190 days. The faculty included a prin- 
cipal, 4 instructors, and a clerk. Slightly more than $16,000 
were expended for current expenses, making the average cost 
per pupil belonging $168, of which $162 was used for the costs 
of instruction and supervision. 



THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN MARYLAND * 



Principles Rej^arding Athletics for Girls 

Physical education in the schools of Maryland endeavors to 
promote athletic competition for every pupil, because thereby 
each is educated for "good behavior." From the beginning, in 
1915, the program included girls as well as boys. Gradually tra- 
ditions in girls' sports were built which resulted in a state cham- 
pionship tournament in field ball in the fall of 1928. In the light 
of fourteen years' experience, those responsible for the physical 
education program of the State base the work on the following 
principles, which they believe to be valid. The social values that 
come from the feeling of responsibility to the rest of the team 
develop qualities that used to come from war. The development 
of a sense of group responsibility is a necessary part of education, 
if girls are to become more and more members of the social life. 
The conscription of youth to the coal and iron mines, as Pro- 
fessor James suggested, is not as natural nor as salutary as 
voluntary submission of boys and girls to discipline in school 
games. Competition results naturally from the emulation and 
rivalry of youth. Standards should be set up for the individual 
and for the group, and groups should compete, especially against 
other groups of wider experience, so that they may develop 
greater skill. The control of the emotions of girls, who must 
live with others under emotional strain, is best brought about 
by the right direction of the expression of emotions in athletic 
competitions rather than by attempted control later of feelings 
which were repressed during adolescence. 

Competitive athletics for girls should correspond to the defini- 
tion of athletics — the fighting, vigorous, social plays of youth. 
The fighting games chosen for the Maryland program are such 
as do not allow personal contact, not only because girls do not 
enjoy games of that type, but especially because there must be 
no scars on the faces or the bodies of the girls and no accidents. 
Secondly, the fighting games chosen should not include boxing 
or wrestling, to which girls are not physically adapted. The 
fighting games should not develop foolhardiness or pugnacity, 
for women themselves are opposed to developing these tenden- 
cies. On the other hand, games built around running, jumping, 
and throwing, which are suitable to the build of women, have 
fighting qualities in that they require that persistence be devel- 
oped through practice. The willingness of woman to defend her 
children and the rights of the weak can best be developed by 
some competition during youth. Out of such games will come 
the thrills and throbs which are good tonics during this ebullient 
period. Girls who meet other girls on opposite teams secure the 

* Prepared by William Burdick. M. D.. Director of Playground Athletic League and of 
Physical Education for State Department of Education, 



209 



I 

/ 

I 

210 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

ability to control themselves under great strain and become not 
willows but oaks. 

Vigorous athletics need not be violent, spasmodic, uncoordi- 
nated, random acts or of the type that makes the girls massive 
in size and brutal, because of the physical power developed. On 
the other hand, the athletic activities should be vigorous, in 
order to produce symmetrical bodies; to assist growth; to aid 
in elimination of wastes, which are increased by growth ; and to 
build up internal strength of heart and lungs. Again, she must 
participate in vigorous games in order to strengthen the abdomi- 
nal musculature and thereby produce good tone through neuro- 
muscular arrangements which will give power to the organs 
directly underneath. Modern civilization may not require an 
active physical body, but having been endowed with it by our 
past, it is necessary that everything should be done to strengthen 
that body during the growing period of youth, the structure and 
function of the body being considered. 

Finney, in his recent book, states that ''the ultimate objective 
of teaching is not knowledge but behavior," and this behavior 
can be taught best by games. To have the best social value 
athletic games must not be for the spectators' fun nor for gate 
receipts (which are not allowed at all in Maryland), but for those 
friends to witness who care for the players, not for winners. The 
games are not social tea parties, where passive beauty may be 
put on, but active sports, where real beauty is brought out by 
the heart and muscles. If the games are properly organized and 
taught with this social purpose in mind, they are developing a 
regard for laws, a respect for rules, a voluntary subjection to dis- 
cipline and a feeling for orderliness. More important, even, are 
the social values of the emotional control that are developed from 
competition against those with whom we are not acquainted. 

The most important of the social values is the development of 
a bigger self. Starting with a feeling of fealty in childhood, the 
youth comes to understand allegiance and devotion, and by 
gradual experience of responsibility to a greater and greater 
group from whom they come and whom they represent as mem- 
bers of teams, they learn — not the fealty of childhood but the 
loyalty of youth. 

In accordance with these principles, administered by women 
officials, an inter-county tournament between the winners of 
high school field ball teams was conducted after twenty-one of 
the County Superintendents of Schools had asked the Playground 
Athletic League to make arrangements. The county teams near 
one another played first, until the Western and Eastern Shore 
winners were decided. The championship game between Balti- 
more County's representative, Towson, and Kent County's repre- 
sentative, Chestertown, was won by Towson. The National 
Magazine of the Playground Association of America, in April, 



Physical Education for Girls and Badge Tr.STS 



211 



praised Maryland's methods and said ''though the undertaking 
was the impossible, we want to praise the girls of the teams — 
and even state-wide competition for girls when so properly con- 
ducted as in Maryland." 

CHART 29 



PER CENT OF BOYS PA33IIIG PHELU'.INAfTir AID 7LNAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TEoTL^> , 1929, BASED ON E^JrJDLU-i^^T OF 1928-29 
4th GRADE TO TJ "ffi.VP HIGH 3CH00L. INGLLTJlTi- 



County 



Number 



Number 



Per Cent 
Won Entered 



Enrolled 


Entered 




Total and 
Average 


38,oo7 


14,824 


4,077 


Talbot 


795 


525 


1?^7 


Calvert 


283 


181 


31 


Q. Anne's 


622 


371 


79 


Dorchester 


1,093 


623 


162 


3t. Mary's 


396 


210 


50 


Montgomery 


1,991 


1,072 


211 


Wicomico 


1,498 


742 


156 


Charles 


554 


272 


55 


Kent 


638 


301 


65 


Howard 


717 


332 


50 


Caroline 


942 


425 


98 


Somerset 


976 


430 


134 


Carroll 


1,933 


833 


214 


Frederick 


2,993 


1,233 


337 


Anne Arund. 


2,070 


684 


206 


Pr. Geo. 


2,513 


1,033 


276 


Harford 


1,476 


555 


139 


Cecil 


1,258 


434 


104 


Allef^any 


4,267 


1,335 


546 


Worces ter 


989 


314 


73 


Baltimore 


5,459 


1,524 


492 


V.'ashin^ton 


3,996 


834 


320 


Garrett 


1,372 


251 


36 




55.9 



63,9 



59.6 



10.5 



2.6 



57.4 



53.0 



53. -3 




49.5 



47.2 



47.1 



45.3 



45.1 



13.7 


44.0 


M.O 


43.3 



1 


29 


4?.-j 






42.7 1 


10.9 


1 41.1 



37.6 



8.Z 


1 34.5 




3?. 4 




31.7 





20.3 



Had<j:e Tests 

In carrying out the Maryland physical education program 
37,411 white and 9,979 colored boys and girls qualified at their 
own schoolyards for entry to the final badge tests held at the 
county field days at which time 12,310 white and 2,752 colored 
pupils won their badges. It is gratifying to know that 54.4 per 
cent of the white girls and 38.1 per cent of the white boys from 
the fourth grade up actually passed these preliminary tests. It 



212 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



is significant that 46.4 per cent of the pupils were voluntarily 
practicing these natural events. The range of participation was 
from 91.4 per cent of the girls in Calvert County to 18.2 per cent 
of boys in Garrett County. (See Charts 29 and 30, and Tables 
XV and XVIII, pages 322 and 325.) 

CHART 30 



PER CEITT 0? GIRLS PASSING PRELEJE^.ii^Y FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTG , 1929, BASED OH jLNROLUi.irr OF 1928—29, 
4th GRADE TO IV YEAR HIGH SCHOOL. EJCLUSIVE 



Number 



Number 



Enrolled 


Entered 


Won 


Total and 
Average 


39,977 


21,775 


7,970 


Calvert 


303 


277 


90 


Talbot 


840 


694 


232 


Charles 


565 


447 


122 


Caroline 


994 


763 


380 


Wicomico 


1,629 


1,234 


440 


Kent 


719 


528 


122 


St. Mary's 


378 


268 


109 


Q. Anne's 


725 


499 


177 


Anne Arund . 


2,136 


1,428 


574 


Dorchester 


1,211 


779 


213 


Howard 


668 


428 


191 


Montgomery 


2,040 


1,285 


446 


Frederick 


3,035 


1,879 


837 


Pr. Geo. 


2 ,492 


1,502 


462 


Carroll 


1,998 


1,170 


452 


Cecil 


1,238 


715 


207 


Somerset 


1,028 


567 


228 


Harford 


1,618 


884 


308 


Baltimore 


5,299 


2,661 


977 


Worcester 


1,007 


465 


212 


Alle^ny 


4,561 


1,814 


644 


Washinj^ton 


4,C90 


1,198 


419 


Garrett 


1,383 


285 


128 



Pen Cent 
Won Entered 



3 



199 



29.7 



34.4 



91.4 



276 


52 . 5 1 






38.a 


77.2 


7,7.0 


75.7 





16-9 


SI 





7D.5 





24.4 


6J.6 







26.8 



r7.s 



28.5 



ZI.8 



27.5 



64 . 3 



64. 



62.9 



51.9 



18.5 


50. 


22.6 


56.5 




57.7 



55.1 



19.0 


1 d4.d 


18.4 


50.2 



21.0 


45.1 


14.0 


39 . 5 





29.2 



Girls' Activities in Addition to Badge Tests 

The Field Ball Tournament was participated in by 102 high 
schools with 1,837 girl players. In 5 counties 26 teams with 387 
girl players competed in basket ball. Wicomico and Talbot 
Counties held carnivals at the State armories for 1,658 entrants. 



Badge Tests, Team Games and Tournaments 



213 



In addition 3,989 irirLs, representing: Baltimore City and County, 
Anne Arundel, Howard and Wicomico Counties, took part in the 
Winter Carnival at Baltimore. A high school carnival with 213 
entrants was held at Indian Head in Charles County. In the 
relay events of four types for girls 10,687 entered as compared 
with 12,792 boys in their 26 track events. At the request of 
the Southern District of the American Physical Education Asso- 
ciation, the Playground Athletic League conducted a Girls' Car- 
nival at Greensboro, North Carolina for 649 entrants. (See 
Tables XVI and XVII, pages 323 and 324.) 

Team Games Tournaments 

During the Spring county field days 13,109 white boys and 
girls played on 1,362 teams in 189 different tournaments while 
5,767 boys and girls participated in group athletics in Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore and Howard Counties. Hit ball was played 
by 104 teams, an increase of 27 per cent over last year. Eight 
hundred and forty-four teams of 11,259 players actually played 
circle dodge ball. (See Table XVI, page 323.) 

Soccer 

Soccer was played by 124 high schools, with 128 teams. Offi- 
cers of the United States Football Association say that Main- 
land has the best school-boy soccer in America. The tournament 
was w^on by Catonsville, of Baltimore County. The runner-up 
was Crisfieid, of Somerset County (See Table XVI, page 323.) 

Basketball for Boys 

The third annual basket-ball tournament for boys was con- 
ducted in 16 counties with 562 players from 49 schools. This 
game is necessarily limited since so few schools have gym- 
nasiums. The winner of the tournament was Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue, Cumberland, of Allegany Countv. The runner-up was 
Chestertown of Kent County. (See Table XVI, page 323.) 

Baseball 

The Fifth Annual Baseball Tournament, conducted in cooper- 
ation with the Baltimore Sun, had 97 teams in 20 counties with 
1,393 players. Washington County, represented by Hagerstown, 
won the championship. The runner-up was Mardela, of Wicom- 
ico County. 

Gross Participation 

Data on the actual participation in each county meet for white 
boys and girls mean that the officials of the Playground Athletic 
League supervised 55,943 athletic events varying from 805 par- 
ticipants at the Calvert County Meet to 5,959 participants at 
the Baltimore County field day. This is gross participation, for 
naturally the same bov might be in a badge test, game and track 
event. (See Table 130.) 



214 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 130 



Participants in County Meets for White Boys and Girls, 1929 







Badge 
Tests 




Games 


Track & 
Field 




COUNTY 






















Boys 


Girls 


Bnv<? 


Girls 


ijuy a 


Girk 




All 

AUeganv 




694 


1, 


168 


320 


406 


481 


415 


3,484 


Rural 




150 




176 


82 


88 


114 


84 


694 


Anne Arundel 




689 


1, 


209 


386 


362 


730 


491 


3 , 867 


Baltimore 


1 


009 


2, 


032 


738 


789 


665 


726 


5,959 


Calvert 




129 




235 


103 


111 


108 


119 


805 


Caroline 




287 




588 


146 


234 


390 


307 


1 ,952 


Carroll 




540 




964 


418 


546 


400 


610 


3,478 


Cecil 




238 




542 


168 


234 


293 


214 


1 ,689 


Charles 




152 




304 


120 


173 


200 


309 


1 ,258 


1 X 

Dorchester 




465 




632 


225 


252 


360 


274 


2,208 


Frederick 




917 


1 


416 


our. 
ODO 


419 


A CO 

458 


OP 4 

364 


3,939 


Garrett 




178 




229 


110 


173 


156 


126 


972 


Harford 




422 




702 


282 


394 


353 


247 


2,400 


Howard 




260 




359 


147 


205 


217 


201 


1,389 


Kent 




195 




412 


170 


208 


121 


210 


1,316 






859 


1 


031 


524 


550 


490 


526 


Q80 


Prmce George's 




506 




892 


338 


338 


520 


358 


2,952 


Rural 




195 




290 


225 


194 


124 


96 


1,124 


Queen Anne's 




262 




378 


194 


250 


221 


239 


1,544 


St. Mary's 




114 




228 


150 


173 


182 


210 


1,057 


Somerset 




249 




420 


166 


179 


184 


203 


1,401 


Talbot 




379 




566 


151 


244 


217 


215 


1,772 


Washington 




721 




980 


266 


248 


510 


301 


3,026 


Wicomico 




388 




996 


196 


336 


273 


320 


2,509 


Worcester 




206 




350 


108 


185 


158 


161 


1,168 


Total, 1929 


10 


,204 


17 


,099 


6,098 


7,291 


7,925 


7,326 


55,943 



State-wide Meet 

The Fifteenth Annual Championships were held at the Balti- 
more Stadium, June 7, 1929, and the representatives of Balti- 
more County were the winners. This county was awarded the 
Sim trophy as the leading county in points won. The boys' band 
of Thurmont High School furnished music during the day. The 
Maryland Parent-Teacher Association, through its school groups 
at Public Schools Nos. 51, 63, 64, 74, 88, 90, 91, 212, 213, 223, 232, 
233, 234, 236, and Forest Park High School entertained in their 
homes the boys who came from a distance, each school acting as 
a host to one county group. The girls of the volley ball teams 
from 22 counties were entertained at the State Normal School 
at Towson by Miss Lida Lee Tall, Principal. The championship 
in dodge ball was won by Caroline County athletes from Denton, 
and the Championship in volley ball was won by Queen Anne's 
representatives from Stevensville High School. 

Other Activities 

A course in physical education for women students preparing 



Participants and Schools Rkpresented at County Meets 



215 



to teach in secondary schools was offered by Goucher College, 
Hood College and the University of Maryland. The spring bul- 
letin of the Playground Athletic League was made the basis for 
this course. 

In addition to the usual service to Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions, harmonica clubs were started in 10 schools in Prince 
George's County. The enrollment of 501 had regular meetings 
and in May there was a final Harmonica Band Concert in Wash- 
ington. 

Athletics for Colored Boys and Girls 

The State-wide athletics for boys and girls attending colored 
schools have been described in the report on colored schools, 
pages ,203-4, and in Tables XVHI and XIX, on pages 325 and 326. 
In the Volley Ball Tournament, 214 girls from 19 schools in 12 
counties played. The run and catch and flag relays had 323 
teams composed of 3,099 girls. In addition, 5,294 boys from 438 
schools entered the track and field events. (See Table XIX, page 
326.) 

Number and Per Cent of Schools Which Entered Representatives at County 
Meets 

There were 1,019 white and 438 colored schools, 72 per cent 
of the white and 81 per cent of the colored schools that took part 
in the spring meets. Ninety-six per cent of the white schools in 
Calvert and Anne Arundel Counties participated and 94 per cent 
of the Montgomery, Queen Anne's and Caroline schools entered 

TABLE 131 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland Schools Entered in County Meets 

During School Year 1928-29 



WHITE SCHOOLS 



County 
Total 



Number of Per Cent of 
Schools Schools 
Entered Entered 



1,019 



72.1 



COLORED SCHOOLS 



County 
Total 



Number of Per Cent of 
Schools Schools 
Entered Entered 



438 



80.8 



Anne Arundel . . 

Calvert 

Montgomery. . . 
Queen Anne's . . 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Howard 

Prince George's. 

Somerset 

Carroll 

Kent 

Charles 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Cecil 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Worcester 

Washington. . . . 
CJarrett 



37 


06. 


1 


24 


06. 





65 


04. 


2 


32 


94. 


1 


30 


93. 


8 


2(3 


92. 


9 


37 


92. 


5 


(){) 


92, 





30 


90. 


9 


S'> 


K9 


, 5 


30 


88, 


2 


24 


82 


,8 


St) 


81 


9 


47 


78 


3 


44 


77 


2 


55 


75 


3 


48 


73 


.8 


25 


71 


.4 


73 


70 


9 


(■>3 


67 


,7 


23 


5() 


1 


40 


35 


,7 


2») 


19 






Harford 

(^ueen Anne's 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Howard 

Carroll 

Somerset / 

Calvert ' 

Charles 

Montgomery 

Wicomico 

Kent 

Anne Arundel 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Allegany 

Washington 



18 


100 





19 


100 





46 


97 


9 


22 


95 . 


7 


20 


95 


2 


14 


93 


3 


11 


91 


7 


28 


87 


5 


18 


85 


7 


30 


85 


7 


30 


85 


7 


18 


85 


7 


21 


84 





36 


83 


7 


10 


76 


9 


23 


76 


7 


16 


ti6 


7 


2i\ 


61 


9 


17 


(iO 


, 7 


15 


53 


6 



216 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



white pupils at the meets. At the opposite extreme, only 19 per 
cent of the Garrett County schools sent entrants and 36 per cent 
of the Washington County Schools. Harford and Queen Anne's 
Counties had entries from every school at the colored meets. 
Somerset, Prince George's, Howard, Talbot, Caroline, Queen 
Anne's, Montgomery, Calvert and Anne Arundel had entries 
from over 90 per cent of their white schools, whereas Carroll, 
Howard, Caroline, Frederick, Prince George's, Harford and 
Queen Anne's Counties had over 90 per cent of their colored 
schools entered. 

Finances and Services of P. A. L. 

Directing the school athletics in Maryland during the school 
fiscal year, October 1, 1928 to September 30, 1929, required a 
total expenditure of $24,472.36. 

The State budget included for the Playground Athletic League 
$15,000 in the Public School budget and $10,000 under State- 
aided Institutions. The balance of the $25,000 appropriated not 
shown as expended above was for the services of the physician of 
the Playground Athletic League, who spent most of his time 
making examinations of high school boys throughout the State. 
The item of salaries included the remuneration to Mr. Pitman 
and Miss Parker for supervision and services given to 2,230 
school units,* of which 1,457 units were employed in the direc- 
tion of the activities of the spring meets at which 104,320 indi- 
vidual entries were made. (See Table 13:2.) 

TABLE 132 

Playground Athletic Lea<?ue Financial Statement of Expenditures for State 

October 1, 1928 to September 30, 1929 

Salaries $ 8,326.44 

Wages 2,560.11 

Printing „ _ 596.19 

Postage - 270.62 

Phone 198.89 

Auto - - 653.92 

Supplies _ 985.15 

Repairs - _ 9.50 

Awards _ 5,302.64 

Travel 4,397.73 

Miscellaneous 1,171.17 

Total - - $24,472.36 



The Playground Athletic League made no charge for adminis- 
tration; this is a service rendered to the schools through the 
Director of Physical Education and of the Playground Athletic 
League. On the average, 17 counties were furnished direct aid 



* A school unit is defined as any school to which assistance is given. The same school 
may be included a number of times. 



Activities and Finances of Playground Athletic League 



217 



each month of the school year by the Playground Athletic 
League. 

The amount of $4,397.73 spent on travel included the transpor- 
tation of people and supplies for the great number of activities 
conducted throughout the year, as well as the traveling expenses 
of the man and woman physician who gave medical examinations 
to the high school boys and girls. 

The Baltimore Morning Sun paid the cost for the inter-county 
State-wide baseball tournament. 

The stub item ''wages" included the cost of stenographic help 
and of recording the 14,799 badges and the 7,007 medals won by 
the different pupils. For instance, it cost $309.24 to send out the 
48,308 tags that were issued to those who qualified for the var- 
ious events. The records not only registered the achievements 
of the children, but also prevented duplications and thereby 
lessened expenses. (See Table 132.) 

TABLE 133 

Expenditures by Counties for Service Rendered by P. A. L. 



County or Normal School 



Medical 
Services 



Referee & 
Coach Service 



Regular 
Instruction 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Totals 

Maryland State Normal School . . . 

Total Amount for Service rendered 



$32.54 



2L38 



$53.92 
117.20 



171.12 



$825.98 
86.92 
129.79 

33.03 
9.35 
208.68 
157.88* 
111.43 
8.50 
66.67 
55.89 
63.57 
118.19 
106.75 



326.70t 

175.43 

153.83t 



$2,638.59 
84.30 



2,722.89 



$1,013.47 
14,883.07 



904.92 



$16,801.46 
1,334.25 



18,135.71 



21.029.72 



♦ Includes $50 for Winter Carnival, 
t Includes $100 for Winter Carnival. 



218 1929 Report of State Department of Education 



A gross number of 16,000 badges and 1,100 date bars were 
purchased for the work in the counties of Maryland. In addi- 
tion, 4,797 medallions, 1,270 official badges, and 8,299 pendants 
were furnished for the various competitions. These thousands 
of awards, which cost $5,302.64 are beautiful and inexpensive 
when compared with the usual cost of one athletic meet where 
four or five hundred dollars are paid for the medals alone. 

Additional receipts came from county funds for special extra 
medical, referee, and coach service rendered by the League. 
Regular class instruction in physical education was given by 
leaders from the Playground Athletic League in the high schools 
and larger grade schools of Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and Howard 
Counties. (See Table 133.) 

The P. A. L. staff, acting as non-partisan officials, supplemented 
the excellent work of the teachers of the schools in the State by 
refereeing and umpiring games and rendering service as coaches. 
(See Table 134.) 

TABLE 134 



Staff P'urnished Counties by Playsround Athletic League, 1929 



COUNTY 


Workers Sent 
to Field Meets 
and Winter 
Carnivals for 


No. of 
Days 
Service 

per 
Week 
for 
Physical 
Educa- 
tion for 


Games Refereed 
and Umpired 


Days of Coach 
Service 


u 
o 


X 
Xi 

0) 
« 


"oS 
« 


oS 
SQ 

E 


15 
n 

>. 

> 


u 

8 


a> 
o 

X. 

V. 

a> 
cn 
u 



"5 
m 


Winter 
Carnival 


White 


Col- 
ored 


B 


G 


B 


G 


B 


G 


B 


B 


G 


B 


G 


G 


B 


B 


G 


B 


G 


Total 


182 

al5 
12 
11 
4 

6 
11 

5 
6 
6 
9 
4 

10 
7 
fj 

12 
614 
5 
4 
7 
7 
7 
8 
6 


205 

al3 

13 

16 
3 
6 

15 
6 

10 
5 

11 
4 
7 
6 
6 

14 
613 
6 
3 
6 

14 
7 

16 
5 


73 


70 


28.0 


29.0 


168 

30 
4 
15 


82 
43 
18 


25 


36 


180 


17 


31 


23 


11 


5 


37 


Allegany 




5 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
3 


5 
3 
3 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 


2.5 
24.0 


2 
25.5 


2 
19 


1 


6 
15 
1 
7 


1 


9 








Baltimore 






















1 












2 






Carroll 




















Cecil 














31 
6 
12 
12 












Charles 






6 
12 
12 














1 


5 
























17 






































3 
3 
3 
3 
7 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 
5 
4 
3 
3 
5 
3 






18 
2 
1 
3 
4 
1 








18 
2 

3 
2 
5 
2 


16 


3 
1 

5 
10 
2 


1 
1 








1.5 


1.5 


1 




2 






Kent 












1 


4 


33 


6 






Prince George's 


























St. Mary's 














1 


1 












6 
18 
13 

2 
20 








1 

18 
16 
3 
20 








Talbot 






1 
1 












2 


c22 


















4 
4 


4 
3 
















2 


10 









































a Includes 5 men and 3 \vx)men for rural meet, 
b Includes 5 men and 5 women for rural meet, 
c One worker sent to county two weeks in advance of carnival. 



Staff and Matkrials Furnished by P. A. L. 



219 



By purchasing athletic supplies and equipment through the 
Playground Athletic League the schools obtain them at a 
greatly reduced rate. If this material had been purchased at 
the regular retail prices, by the children, it would have cost 
$3,200 more than the $5,394 expended. (See Table 135.) 

TABLE 135 

Materials Supplied by Playground Athletic League to County Schools, 1929 



COUNTIES 



NUMBER PURCHASED FOR COUNTIES 



u 

(D 

o 



> 



be 

o 
Q 



a> 
to 
ei 



Ci3 

CQ 

a 

w 



5 



c4 

PQ 



3J 

ca 
■i-> 

a 

m 

a 



3 a 

C X 

< 



Totals 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . . 
Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



289 

18 
12 
97 
1 
18 
8 
18 
4 
4 
12 
1 
2 
. 11 
7 
17 
10 
6 
6 
8 
2 
10 
8 
9 



104 

8 
2 
13 



9 
5 
3 
2 
4 
6 
3 
2 
1 
2 
8 
5 
2 
1 
4 
7 
3 
11 
3 



481 

18 
32 
87 
4 
18 
43 
7 
8 
24 
18 
3 
4 
7 
6 
33 
42 
27 
3 
11 
44 
10 
23 
9 



247 

1 

13 
75 



6 
1 

36 
12 



11 



22 
18 



20 
22 



292 

12 
38 
97 
1 
9 
20 
5 
10 
9 
4 
5 
1 
5 
3 
23 
21 
9 
3 
3 
1 
5 
5 
3 



142 

3 
13 
37 



3 
18 
7 
6 
6 
2 
1 
2 
3 
1 
11 
2 
() 
1 
3 
7 



43 

1 

3 
9 



161 

1 

18 
70 
2 
1 
8 
4 



9 
3 
5 
14 
3 
2 
8 



22 



10 



380 



380 



$5 , 394 

236 
341 
1,203 

29 
216 
253 
264 
121 
171 
194 

45 

30 
118 

82 
387 
548 
245 

82 
106 
275 
149 
190 
109 



BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS 

During the summer of 1929, fifteen Baltimore City schools 
were open for review and advance work, 9 for white and 6 for 
colored pupils. This was an increase of one over the number of 
white schools open the preceding summer. The total enrollment 
included 4,514 white and 2,377 colored pupils, and of these 3,925 
white and 1,925 colored pupils continued until the end of the 
session. The total enrollment for the white schools was 136 less 
than in 1928, and for the colored 462 less. The number of white 
pupils taking review work, 3,153, was just 6 less than the cor- 
responding number for the preceding year. Only 772 took ad- 
vanced work, whereas 922 were enrolled in these classes in 1928. 
There were 1,636 colored children making up failures in their 
regular school work and 289 taking classes in an advanced grade. 



220 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



In 1929 the per cent of colored children promoted from review 
classes was higher for all types of schools than in 1928. Almost 
92 per cent of the colored elementary pupils reviewing work re- 
ceived promotion. Of the white children taking review work, a 
smaller percentage received promotion in the elementary and 
senior high school work in 1929 than in 1928, but nearly 97 per 
cent of the junior high school children did work of passing grade. 
Promotions of white pupils taking advanced work ranged from 
93.5 per cent in the senior high school work to 99 per cent in the 
elementary grades. There were 24 men and 71 women teaching 
in the white summer schools, and 14 men and 33 women in those 
for colored children. In all, there were 2 more teachers in 1929 
than in 1928. (See Table 136.) 

Expenditures for summer schools aggregated $31,377, making 
the average cost for each pupil who remained until the end of the 
summer session $5.36. 



TABLE 136 
Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1929 



type of school 



o 
o 

JZ 

u 



o 



c 



o 



Net Roll at End of Term 



o 



.2 



u 
c 
OS 
> 

< 



Per Cent of Net 
Roll Promoted 
Taking 



0) 



u 
c« 

H 



o 



c 



c 



White 



Secondary 
























Senior 


2 


1 .784 


1,594 


1,418 


176 


83 


5 


93 


5 


19 


9 


Junior 


2 


1.1 GO 


1,059 


962 


97 


96 


9 


96 


4 


3 


19 


Elementary 


4 


1 .211 


962 


773 


189 


94 


2 


99 





2 


29 


Demonstration 


1 


353 


310 




310 






98 







14 


Total 








9 


4,514 


3,925 


3.153 


772 


24 


71 



Colored 



Secondary 

Senior 

Junior 

Elementary 

Demonstration 

Total 

Grand Total.. .|}g|g 



*1 


296 


252 


194 


58 


*1 


247 


183 


133 


50 


3 


1.426 


1.157 


1.151 


6 


1 


408 


333 


158 


175 


6 


2,377 


1.925 


1.636 


289 


15 


6,891 


5.850 


4,789 


1,061 


14 


7.489 


6.290 


4.879 


1,411 



75.2 
89.1 
91.9 
93.0 



87.2 
100.0 
83.0 
92.0 



4 
4 
4 

2 

14 

38 



3 
2 
18 
10 

33 

104 



142 
140 



* The same school building. 



Baltimore City Summkr and Evening Schools 



221 



EVENING SCHOOLS 

Evening school work was limited to Baltimore City, except 
for vocational classes in Hagerstown, Cumberland and Annapolis 
and the mining classes held in Allegany and Garrett Counties. 

The Baltimore City evening school enrollment of 10,727 white 
and 2,862 colored persons was 826 more for the white and 225 
more for the colored schools than in 1928. The enrollment of 
white adults in Americanization, elementary, commercial and 
industrial classes was higher than in the preceding year. All 
of the colored classes, except the commercial and industrial, had 
increased enrollments. The number of withdrawals from the 
evening classes w^as so large that the net enrollment was 64 per 
cent of the total enrollment for the white schools, and 80 per 
cent for the colored. 

Comparison with 1928 shows increases in average net roll, 
average attendance, number of teachers, and length of session 
of the secondary classes for both white and colored schools. The 
per cent of attendance was slightly better in the colored schools, 
but in the white there was a drop from 81 to 75.7 per cent of 
the net enrollment in average attendance. (See Table 137.) 

TABLE 137 
Baltimore City Evening Schools in 1929 



ENROLLMENT 



TYPE OF WORK 

Americanization 

Academic 

Elementary 

Secondary 

Vocational 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Home Economics 



White 


Colored 


1,828 




949 


1,334 


2,342 


424 


2,725 


263 


2,006 


316 


877 


525 


10.727 


2,862 



Total 

White Colored 



Average Net Roll 5 , 657 

Average Attendance 4 , 601 

Per Cent of Attendance 

Average Number of Teachers 

Number of Nights 

Academic 

Secondary ^ 

Vocational 



1928 


1929 


1928 


1929 


5,657 


6,870 


2.054 


2.298 


4.601 


5.206 


1.480 


1.714 


81 


75.7 


72 


74 5 


241 


273 


67 


69 


70 


68 


70 


68 


95 


99 


70 


79 


50 


46 


70 


68 



Disbursements for Americanization classes amounted to $31,- 
457, and for other types of evening schools to $105,093, making 
an average cost of $15 for each person on the average net roll. 



222 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



The evening classes in Cumberland and Hagerstown included 
courses in shop work, electricity, drafting, blue print reading, 
related mathematics, and show card writing. In Allegany and 
Garrett counties, the State Bureau of Mines, with the coopera- 
tion of the University of Maryland, conducted 10 classes for 
miners. At Annapolis there was a part-time continuation class 
for the colored cooks and waiters of the U. S. Naval Academy. 
Instruction was given in sewing, cooking, shop, and related 
arithmetic. 

* THE CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS 

In 1929 the following regulations were adopted upon recom- 
mendation of the county superintendents' committee on certifica- 
tion. 

Medical Certificate Necessary for Certification 

As every new teacher in Maryland must become a member of 
the State Teachers' Retirement System and is therefore eligible 
for a disability allowance, it was decided to require for certifica- 
tion a special physical and medical examination. A physician in 
each county seat was designated to make the examinations and 
a special report blank was provided. The reports are screened 
by the Medical Board of the State Teachers' Retirement System 
and teachers' certificates are issued only when the medical re- 
ports have been accepted by the Board. 

Certificates for Teachers in Non-Public Schools 

Because of the medical examination requirement, it was de- 
cided not to continue issuing teachers' certificates to members 
of the faculties of approved non-public secondary schools, as had 
been the custom in the past. Requests for certification, however, 
led to devising a special type of certificate for the non-public 
schools. These certificates are based on virtually the same re- 
quirements as those in force for the high school teachers' and 
principals' certificates, but are valid only in non-public schools. 

Conference on the Training? of Hi;;h School Teachers 

On November 21, 1929, a conference of representatives of the 
State Department of Education and of the Maryland colleges 
which train students to teach in high school was held at the 
office of the State Department of Education. There was a gen- 
eral feeling that the professional requirements for certification 
in the high school field should probably be raised in some re- 
spects, notably in practice teaching. A committee was appointed 
to study the requirements and the by-laws relating to the courses 
in Education and to recommend revisions. The committee con- 

* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman. Credential Secretary. 



Certification of Teachers 



sists of Dr. G. Nevin Rebert, of Hood College, Chairman, Mr. 
A. M. Isanogle, of Western Maryland College, Dr. F. G. Livin- 
good, of Washington College, and Mr. Samuel M. North, State 
Department of Education. The committee is to report to the 
State Department; if necessary, there will be another conference 
of State college and State Department representatives; and the 
final recommendations will be passed upon by the State Board 
of Education. 

Number of Certificates Issued 

Table 138 indicates the number of certificates of the various 
kinds which have been issued during the period from December 
1 to November 30 in the years 1921-22, 1927-28, and 1928-29. 
The only considerable change in numbers of the first group of 
certificates is in those for supervising and helping teachers. An 
unusually large number of helping teachers were successful in 
qualifying for the supervisor's certificate. 

TABLE 138 





Number 


of Certificates Issued 




December 1 to November 30 


Grade of Certificate 










1921-22 


1927-28 


1928-29 


Administration and Supervision 








Administration and Supervision 


4 


2 


1 


Elementarv Supervision 


9 


4 


10 


Helping Teacher 

Special Supervision 


10 


2 


2 











Attendance Officer 





1 


1 


High School 








Principal 


7 


40 


19 


Academic 


157 


412 


186 


Special 


30 


58 


43 


Vocational 


24 


4 


12 


Non-Public 








7 


Elementary 








Principal 


43 


15 


30 


First 


370 


699 


538 


Second 


325 


19 


7 


Third 


214 









There was a marked drop in the number of high school prin- 
cipals' certificates issued, largely because there was a small turn- 
over and partly because in the preceding year a number of the 
principals who had been working on provisional certificates qual- 
ified for regular ones. The decrease in the number of aca- 
demic and special certificates issued was due almost entirely to 
our having this year started the policy of certificating among the 
graduates of Maryland colleges only those who received appoint- 



224 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



ments. There was also a smaller turnover among the high school 
teachers. The decrease in the number of first grade certificates 
was due primarily to the smaller turnover and, to a slight extent, 
to a dropping off in the number of normal school graduates. 
Second grade certificates are now being issued only to teachers 
in service who raise their certificates from third grade. No third 
grade certificates at all are being issued. 

Provisional Certificates 

The number of provisional or emergency certificates issued 
during each of the last seven years, including 1929-30, up to 
January 1 is given in Table 139. The increase in the number of 
such certificates issued in 1926-27 and 1927-28 to the elementary 
school teachers is chiefly the result of more complete checking 
by the State Department office and the subsequent certification 
of teachers who had formerly been allowed to work without valid 
certificates. The figures for these two years, therefore, do not 
indicate retrogression in the preparation of elementary school 
teachers, but are larger simply because they give a true picture 
of the situation. This year the number of provisional certificates 
issued to elementary school teachers up to January 1 is only 17 
as compared with 45 up to January 1, 1929. 



TABLE 139 



tProvisional or Eniorpency Certificates 
Issued for 

Elementary High School 

YEAR School Teaching Teaching 

1923- 24 276 225 

1924- 25 316 184 

1925- 26 175 132 

1926- 27 214 104 

1927- 28 268 108 

1928- 29 72 110 

1929- 30 17* 90* 



t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
* Up to January 1, 1930. 

The high school situation shows practically continuous im- 
provement. The number of provisional certificates has dropped 
from 225 in 1923-24 to 90 in 1929-30 up to January 1. Very few 
will be issued after the first of January. This decrease in the 
number of provisionally certificated high school teachers has 
occurred in spite of the fact that the total number of teachers 
has greatly increased. The comparison in the high school figures, 
moreover, is quite accurate, because it has for some years been 
possible to check completely the certification of the high school 
teachers and to authorize provisional certificates for those, who 
through an oversight, have not been certificated early in the year. 



THE COST OF MARYLAND'S PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Disbursements for current expenses of the public schools of 
the 2o Maryland counties in 1929 totaled $8, 165, ()()(), an increase 
of $377,000 over the 1928 expenditures. The State reimburse- 
ments for 1929 amounted to $2,323,000, and the remaining 
$5,842,000 was borne by the counties. Capital outlay in the coun- 
ties totalled $1,773,000. From 1919 to 1929 the county expendi- 
tures for current expenses have trebled while the State contri- 
butions to the county school systems have not quite doubled. (See 
Table 140.) 

The 1929 expenditures in Baltimore City, $473,000 higher than 
in 1928, totaled $9,629,000. The funds contributed by the State 
($1,037,000) increased by $20,000; consequently local sources 
carried $453,000 more than in the preceding year. The Balti- 
more City disbursements shown in Table 140 include expendi- 
tures for the training school for colored teachers which are ex- 
cluded from the later tables of this Report. The capital outlay in 
Baltimore City totalled only $634,000 which is less than was 
spent in any year since 1920. From 1919 to 1929, Baltimore 
City's contribution for operating the public schools quadrupled 
while the State's contribution grew by 55 per cent. (See Table 
140.) 

In the entire state, expenditures for current expenses in pub- 
lic schools amounted to $17,794,000, and for land and school con- 
struction costs, to $2,407,000. (See Table 140.) 

Proportion of Financial Aid Received from the State 

In 1929 the Maryland counties received from State and Fed- 
eral funds 28.4 per cent of their total current expense disburse- 
ments, and carried the remaining 71.6 per cent from county 
funds. The receipts from the State toward current expense in 
1928 amounted to 28.8 per cent of the current expense budget. 
The receipts from the State in 1928 for current expense included 
$224,970 from the liquidation of the Free School fund which 
should not have appeared since these funds could only be used 
for construction of buildings. Of its disbursements for current 
expenses, excluding those for the colored teacher training 
school, in 1929 Baltimore City received 10.8 per cent from State 
and Federal sources. In the State as a whole, the State and Fed- 
eral aid amounted to 18.9 per cent of the school current expense 
budgets. (See Table 141.) 

Four counties received funds for more than half of their ex- 
penditures for school current expense from the State and Federal 
governments. Somerset received 59 per cent, Garrett, 58 per 
cent, Calvert, 57 per cent, and Charles, 52 per cent. On the 
other hand, six counties, Baltimoi'e, Allegany, Montgomery, Anne 



226 



1929 Eeport of State Department of Education 



TABLE 140 

Expenditure for Current Expense From State and Local Funds and for 
Capital Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1919-1929 



Vl? A R 


CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 














i 












Capital 






Total 




From State 


From Local 




Outlay 












Funds 


Funds 














Total Counties 


1919 


$3,184,351 


1 

22' 


$1 


230 


181 60 


.?1 .954.169 


62' 


s 


311 


137 


OS 


1920 


3.703.153 


29 


1 


186 


192 67 


2.516.960 


62 




485 


601 


23 


1921 


5.043.923 


02; 


1 


554 


693 60 


3 . 489 . 229 


42. 




929,024 


08 


1922 


5.291 . 124 


43 


1 


545 


695 85 


3.745,428 


58 


1 


121 


553 


98 


1923 


5 , 9()4 . 45(> 


44 


2 


026 


315 58 


3.938. 140 


8() 


1 


475 


2r)8 


52 


1924 


6 , 475 . 802 


93 


2 


068.186 05 


4.407.616 


88 




949 


719 


78 


1 925 


6.743.015 


08 


2 


161 


571 04 


4.581 .444 


04 


2 


.T27 


823 


35 


1926 


7. 143, 149 


65 


•) 


248 


399 75 


4 . 894 . 749 


90 


•> 


602 


745 


09 


1927 


7,517.728 


77, 


2 


329 


031 35 


5. 188,697 


42 


1 


023 


362 


25 


1 928 


7 . 787 . 298 


09! 


t2 


24() 


541 47 


5 . 540 . 756 


62 


1 


532 


717 


90 


1929 


8, 164.657 


'1 


t2, 322, 643. 82 


5,842.013 


36 

1 


1 


773 


070 


68 










li.M/n.MOltK ( ITV* 












1919 


$2,832,543 


.59' 


$ 


r>7i 


006 78 


$2. Kil .536 


81 


1 

s 


38 


562 


29 


1920 


3.706.641 


51 




713 


. 287 02 


2.993.-354 


49 


! 


()0 


741 


25 


1921 


5.394.655 


7(i 




,032 


,.")41 55 


4,31)2. 1 14 


21 


1 


.2()7 


()3() 


20 


1922 


6.631 .682 


32 




.026 


.972 79 


5.()04.709 


53 


1 


.417 


.569 


15 


1923 


6.949.793 


45 




.06() 


. 100 96 


5.883.692 


49 


i 3 


.301 ,086 


21 


1924 


().9r)3.332 


47 




,0«1| 


111 63 


5,902.220 


84 


.') 


. 336 


889 


0(> 


1 925 


7.419.638 


99 




,042 


, 479 92 


('),377. 159 


07 


3 


.224 


733 


82 


192«) 


7,()60,787 


M 




.05() 


.893.87 


6.603,893 


97 


; 3 


.484,766.86 


1927 


8.482.458 


93 




.OS*) 


,4! Hi 95 


7,395.961 


98 


4 


. 200 


037 


45 


1 928 


9. 156. 164 


29 


tl 


.016 


.993 13 


8. 139. 171 


16 


1 


.897,871 


37 


1 929 


9.629.352 


Hi 

1 


tl 


.037 


. 490 92 


8.591,861 


19 




633 


631 


71 




Entire Stati: 


1919 


$6,016,894.81 


$1 


.901 


.188.38 


$4,115,706 


43 


$ 


349.699 


37 


1920 


7 . 409 . 794 


80 


1 


. 899 


.479 69 


5.510.315 


.11 




546 


.342 


48 


1921 


10.438.578 


78 


•> 


.587 


.235 15 


7.851.343 


63 


2 


. 196 


.660 


28 


1 922 


1 1 . 922 . 8()() 


75 


2 


. 572 


. 668 64 


! 9,350.138 


11 


2 


..539,123 


13 




12.914.249 


89 


3 


.092 


.416 54 


9.821 .8.33 


35 


4 


, 776 


354 


73 


1924 


13.439.135 


40 


3 


. 129 


. 297 . 68 


10.309.837 


72 


() 


. 286 


608 


84 


1925 


14.162,654 


07 


3 


, 204 


.050 96 


10.958,603 


11 


' 5 . 752 , 557 


17 


192t) 


14.803.937 


49 


3 


. 305 


. 293 62 


1 1 . 498 . 643 


87 


6 


.087 


511 


95 


1927 


1(). 000, 187 


.70 


3 


.415 


. 528 30 


, 12.584,6.59.40 


5 


. 223 


399 


70 


1928 


16.943.462 


.38 


t3, 263. 534 60 


1 13.679.927 


78 


' 3 , 430 


589 


27 


1929 


17.794.009 


29 


t3 . 3()0 


. 134 74 


14.4.33.874 


55 


2 

1 


.406 


702 


39 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers. 

t Excludes receipts from li(|uidation of Free School P'und and for Charles County. 
$6,500 for McDonoutjh School to be used for school building purposes. 



State and CorxTY Expenditures for Schools 



227 



Arundel, Washington and P'l'ederick received from Stat(? and 
Federal funds less than one-fourth of their disbursements for 
school current expense. (See Tabic 141.) 

TABLE 141 

Per ('ent of Current Expense Disbursements Received F^rom State 
and Vocational Funds For Year Ending July 31, 1929 



County 



Total 
Disbursements 
for Current 
Expenses 



Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 



State and 
Vocational 
Aid 



County and 
Other 
Sources 



Per Cent of Current Expense Dis- 
bursements Received From 



OS 

CIS — 



, X.I 

^ ^ c 
rt— c c 



II 

^ c 

cS O 
■>-> • n 
CO 



Total Counties. 


$ 8,104,057.18 


S 2,322,043.82 


$ 5,842,013.30 


28 


4 


22. 


8 


5 


() 


71 


Somerset 


222,007.97 


130,9.58.52 


91,109.45 


59 





20 


4 


32 


() 


41 


Garrett 


312,970.04 


179,885.05 


133,091. .59 


57 


5 


21 





35 


9 


42 


Calvert 


90,881.38 


51.705.08 


.39, 110. .30 


57 





29 


7 


27 


3 


1 43 


Charles 


139,395.47 


*72,824.24 


t00,.571.23 


52 


2 


32 


.5 


19 


7 


47 


St. Mary's 


98,308.09 


45,508.90 


52.799.79 


40 


3 


37 


3 


9 





i 53 


Caroline 


191,389.50 


84,003.40 


100.720.10 


44 


2 


27 


3 


10 


9 


' 55 


Dorchester 


2()2,999.73 


all 2,234.80 


1.50,704.93 


42 


7 


2i 


8 


17 


9 


57 


Worcester 


231,743.82 


93,012.44 


1.38,731.38 


40 


1 


20 


8 


13 


3 


59 


Wicomico 


298,454.54 


110,341.08 


182,113.46 


39 





24 


7 


14 


3 


01 


Queen Anne's . . 


109,475.88 


653,944.01 


115,531.87 


31 


8 


25 


9 


.) 


9 


(i8 


Kent 


104,122.43 


49.741.00 


114,380 83 


30 


3 


24 


9 


.5 


4 


09 


Howard 


l.")9.000.f)4 


4(),792.93 


11 2,807.71 


29 


3 


29 


3 






70 


Prince George's. 


545,050.22 


1.54,883.83 


390. 172. .39 


28 


4 


24 


3 


4 


1 


71 


Harford 


280, 289 ..35 


70,300.08 


209.988.07 


20 


7 


20 


7 






1 73 


Carroll 


399,4.35.87 


105,551.02 


293,884.25 


20 


4 


23 


7 


2 


< 


73 


Talbot 


191,514.99 


49, .503. 72 


141,951.27 


25 


9 


25 


9 






74 


Cecil 


203,798.04 


(Hi, 809. 16 


19('),929.48 


25 


3 


25 


3 




74 


PVcderick 


.520,579.08 


122.110.74 


398,402.34 


23 


.5 


23 


.5 

3 




7i) 


Washington .... 


020,510.26 


133, .591 .54 


492,924.72 


21 


3 


21 






78 


Anne .\rundel. . 


480,037.90 


98,890.16 


387,147.80 


20 


3 


20 


3 






79 


Montgomery . . . 


524,127.49 


104.091.00 


420,035.89 


19 


9 


19 


9 






80 


Allcganv 


.S7 1,9.38. 37 


173,103.00 


09.S.774.77 


19 


9 


18 


7 


1 


2 


80 


lialtimore 


1.107,940.20 


199,949.12 


907.997.14 


18 





18 









82 


Baltimore City . 


9,013,109.84 


1 ,037,490.92 


8,575,078.92 


10 


8 


10 


8 






89 


Total State .... 


17,777,827.02 


3.300,134.74 


14,417,092.28 


18 


9 


10 


3 


2 





81 



a Excludes .$4,280 from State Free School Kurd, 
b Excludes .i;2,012.T5 from State Free School Fund. 

* Excludes $6,500 from McDonouKh Fund, and inclu.les $1,000 appropriated foi" Pomonkey 
Colored School. 

t Excludes .$11,369.77 from Federal Government for SchcK)ls at Indian Head. 
See Tables XX to XXII, naK^s 327 to 32it foi; receipts and disbursement.-. 

§Help Furnished by the State Equalization Fund 

Durinj^ 1928-29 fourteen counties received payments from the 
Equalization Fund varying in amounts from $8,800 in St. Mary's 
and Kent to $112,000 in Garrett. Allegany was a recipient of the 
Equalization Fund foi- the first time. 

§ See also navces 265 to 267. 



228 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 31 



PER CEJIT OF CURRE:^? E:^PE:DirJHZ3 ?0R '/E^'ifi S:DEJG JULY 31, 1929 



Race Ived from f 



I State and Vocational Funds Excluding 

Equalization Fane 

J Equalization Fund 




I. • . . .1 

.'.'.I County F'onds and Other Sources 

40 60 80 



100 



6 i^:;;: ^^;.^•:•v;■^•v:•:; 



, J . . I — TT" 



33 



3€ 



| ;i..^;■■.,.■.■.;,^:■,!;.^.■,> y:T^ 

I •• I I I t, • • I • I ' * • * 



27 



20 



I' •' •'•',f' ' ''i' •' »' •'*»' •''•■'*.'•.' .V 



I, I ^ . . — . . . . r . » _ — I , . . . , . — • — . — ~ — — : — ~ — : — ~, 



—L 1 • ■ ' • 1 . . ' » • • • • • • • ' 



! : * * * » * 



« • « t 1 1- « I ■ - - • » » 



; ^:.:::.r.. . . 
• ••••••••«• 



X 



« I. • f • t • t_ 



*-«*'*■«' 



" - • • • 
* « ■ < 



... . . . ! . . . . . r. . . . ; . . ... . . . . 



± 



' ■ * * 



_j — A — 1 — J — a_ 



i_» I : I I J I « I :_• t— 



t a ( t t-L 



' .'-* ^* «'«*-'■*■*«*«*.•.*- *l \ « « 1 



« * ' ' ' *' ' I L 



1 _ . — ; — I 1 — ; — ; — ; — ^ — ; — ; — i — -, 1—. — ; — i — I — i — : — ; — • . * » . — • — r" 

-' »' ' •' ''t' i ' ^ t' •' i ' . ' f ' « ' « ' t' « ' « * i' « « . * ^ * . * i « «— 



• I • — T 
' # # » < 
_i a a <_ 



Baltimore City 



Jtate 



16 B 



J I I . — t — ■ — 1_ 



' > « - « ■ I I ^* ' I * • * • I- 



* ' 1 * I * I 



t « • I « 1* 



A county shares in the fund if upon calculation it is found that 
the minimum program required by the State cannot be carried on 
a 67 cent county tax rate. The minimum program is considered 
to be the minimum State salary schedule for the number of super- 
visors and teachers needed for white elementary, high and colored 
schools under sections 76, 145 and 197 of the 1927 edition of the 



State and County Expenditures for Schools 



229 



State School laws, when divided by .76. The law provides that 
counties sharing in the Equalization Fund shall expend no less 
than 24 per cent of the total current expense budget for pur- 
poses other than teachers' salaries. To the amount thus de- 
termined is added the total cost of transportation in the counties. 
In this way a county which consolidates schools and eliminates 
teachers' salaries is not penalized. 

When the total need in the county has been determined in ac- 
cordance with the preceding paragraph, the amounts available 
from State and county sources are calculated. State aid for 
census and attendance, high schools, books and materials, and 
salaries of officials is added to the amount yielded by a 67 cent 
tax rate on the county basis assessable at the full rate for county 
purposes. (The average school tax rate in the counties has been 
67 cents for several years.) This total is compared with the 
amount required to carry the minimum program as set forth in 
the preceding paragraph. If the latter is larger than the former, 
the difference becomes the Equalization Fund. 

The relation between county support for school purposes and 
Federal and State aid appears clearly in Chart 31. The stippled 
portion of each bar at the right shows the per cent of the 1928-29 
current expense budget derived from county and miscellaneous 
local sources. It varied from 41 per cent in Somerset to 82 per 
cent in Baltimore County. The black portion of the bar at the 
left represents the per cent of current expenses financed from 
State and Federal aid other than the Equalization Fund. The 
portion borne by the Equalization Fund is shown by the section 
of the bar in the center which is white. This latter fund pro- 
vided 36 per cent of the total 1928-29 current expense budget in 
Garrett, 33 per cent in Somerset, and 27 per cent in Charles. In 
Allegany, Carroll, Prince George's, Kent, and Queen Anne's, the 
receipts from the Equalization Fund amounted to from 1 to 6 
per cent of the total school current expenses. (See Chart 31 and 
Table 141.) 

Howard and Harford Counties appear to receive a larger pro- 
portion of State and Federal aid than do Prince George's and 
Carroll which were recipients of the Equalization Fund. This is 
explained by the fact that the public school budgets in Harford 
and Howard provide for no more than the minimum program 
required in the law. The State's share therefore is larger than 
in counties offering more than the minimum. Prince George's 
carries salaries in excess of the minimum set up in the law and 
Carroll has a very rich offering of music, manual training, home 
economics, physical education, and commercial work in practi- 
cally all of its high schools. 



230 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



The State Department of Education welcomes the provision of 
an enriched program, and the salaries above the minimum found 
in Baltimore, Allegany, Montgomery, Prince George's, Anne 
Arundel, and in a few cases in Washington and Frederick Coun- 
ties ; but under present financial arrangements, the counties pay- 
ing larger salaries and providing an enriched program must bear 
the cost from county funds. This, of course, reduces the propor- 
tion of the school current expense budget received from the 
State. 

The position of Allegany almost at the bottom of the list, with 
19 per cent from State funds other than the Equalization Fund 
and 1 per cent from the Equalization Fund is another illustration 
of the same point. Allegany offers larger salaries and an en- 
riched program as do Montgomery and Baltimore Counties but 
Allegany has far less wealth back of each pupil than either Balti- 
more or Montgomery County. (See pages 265 to 267.) 

♦HOW THE SCHOOL DOLLAR IS SPENT 

Of every dollar spent during 1928-29 for the current expenses 
of the Maryland county schools, 70 cents were used for teachers' 
salaries ; 2 cents for supervision and 5 cents for books, supplies, 
and other materials of instruction. Thus 77 cents out of every 
dollar used to keep the schools running went towards the actual 
cost of instructing the children. (See Chart 32 and Tabic 142.) 

Expenditures for general control or administration required 
3.4 cents from each dollai'. The cost of heating and cleaning the 
school buildings took 7.3 cents, and the cost of repairs amounted 
to 3.3 cents in each dolhir. The gi-eatest increase was found in 
the 7.2 cents spent for transportation, libi-ai'ies. and health which 
was .7 higher than in 1928. (See Chati 32 and Table 142.) 

Amount Used for Teachers' Salaries 

Expenditures for teachers' salai'ies amounted to 76.4 per cent 
of the total current expense budgets in Harford and Washington 
Counties. These percentages were slightly lower than those for 
1928, but they left less than one-fourth of the current expense 
funds available for all other costs of running the schools. The 
fact that Harford and Washington used only 2.6 and 4.2 per cent 
of their funds, respectively, for auxiliary agencies partly ex- 
plains the high proportion expended for teachers' salaries. 

Calvert, Queen Anne's and Anne Arundel used from 61 to 65 
cents in each school current expense dollar for salaries of teach- 
ers. These three counties had the largest amounts expended for 
transportation which in many cases takes the place of a school 
in which the major cost is the salary of the teacher. 



For disbursements, see Table XXH, page 329. 



How THE School Tax Dollar Is Spent 



231 



Amount Used for Supervision 

In Allegany, Washington, Prince George's, and Somerset less 
than ,2 per cent of the current school expenditures were used for 
supervision. According to the State schedule each of these coun- 
ties is entitled to employ at least one additional supervisor. In 
Calvert and St. Mary's, where the total school budget is compara- 
tively small, the salary and expenses of even one supervisor 
amount to about four per cent of the total school current ex- 
pense. The State, of course, carries the cost of two-thirds of 
the salary for the supervisor employed, and since these counties 
receive the Equalization Fund, the State bears a still greater 

CHART 32 

HOW TliE SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR WAS SPENT 



IN TliE MARYLAND COUNTIES, 1929 



or 



V 



JAhiToR.5, Fuel 7-3^ 



TEACHERS 



70. 



232 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



proportion of the supei^dsory costs, on the principle that every 
county, no matter how small, shall have money available for an 
efficient program of instructional supervision in both white and 
colored schools. 

Proportion for Books and Materials 

The proportion of funds used for books, materials and other 
costs of instruction varied from 3.2 per cent in Calvert and St. 
Mary's to 8.3 per cent in Allegany. Twelve counties had higher 
percentages for these purposes than in 1928, and in Anne Arun- 
del, Calvert, Cecil, and Somerset the increase amounted to 1 per 
cent or more. (See Table 142.) The State encourages larger 
expenditures for these most important aids to efficient instruc- 
tion. 

TABLE 142 



Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1929 



county 


Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used For 


Per Cent of 
Expenditure 
for Current 
Expense and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 
Capital 
Outlay 


General Control 


Supervision 


Salaries of 


Teachers 


Books, Materials 
and Other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary Agencies 


Fixed Charges and 
Tuition to Ad- 
joining Counties 


County Average 


3. 


4 


2. 


2 


70 


2 


4 


8 


7 


3 


3.3 


7.2 


1.6 


17.8 


Allegany 


2. 


5 


1 . 


1 


70 


6 


8 


3 


7 


8 


3.3 


5.2 


1.2 


18.2 


Anne Arundel 


2. 


9 


2 





65 





4 


7 


6 


3 


3.0 


15.3 


.8 


9.4 


Baltimore 


2. 


8 


2. 


3 


71 


3 


3 


7 


8 


4 


2.9 


5.9 


2.7 


9.5 


Calvert 


7. 


9 


4. 





61 


4 


3 


2 


5 


1 


2.0 


15.8 


.6 


.7 


Caroline 


4. 


4 


2. 


2 


67 


8 


3 


6 


7 


9 


1.9 


10.6 


1.6 


2.7 


Carroll 


3. 


4 


2. 


6 


70 


7 


5 





5 


3 


3.5 


7.6 


1.9 


1.4 


Cecil 


3. 


5 


2 


5 


70 


9 


5 


8 


8 


1 


4.5 


4.1 


.6 


16.3 


Charles 


4. 


2 


2 


6 


70 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


1.8 


11.9 


1.4 


12.4 


Dorchester 


3. 


4 


2 


5 


66 


6 


5 





7 


5 


3.4 


10.5 


1.1 


42.6 




2. 


5 


2 


5 


73 





4 


3 


6 


9 


2.1 


6.6 


2.1 


22 6 


Garrett 


4 


2 


3 


4 


72 


1 


4 


6 


5 





2 3 


6.3 


2.1 


14.1 


Harford 


3. 


2 


2 


5 


76 


4 


4 


3 


7 





3.4 


2.6 


.6 


4.4 


Howard 


4. 


5 


2 


8 


68 


3 


4 





6 


6 


1.9 


8.0 


3.9 


2.0 


Kentt 


5. 





2 


9 


69 


9 


4 





8 


1 


.8 


8.2 


1.1 


9.9 


Kent* 


5. 





3 





70 


9 


3 


8 


7 


6 


.8 


7.8 


1.1 


10.4 


Montgomery 


3. 


7 


2 





66 


3 


5 


8 


9 


9 


4.2 


6.4 


1.7 


51.8 


Prince George's 


2 


8 


1 


7 


72 


.1 


4 


6 


8 


5 


5.8 


4.2 


.3 


13.9 




5 


2 


2 


8 


63 


1 


3 


6 


5 


7 


1.9 


13.4 


4.3 


1.4 




7 


4 


3 


9 


70 


7 


3 


2 


5 





1.2 


7.6 


1.0 


1.2 


Bomerset . . . . ; 


4 


4 


1 


7 


66 


.8 


5 


6 


8 


8 


1.6 


10.2 


.9 


14.0 


Talbot 


4 


6 


2 


2 


66 


.8 


4 


4 


7 


3 


3.2 


9.9 


1.6 


34.5 


Washington 


2 


4 


1 


2 


76 


.4 


3 


.9 


6 


9 


3.9 


4.2 


1.1 


11.8 


Wicomico 


3 


9 


2 


2 


68 


.1 


5 


2 


7 





4.9 


5.4 


3.3 


5.6 




4 





2 


8 


68 


.8 


4 


2 


6 


7 


3.2 


9.4 


.9 


1.4 




2 


9 


1 


3 


66 


.4 


3 


.7 


8 


8 


5.1 


4.0 


7.8 


6.2 


State 


3 


1 


1 


7 


68 


.1 


4 


.2 


8 


1 


4.3 


5.5 


5.0 


11.9 



t Disbursements exclude amounts paid in 1928-29 but due in 1927-28. 
• Disbureements include amounts paid in 1928-29 but due in 1927-28. 

For disbursements see Table XXII. page 329. 



How THE School Tax Dollar Is Spent 



233 



General Control Costs 

The five counties having the largest public school population 
in the State, viz. Baltimore, Allegany, Washington, Prince 
George's and Frederick spent less than 3 per cent of their 
budgets for general control and administration. On the other 
hand, the counties having the smallest public school population — 
Calvert, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's and Kent — used from 5 to 
nearly 8 per cent of their budgets for this purpose. All of the 
functions connected with running the schools, e. g., selection of 
teachers, ordering of books, supplies, fuel, etc.,. child and financial 
accounting, enforcement of the compulsory attendance law, 
securing the budget, purchasing land and constructing buildings, 
leadership of the teaching and supervisory staff, acting as execu- 
tive of the County Board of Education and numerous other func- 
tions must be performed whether the county be large or small. 
The cost of administration does not increase in direct proportion 
with the size of the school system. There is a fixed minimum cost 
for any county, and every county is aided by the State in paying 
for an efficient organization. The clerical staff must increase 
with a large increase in the children to be cared for and, in the 
larger counties, the superintendent needs an assistant superin- 
tendent to aid in carrying the burden. (See Table 142.) 

Proportion Used for Operation 

Operation costs increased by more than 3 per cent in Dorches- 
ter and Somerset mainly because of greater expenditures for 
fuel. An increase of 1.6 per cent for operation costs, due to in- 
creases in both fuel and janitors' wages, brought the per cent 
for Montgomery to 9.9. 

Auxiliary Ag-encies Mounting- 
Expenditures for auxiliary agencies which include transporta- 
tion, health and libraries, amounted to more than 15 per cent in 
Calvert and Anne Arundel, and to more than 10 per cent in 
Queen Anne's, Charles, Caroline, Dorchester, and Somerset. 
Only four counties — Harford, Cecil, Prince George's, Washing- 
ton — spent less than 5 per cent of their current expense budgets 
for auxiliary agencies. In these counties but a small proportion 
of pupils were transported at county expense. (See Table 142.) 

FUNDS USED FOR CAPITAL OUTLAY 

Of the combined expenditures for current expense and capital 
outlay, Montgomery used more than half for capital outlay, Dor- 
chester spent almost 43 per cent, and in Talbot 34.5 per cent 
went towards new construction. In eight counties — Calvert, St. 
Mary's, Carroll, Queen Anne's, Worcester, Howard, Caroline, 
and Harford, the capital outlay amounted to less than five per 
cent of the combined fund used for current expense and capital 
outlay. (See Table 142.) 



COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL 
BELONGING FOR CURRENT EXPENSE 

The average cost in 1929 of educating a day school pupil in 
the counties without reference to type of school was $54.55,t an 
increase of $1.93 over the cost in the preceding year. The cost 
varied in the different counties from $71.12 in Garrett, where 
there are no colored pupils and many one-teacher schools are 
found, to Charles and St. Mary's Counties where the costs were 
$42.60 and $43.21, respectively. Only three counties — Carroll, 

TABLE 143 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belongin;^ for Current Expenses for Years 
Ending June, 1926, 1927, 192S and 1929 



County 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Increase 

1929 
over 1928 


County Average 


SoO 


.18 


$51 


97 


$52 


02 


tS54 


55 


$ 1.93 


Garrett 


00 


13 


03 


32 


06 


90 


71 


12 


4 10 


Montfionierv 


55 


17 


50 


79 


57 


11 


()2 


92 


5.81 


Carroll 


(U 


()3 


01 


05 


04 


14 


()2 


79 


*1.35 


Alk'^aiiy 


i)l 


51 


03 


07 


()2 


40 


()2 


58 


. 18 


Cecil 


52 


47 


51 


35 


50 


43 


00 


91 


4.48 


Queen Anne's 


56 


37 


58 


70 


57 


09 


59 


00 


2.57 


Kent 


5() 


2() 


57 


15 


5S 


00 


57 


45 


* 55 


Baltimore 


.')() 


22 


57 


95 


5() 


40 


t57 


19 


.79 


Howard " . . . . 


40 


41 


49 


10 


53 


27 


54 


52 


1 . 25 


Talbot 


53 


41 


49 


92 


50 


90 


52 


81 


1 91 


Anne Arundel 


45 


82 


45 


30 


49 


37 


52 


59 


3.22 


Worcester 


4() 


21 


47 


85 


49 


02 


51 


90 


2 94 


Caroline 


50 


31 


4<) 


01 


50 


91 


50 


97 


.06 


Dorchester 


45 


47 


47 


38 


47 


59 


50 


90 


3.37 


Harford 


4() 


70 


47 


97 


47 


70 


50 


93 


3.17 


Frederick 


47 


05 


49 


55 


48 


07 


50 


50 


1,89 




45 


40 


50 


79 


50 


98 


t49 


74 


*1 .24 


Wicomico 


47 


09 


48 


20 


48 


27 


t49 


04 


1.37 


Washington 


42 


01 


45 


40 


45 


22 


49 


01 


3 . 79 


Calvert 


42 


79 


43 


80 


42 


57 


46 


28 


3.71 


Somerset 


39 


01 


41 


48 


42 


72 


4o 


72 


3 . 00 


St. Mary's 


34 


00 


37 


79 


41 


74 


43 


21 


1.47 


Charles 


37 


25 


39 


51 


40 


68 


42 


GO 


1.92 



* Decrease. 

t In making this calculation, e.\i>enditures for tuition to adjoininK counties, for pay- 
ments by parents for school transiwrtation, and for evening schools have been excluded, and 
number belonging at Towson, Salisbury, and Bowie NoiTnal elementary schools have not 
been considered. 

For disbursements see Table XXH, page 329. 



234 



Cost Pkr Pupil, Total and for Ge:neral Control 



235 



Prince George's, and Kent — had a lower per pupil cost in 1929 
than in 1928. Increases of from $3 to $6 occurred in Montgom- 
ery, Cecil, Garrett, Washington, Calvert, Dorchester, Anne Arun- 
del, Harford, and Somerset Counties. (See Table 143.) 

The analysis of the costs for the various types of schools pre- 
viously given will explain the increases. (See pages 75-88, 153- 
163, 195-199.) 

Cost of General Control 

The 1929 cost per pupil for general control, which includes the 
expenditures for maintaining the office of the County Board of 
Education and County Superintendent, for clerical assistance, 
and for salaries and traveling expenses of the superintendent 
and attendance officer, was $1.85, an increase of 3 cents over the 
corresponding figure for 1928. 

The cost per pupil for general control ranged from moi'e than 
$3 in Calvert, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, and Garrett to less than 
$1.50 in Washington, Frederick, and Prince George's. In gen- 
eral, the counties having the highest costs for general control 
have either very small enrollments or a large proportion of their 
pupils in one-teacher schools, necessitating a low pupil-teacher, 
and therefore low pupil-supervisor, ratio. There are certain ad- 
ministrative functions which must be carried on whether the 
county is large or small, and consequently there is a certain min- 
imum amount which every county must spend for this purpose. 
In larger counties more clerical assistance is required, but not 
all of the factors of general control increase with an increase in 
enrollment. The present ranking of counties in per pupil costs 

TABLE 144 
Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



County 



1927 



1928 



1929 



Increase 
1929 
over 
1928 



County 



1927 



1928 



1929 



Increase 
1929 
over 
1928 



County Average 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Quoon Anne's . . 

Garrett 

Kent 

Howard 

Talbot 

MontKoniery. . . 

Caroline 

Carroll 



$1.80 

3.28 
3.07 
2.76 
2.55 
3.09 

2.05 
2.33 
2.07 
2.15 
2.28 



$1.82 

3.54 
3.25 
3. 18 
3.24 
t2.8G 

2.75 
2.44 
2.18 
2.28 
2.12 



$1 .85 

3.67 
3.20 
3. 13 
3,01 
t2.73 

2.54 
2.45 
2.31 
2 . 25 
2.13 



$.03 

.13 
* . 05 
*.05 
*.23 

.13 

*.21 
.01 
.13 

*.03 
.01 



Cecil 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Baltimore 

AllcRany 

Anne Arundel. . 

Prince George's. 

Frederick 

Washington. . . . , 



$1.82 
1.87 
1 .90 
1 .86 
1.73 

1 .89 
1.52 
1.56 
1.68 
1.65 

1 .52 
1.19 
1.09 



$2.01 
1.77 
1 .89 
1 . S3 
1 .70 

1.94 
1 .56 
1.46 
1.57 
1.58 

1.57 
1 .20 
1.09 



$2.11 
2 . 06 
2.00 
1 .94 
1.79 

1.73 
1.63 
1 .63 
1.55 
1.50 

1.42 
1.25 
1.17 



1.10 
.29 
.11 
. 1 1 
.09 

■21 
.07 
.17 
.02 
.08 

■.15 
.05 
.08 



• Decrease. 

t Adjusted to include nayments actually due in year 
Fov disbursements see Table XXIII, page 330. 



in (luestion. 



236 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



for general control is therefore to be expected. Charles County 
deviates from this general order, but this can be explained by 
the fact that it is the only county in the State in which no at- 
tendance officer has been appointed. 

In 1929 ten counties showed lower costs per pupil for general 
control than in 1928, and six of these decreases were found in the 
counties ranking highest in cost per pupil for general control. 
In no county was the increase in per pupil cost for general con- 
trol greater than 29 cents. (See Table 144.) 

Cost Per Pupil in Various Types of Schools 

The current expense cost per day school pupil in various types 
of schools, excluding costs for general control, are given in Table 
145. The costs have been considered in detail for white elemen- 
tary schools on pages 75-88 ; for white high schools on pages 153- 

CHART 33 

1929 COST, EXCLUDING GKI^RAL CONTROL, 



PER COUNTY PUPIL BELONGING 



In White 
Elementary 
Schools 

S 49.49 




In White 
High Schools 

$ 96.00 



TEACHERS' 



* 



\0 



5ALACIE5 
^72.46 



Cost Per Pupil by Types of Schools 237 



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238 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



63; and for colored elementary and high schools on pages 195-9. 
The ranking of each county in per pupil cost of each type of 
school is given at the right in Table 145. 

The cost of educating the average county white elementary 
public school pupil and the cost of educating the average county 
white public high school pupil can be seen from Chart 34. The 
expenditure for each high school pupil is almost twice the ex- 
penditure for each elementary school pupil. This difference in 
cost is due to the smaller classes in high school, the higher sal- 
aries paid the secondary school teachers because of the longer 
period of training requii'ed, the greater per pupil costs for main- 
tenance and operation in high school since rooms are occupied by 
a smaller number of pupils, and the more expensive type of books 
and equipment and the greater number needed in the higher 
grades. The cost per elementary pupil more nearly equals the 
cost per high school pupil for auxiliary agencies than for any 
other element of school costs. Even these costs will furthei* 
diverge when more counties adopt the policy of free high school 
transportation. (See Chart 33.) 

FINANCING OF VOCATIONAL WORK IN MARYLAND 

The maximum allotment to Maryland from the Federal Gov- 
ernment under the Smith-Hughes Act is $96,052 of which a max- 
imum of $33,864 is allocated to agriculture, $48,418 to industrial 
education and home economics, and $13,770 to teacher training. 
The amount of Federal funds actually used was $81,272, leaving 
an unexpended balance of $14,781 which was returned to the 
Federal Government. This balance existed because the Act 
specifically designates that certain amounts must be used for 
part-time and continuation work and this phase of vocational 
training is just being developed by the State Supervisor of Indus- 
trial Education. Of the $81,272 received and used, $28,062 was 
expended for salaries of teachers of agriculture, $27,880 for 
salaries of teachers of trade and industrial subjects, $9,684 for 
salaries of teachers of home economics, and $15,646 for supervi- 
sion and teacher training in these three branches. 

In addition to the Federal appropriation, the State contributed 
from the Public School Budget toward the salaries of vocational 
teachers $8,523, and for administration and supervision in voca- 
tional education, $8,402. The counties spent for vocational work 
$36,818; the city, $99,771; and the University of Maryland, 
$9,201. The total amount spent in Maryland for vocational edu- 
cation, including the Federal reimbursement, was $243,987. For 
salaries spent in the various counties for vocational agriculture 
and home economics, see Tablv 98, page 157. 



Financing the Vocational Education Program 



23'.) 



Baltimore City's Vocational Education Program 

The salaiy cost of the program of Vocational Education in the 
City of Baltimore totalled over $120,000, an increase of $10,000 
over the corresponding figure the preceding year. Three-fourths 
of the City's salary expenditures for vocational education were 
for teachers in the 5 day vocational schools which enrolled nearly 
one thousand white and colored boys and girls. The Federal re- 
imbursement amounted to approximately 10 per cent of the total 
salary expenditure in these schools which totalled $89,390. The 
salary cost was $90.57 per pupil in day vocational schools. (See 
Table 146.) 

TABLE 146 



Salary Expenditures in Baltimore Citv for Vocational Education, Year 

Ending July*31, 1929 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enroll- 
ment 


Vocational 
Education 

Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Day Industrial 

Part-time Industrial 

Eveninfi Industrial 

Evening Home Economics 


$80,509.06 
4,887.50 
6,5()9.00 
7,805.50 


$8,880.94 
4,887.50 
6,569.00 
1.00 


$89,390.00 
9,775.00 
13,138.00 
7,806.50 


987 
222 
1,198 
• 1,623 


$90.57 
44.03 
10.97 
4.81 


899,771.00 


$20,338.44 


$120,109.50 


4,030 


$29.80 



Federal funds matched City expenditures for salaries for part- 
time classes which were $9,775 for the 222 pupils enrolled. The 
expenditure per pupil was $44. 

Expenditures for evening industrial classes, the salary cost of 
which was shared equallv by Federal and Citv funds, totalled 
$13,138, a decrease of $4,000 under 1928. The salary cost per 
pupil was nearly $11. (See Tabic 146.) 

The evening classes in home economics enrolled 1,623 women 
at a salary cost of $7,806.50. This meant a cost per person of 
slightly less than $5.00. The entire cost of these classes was 
borne by the City. (See Table 146.) 

Administration, Supervision, and Teacher Training in Vocational Education 

Administration, supervision, and teacher training in agricul- 
ture cost just over $14,000. Toward this total the State contrib- 
uted $4,465 ; the University of Maryland, $3,275 : and the Federal 
Government, $6,342. For supervision and teacher training for 
vocational work in trade and industrv the State conti-ibuted 
$1,412; the University of :\Iary]and, S3,570; and the Federal 



240 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Government $4,423. For vocational home economics the Federal 
Government matched expenditures by the State and University 
of Maryland, the State appropriation being $2,525; that of the 
University of Maryland, $2,356 ; making the Federal expenditure 
$4,881. (See Table 147.) 



TABLE 147 

Expenditures for Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational 
Education, Year Ending July 31, 1929 



Purpose 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Univ. of 
Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 


$4,405.25 
1 ,411 .07 
2.524.82 


$3,007.26 
852.13 
2.524.84 


$3 , 274 . 59 
3,570.46 
2.356.22 


$3,274.57 
3.570.45 
2.356.24 


$ 7.739.84 
4,982. 13 
4.881.04 


$ 6.341.83 
4.422.58 
4,881.08 


$8,401.74 


$6,444.23 


$9,201.27 


$9,201.26 


$17,603.01 
$33.2^ 


$15,645.49 
18.50 



MORE CHILDREN TRANSPORTED TO SCHOOL 

In 1929 the Maryland counties spent over $512,000 for the 
transportation of over 18,900 pupils to public elementary and 
high schools. This was an increase of $75,800 and of 3,021 
pupils over the corresponding figui'cs for the preceding school 
year. (See Table 148.) 

TABLE 148 



County Expenditures for Transportation to School 1910 — 1929 



Year 


Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of Pupils 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 




1915 


17,270 


10 




1920 


64,734 


18 




1921 


84,870 


18 




1922 


90,011 


18 




1923 


132,591 


20 


4,334 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


1920 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


1927 


373,168 


23 


13,385 


1928 


*436,583 


23 


15,907 


1929 


1512,385 


23 


18,928 



* Excludes $700 advanced to driver for iiurchase of bus. 
t Excludes $1,056 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 



Cost of Transportation in Maryland Counties 



241 



Of the pupils transported, 14,270 were carried to elementary 
and 4,658 to high schools at public expense. This was an in- 
crease over 1928 of 2,295 in the number of elementary pupils 
transported and 726 in the number of high school pupils ti-ans- 
ported in this way. (See Tabic 149.) 

The entire cost of transporting children to public elementary 
schools ($383,728) was paid from public funds. Public expendi- 

TABLE 149 



18,928 Maryland Pupils Transported in 1929 at Expense of Counties 





Pupils Transported 


County Expenditures 
for Transportation 


U U IN 1 I 




To 
















Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


To 




Total 


men- 


High 


Total 


mentary 


High 






tary 


School 




School 


School 






School 












Total Counties. . . 


* 18, 928 


* 14, 270 


4,658 


a $512 385 


b$383 


,728 


C$128 657 


Anne Arundel . . 


2,413 


2,119 


294 


64,948 


56 


,461 


8,487 


Baltimore 


2,537 


1,810 


727 


48,494 


31 


,095 


17,399 


AUeganv 


1,004 


869 


135 


35-, 377 


27 


,596 


7,781 


Frederick 


1,108 


1,006 


102 


31,629 


27 


,866 


3,763 


Carroll 


974 


974 




27,265 


27 


,265 




Dorchester 


1,093 


756 


337 


26,658 


17 


,604 


9,054 


Montgomery .... 


1,138 


775 


363 


25,891 


18 


,004 


7,887 


Washington 


705 


528 


177 


21,596 


16 


,492 


5,104 


Somerset 


688 


425 


263 


21,592 


11 


661 


9,931 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


729 


508 


221 , 


21,530 


14 


997 


6,533 


Worcester 


864 


521 


343 


20,973 


12 


455 


8,518 


Caroline 


877 


676 


201 i 


19,603 


17 


228 


2,375 


Prince George's. . 


*873 


*690 


183 


18,865 


15 


689 


3.176 


Garrett 


431 


229 


202 


18,799 


11 


927 


6,872 


Talbot 


651 


435 


216 


17,970 


12 


903 


5,067 


Charles 


601 


472 


129 


16,392 


12 


794 


3,598 


Wicomico 


541 


221 


320 


14,010 


5 


601 


8.409 


Calvert 


346 


239 


107 


al3,116 


^)9. 


206 


r3,910 


Howard 


381 


266 


115 


12,603 


10, 


605 


1 , 998 


Kent 


316 


128 


188 


12,079 


5. 


823 


6.256 


Cecil 


195 


160 


35 


9,665 




126 


2,539 


St. Mary's 


228 


228 




6,954 


6. 


954 




Harford 


235 


235 




6.376 


6. 


376 











* Includes 32 pupils tran.sported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State 
expense. 

a Excludes $1,056 advanced to driver for purcha.se of bus. 
b Excludes $6'2 1 advaiictnl to driver for purchase of bus. 
c Excludes $432 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 



242 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



tures for transportation of high school pupils amounted to S128,- 
657. This amount was supplemented by payments made by 
parents and pupils in all except the following eight counties — 
Allegany, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Dorchester, Somerset, Talbot, 
Wicomico, and Worcester. Payments required of pupils varied 
from $10 to $40 a year. In three counties, Carroll, St. Mary's 
and Harford, the parents had to pay the entire cost if transpor- 
tation was required to bring pupils to high school. (See Table 
149.) 

It is quite possible that the expense of transportation is keep- 
ing from high school boys and girls who would profit by further 
education. If the local conditions are such that a general policy 
of transporting pupils to high school cannot be undertaken at 
county expense at present, it would seem to be advisable to know 
for how many pupils the cost of transportation to high school 
means the denial of further educational opportunities. For those 
pupils whose records in elementary school would indicate profit 
from attendance at high school, it would seem to be the responsi- 
bility of the county to devise some means of providing the neces- 
sary funds to remove the economic handicap facing such children. 

Anne Arundel ti-ansported more than 2,100 elementary school 
pupils during 1928-29. Baltimore ranked second in carrying 
1,810 elementary school pupils, while Frederick was the only 
other county which caVried at county expense more than 1,000 
pupils to elementary schools. Only two counties, Kent and Cecil, 
transported fewer than 200 elementary school pupils, and six 
more, Wicomico, St. Mary's, Garrett, Calvert. Harfoi'd and How- 
ard cai-ried over 200 but less than *)00 elementary school pupils 
at public expense. (See Tdhir 1 19.) 

Baltimore County ti*ansported 727 high school pupils, twice as 
many as Montgomery which ranked second in number of high 
school pupils transported at some expense to the county, 863 be- 
ing can-ied. Both of these counties have sul)ui'ban as well as 
i*ui-al conditions. Ui'ban childi*en as a i*ule spend at least $20 a 
yeai* on carfare to and from high school and a policy of free 
transportation to high school is seldom questioned in cities where 
public street cars and buses are available. In rural sections 
where often no transportation facilities are available, the county 
must arrange for school buses to bring pupils to high school. 
Since the suburban i-esidents accept payment of carfare as a part 
of city life, it is often difficult to make them see the necessity for 
providing free transportation in the rural sections. 

In Worcester, Dorchester, Wicomico, Anne Arundel and Somer- 
set, in all of which counties children were transported to high 
school free of charge, the number transported ranged between 
260 and 340. (See ra?)^ 149.) 

Expenditures for transportation varied from $6,376 in Har- 
ford to $64,948 in Anne Arundel, with 11 of the counties paying 



Cost of Transportation, Total and Per Plpil 



243 



more than $20,000 for this service. Baltimore owned 12 and 
Montgomery 18 buses, and no amount has been included for 
these counties to cover the capital invested in them. (See Table 
149.) 

Cost Per Pupil Transported 

The average annual cost of transporting a county elementary 
school pupil was $26.95 which was $1.68 undei* the corresponding 
cost in 1928. The costs in the individual counties varied fi-om 
$17.18 in Baltimore to $52.08 in Garrett. In only eight counties 
— ^Baltimore, Montgomery, Dorchester, Prince George's, Worces- 
ter, Wicomico, Caroline, and Anne Arundel — did the cost fall be- 
low the average for the state as a whole. Three counties, Gar- 
rett, Kent, and Cecil, had costs of more than $40 per pupil. In 
six counties — Garrett, St. Mary's, Harford, Calvert, Wicomico, 

TABLE 150 

Annual Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported 





Cost to County 




Cost to County 




Per Pupil 




Per Pupil 


County 


Transported 


County 


Transported 




to Elementary 




to High 




School 




School 



Total County. . 

Garrett 

Kent 

Cecil 

Howard 

Calvert 

Allegany 

Washington . . . 
8t. Mary's. . . . 

Talbot.'; ...... 

Queen Anne's . . 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Somer.'^et 

Harford 

Charles 

Anne Arundel . . 

Caroline 

\\'iconiico 

Worcester 

Prince Cleorge's 

Dorchester. . . . 
Montgomery . . 
Baltimore 



$26 . 95 

52.08 
45.49 
44.54 
39.87 
38.52 



31 
31 

30. 
29. 



76 
23 
50 
66 



29.52 

27.99 
27.70 
27 . 44 
27. 13 
27.11 

26 . 65 
25 . 49 
25 . 34 
23.91 
23.84 

23 29 
23 23 
17 IS 



Total County . . 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Garrett 

Kent 

Queen Anne's . . 
Anne Arundel . . 
Washington. . . 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Montgomery. . . 

Howard 

Prince George's 
Caroline 

Carroll 

Harford 

St. Marv's 



$27 62 

71.80 
57.64 
37 . 76 
36.89 
36.55 

34.02 
33 28 
29 . 56 
28.87 
28.84 

27.89 
26 . 87 
26 2S 
24 83 
23 . 93 

23 46 
21 73 
17 37 
17 36 
11 82 



244 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



and Allegany — the cost of transporting an elementary school 
pupil was at least $5 lower than in 1928. In Kent and Talbot 
there were increases in the per pupil cost of $9 and $4.50 respec- 
tively. (See Table 150.) 

The average amount spent from public funds for each high 
school pupil transported in the 20 counties furnishing this 
service totaled $27.62. This was an increase of $3.77 over the 
preceding year. As stated before, in three counties — Carroll, 
Harford, and St. Mary's — pupils had to get to high school at 
their own expense. This was also the case in Calvert in the pre- 
ceding year, but in 1929 the county adopted the policy of free 
transportation to high school since the cost of it was borne by 
the State in the Equalization Fund. Anne Arundel changed from 
the plan of requiring high school pupils to pay a part of the cost 
to free transportation on the county bus routes. In addition to 
Calvert and Anne Arundel, the charge made to pupils trans- 
ported was decreased in Charles and Garrett and in certain cases 
in Cecil County. These changes of policy explain some of the 
large increases which appear in the cost per high school pupil 
transported. (See Table 150.) 

In the counties that contributed to the cost of high school 
transportation, the expenditure per pupil transported ranged 
from $72 in Cecil and $4S in Allegany to $17 in Howard and 
Prince George's and $12 in Caroline. Increases over 1928 of $10 
or more per pupil transported occurred in Cecil, Allegany, Anne 
Arundel, Garrett, Charles, and INIontgomery, and in only Wicom- 
ico, Talbot, Worcester, Baltimore and Dorchester, were there de- 
creases of as much as $2 pei* pupil. 

Number of Schools to Which Transiwrtation Was Provided 

In 1929 transportation was fui'nished to 99 graded elementary 
schools, 48 two-teacher schools, and 2G one-teacher schools. Thus 
there were 38 more schools having only elementary grades to 
which children were transported in 1929 than in 1928. One 
hundred and seven schools having both high and elementary 
grades, 16 schools having only high school work, and 18 colored 
schools had transpoilation service for their pupils during 1929 
at public expense. Of the 107 schools with both high and ele- 
mentary grades, 75 provided transportation for both high and 
elementary pupils, 28 for the elementary pupils only, and 4 for 
only the high school pupils. Transportation of colored pupils 
was provided in eleven counties, one more than in 1928, Mont- 
gomery being the additional county. (See Table 151.) 

In the fall of 1929, of the 583 motor buses used for the trans- 
portation of school children, 39 were owned by the County 
Boards of Education and the remaining 544 were owned by the 
contractor. Montgomery o^^^led 18, Baltimore 12, Garrett 3, Cal- 



Cost Per Pupil Transported and Schools Served 



245 



TABLE 151 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at County 
Expense, Year p:ndin<? July 31, 1929 



COUNTY 



Schools with Elementary 
Grades Only 



One- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Graded 
Schools 



Schools 
Having 
Both High 
and Ele- 
mentai-y 
Grades* 



Schools 
Having 
High School 
Pupils 
Only 



Colored 
Schools 



Total 
Number 
in 

Different 
Schools 



Total Counties , 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Carroll . . . . 

Cecil 

Charles. . . . 
Dorchester. 
Frederick. . 



Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 



Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 



Washington. 
Wicomico. . . 
Worcester. . . 



26 



48 



99 

10 
IG 
8 



5 
13 



1 

66 

5 
5 



3 
1 

10 
3 
1 



107 

a7 
1 
6 
3 
6 

11 

3 
3 
7 
6 



3 
5 
4 
3 
c9 



10 

1 
3 
1 



18 
1 



314 

19 
21 
27 
8 
15 

20 
9 
5 
15 
28 



15 
7 
5 
8 

19 

16 
17 

5 
7 
8 

20 
11 

9 



Allegany 
Baltimore 
Carroll . , 

Cecil 

Frederick 



♦To Elementary To High 
Only Only 

2 

1 

11 

2 
4 



*To Elementary 
Only 



Harford 5 

Montgomery ... 1 
Prince George's 

St. Mary's 1 

Washington ... 2 



To High 
Only 

i 

1 



a Includes Green St. Junior High School with only grades 7-9 and Bruce High School 
with no elementary grades below Junior High School. 

b Includes the Gennantown and Glen Echo- Cabin John Junior High Schools which have 
not yet a ninth grade enrollment. 

c Includes the Bethesda- Chevy Chase Junior High School and the Takoma-Silver Spring 
Junior High School with no elementary grades below the seventh. 

vert and St. Mary's .2, and Anne Arundel and Harford 1 each. 
In addition to pupils transported on regular school buses, 1,806 
elementary and 529 high school pupils were transported on pub- 
lic buses, 81 elementary and 24 high school pupils rode on the 
trains, and 259 elementary and 47 high school pupils came to 
school on the electric cars. Calvert County continued to use a 
motor boat for school transportation in one section of the county. 
In Montgomery and Baltimore some children were transported 
in horse drawn wagons. The total mileage one way of the school 
buses was 4,567 miles, indicating an average route of 7.7 miles. 



246 



1929 Report of State Depaktment of Education 



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Capital Outlay and Bond Issues 



247 



CAPITAL OUTLAY I\ 1929 

Capital outlay in the counties during 1928-29 totalled $1,773,- 
000, distributed as follows among the various types of schools: 
$813,000 for white elementary schools, $897,000 for white high 
schools, and $58,000 for colored schools. Capital outlay in the 
white elementary and the colored schools was lower than in 1928, 
but for high schools it almost doubled. In twelve counties the 
capital outlay was higher in 1929 than in 1928, and in six coun- 
ties — Montgomery, Dorchester, Allegany, Frederick, Baltimore, 
and Talbot — it amounted to more than $100,000. (See Table 
152.) 

Only one-fifth as much was spent for construction of one- 
teacher schools in 1929 as in 1928, and the total of $4,000 was 
made up of expenditures under $800 in the individual counties. 
The $50,000 for capital outlay in the two-teacher schools was 
$16,000 less than in the preceding year. In Montgomery and 
Prince George's $16,000 and $14,000 w^ere invested in two- 
teacher schools, and in Washington and Frederick $8,000 and 
$6,000 were used for land and buildings for two-teacher schools. 
The bulk of the elementary school capital outlay was for graded 
schools. These expenditures totalled $759,000, and Montgomery, 
Allegany, Baltimore, Frederick, and Prince George's spent from 
$44,000 to $280,000 on graded schools. (See Table 152.) 

Capital outlay for high schools came to $897,000 in 1929, 
which was $453,000 more than the outlay in 1928. In Mont- 
gomery, Dorchester, Frederick, Talbot, Allegany, and Washing- 
ton from $53,000 to $267,000 was the high school capital outlay. 

The counties spent $58,000 for colored schools, less than half 
of the 1928 amount, and only in Prince George's, Baltimore, 
Anne Arundel, Charles, and Somerset did the expenditures ex- 
ceed $1,000. (See Table 150.) For further data on the Rosen- 
wald Fund for colored school buildings, see Table 121, page 198. 

Capital outlay in Baltimore City was lower in 1929 than in any 
year since 1920. The total was $634,000, of which $162,000 
was used for white elementary schools, $198,000 for white high 
schools, and $268,000 for the colored schools. (See Table 152.) 

MARYLAND SCHOOL BOND LSSUES SLNCE 1918 

A summary of the school bond issues authorized by the iMary- 
land Legislature since 1918 is given in Table 153. The date of 
authorization, the chapter number, the amount authoi'ized and 
issued, the date of issue, the period over which payments are 
made on the principal, and the rate of interest are shown for 
each bond issue. During this period, Carroll, Garrett, St. 
Maiy's, and Somerset are the only counties which have had no 
bond issues for land and school buildings. 



248 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 153 

Information Regarding School Bond Issues Since 1918 

























V 










COUNTY 


ive Year 




N 

•n £ 

_§ =3 

c3 

II ^ 


of Issue 


Issue 


d Final P; 
of Princi|) 


Interest 




-i-> 


l-l 


«^ 


c 

3 


o 


OS C 


«M 

o 




'3 

o 


a 


o >> 


o 


o 




a 








s 


-*-> 
ej 


£ S 


S3 






O 


< 


< 


Q 







Allegany . 



Total 

Anne Arundel. 



Total... 
Baltimore. 



Total. 
Calvert . 



Total. 
Caroline . 



Total. 
Carroll . 
Cecil. . . 
Charles. 



Total.... 
Dorchester. 



Total.. 
Frederick . 



Total. 
Garrett. 
Harford . 



1918 
1920 

1922 

1927 



1918 
1918 
1920 
1924 
1929 



1922 
1924 
1929 



1920 
1920 
1924 



1920 
1920 
1924 



1922 

1920 
1927 
1929 



1918 
1920 
1922 
1927 
1929 



1920 
1922 
1924 
1927 



1920 
1922 



108 
190 

234 

298 



55 
140 
386 
137 
203 



243 
31 
30 



67 
671 
360 



320 
375 
106 



361 

592 
301 
191 



301 
291 
199 
221 
71 



397 
512 
180 
144 



237 
108 



75,000 
700,000 

1.000,000 

500,000 



15,000 $ 
lO.OOO: 
150,000l 
225,0001 

ti.ooo.ooo'. . 



$ 'al, 000. 000$ 
•1,500.000 
2.000,000 



20.000 $ 

5,000 
35.000 



60,000 
40. (KX) S 
100.000 



S 



•150.000 S 

1 

5100.000 

30.0(KJ $ 
60.000 



5.000 
§1.50.000 
§150.000 
200.000 
25.000 



250.000 
250.000 
95,000 
250.000 



60,000 
•250,000 $ 



75,000 
350,000 
350.000 
500.000 
500.000 
250.000 
250.000 



2.275.000 

15,000 
10.000 
150.000 
225,000 



400,000 

1 .000.000 
1.500.000 
61.000.000 



1918 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1927 
1928 



1918 
1918 
1920 
1924 



3.500.000 

20.000 
5.000 
35.000 



60.000 

Not Issued 

40.000 
100.000 



140.000 



150,000 1022 



1923 
1925 
1929 



1920 
1920 
1925 



1021 
1925 



:{0.000 
60.000 



90.000 
5,000 



1927 

1929 



1918 



200.000 1928 
25.000 1929 



230.000| 

250.000 
250,000 
95.000 
250.000 



1931-1935 
1936-1945 
1946-1955 
1936-1945 
1946-1955 
1931-1935 
1946-1955 



1923-1943 
1920-1928 

1950 
1926-1950 



1924-1953 
1927-1956 
1930-1959 



1921-1940 

1925- 1934 

1926- 1945 



1926-1935 
1926-1945 



1927-1956 



1930-1944 
1932-1961 



1921-1925 



1934-1948 



845.000 



Not Issued 

250,000, 



1920-21; 192.5-1944 

1022-23. 194.5-1961 

1924 1947-1956 

1927-28 1929-1943 



1023 



1924-1943 



5 
5 
5 

4}^ 
4M 
4K 
4K 



5 
5 
5 

4H 



4V^ 

^14 



5 
5 

4H 



6 



4^ 

5 



4H 
4H 



o 

4H 



a One-third of a general $3,000,000 bond issue. t Referendum to be taken, 

b The remaining $1,000,000 to be issued later. * Favorable referendum. 
§ Unfavorable referendum. 

Carroll— 1918 (Chapter 360), $100,000; 1920 (Chapter 663). $300,000; 1922 (Chapter 

191). $350,000: 1927 (Chapter 591). $600,000. 
Garrett— 1920 (Chapter 102). $200,000; 1922 (Chapter 466), $75,000; 1924 (Chapter 
599). $100,000. 



Bond Issues 1918-1929 



249 



TABLE 153— (Continued 



Information Reprardinj?- School Bond Issues Since 1918 — Continued 











•s 






1 








ce 






horiz 


u 

3 

(0 
Ol 






c 


u 




>< 






OS 


l-< 


3 






b 


COUNTY 


> 








O 


00 
tn 


— 








isIati 


LjJ LCI 




ount 


ount 


'o 


c 


c 






CO 


CB 






s 




CO 

u 










o 






< 


Q 








Howard 






S 


' )o , www 














1 Q9.1 


1 SI 




1 OO , \J\J\J 


« ion nnn 


1924 


1927- 


-1954 






1 Q97 






S 1 tO , \jyj\j 












1 Q90 


^ 1 o 






+ 
1 










Kent 


1920 


86 


$ 


17,000 


« 10.000 


1921 


1921- 


■1930 


5 




1927 


514 




1 0,000 


1 o , 000 


1927 


1929- 


-1936 


5 


Total 










s 2t nnn 










Montgomery 


1920 


696 


$ 


(>4 , 000 


$ 64,000 


1920 


1921- 


•19.52 


5 


1922 


255 




60,000 


60,000 


1922 


1923- 


-19.52 


4H 




1924 


47o 




ooO , 000 


550.000 


1924-25 


192.5- 


■1944 


4J^ 




1927 


481 




150,000 


150,000 


1928 


1938- 


-1953 


4^^ 




1927 


501 




400,000 


4o0 . 0(X} 


1927 


1929- 


1966 


* / X 




1929 


29 




475,000 


475.000 


1929 


1939- 


■1968 


43^ 




1 Q90 


OOO 




■^'^fi nnn 

OOU , uww 


■jQA nnn 


1929 


1939- 


■1968 




Total 










« 9 nsT nnn 










Prince George's. 


1918 


322 


$ 


35,000 


$ 35 , 000 


1919-20 


19.54- 


-19.55 


5 


1920 


589 




200 , 000 


200 , 000 


1919-23 


1949- 


■19.53 


5 




1922 


273 




85,000 


85.000 


1922 


1952 


5 




1 Q9d 








•jqt nnn 

OOO , woo 


1925 


1926-19.55 


5 




1 Q97 


171 




97 T nnn 

^ 1 o J wow 


97 T nnn 

^ 1 o , woo 


1927 


1929- 


-19.57 


43^ 




1929 


163 




207 , 000 


207 , 000 


1929 


1931- 


1959 


4^ 












$ 1,137.000 










Queen Anne's .... 


1920 


445 


$ 


20,000 


$ 20 , 000 


1920 


1921- 


1930 


5 


1922 


41 




33 ,000 


33 . 000 


1922 


1927- 


1937 


5 




1929 


86 




20,000 


X 










Total 










$ 53 , 000 










Somerset 


1924 


56 


$ 


§150,000 










Talbot 


1918 


197 


$ 


9,000 


$ 9,000 


1918 


1921- 


1929 


5 




1920 


157 




40,000 


40.000 


1920 


1922- 


■1941 


5 




1 Q97 


oOv/ 




99 T nnn 


99 T nnn 

^ ^ o , owo 


1927 


1936-1953 


4 




1 Q9Q 






■•<n nnn 


■^n nnn 
ou , owo 


1929 


1936-1941 


4 


Total 










$ 304.000 










Washington 




187 


$ 


(7 500 nnn 


s 23n nnn 


1920 


1930-1949 


5 


1920 


253 




40,000 


40,000 


1920 


1925-1944 


5 




1922 


383 




6300,000 














1924 


3 




600,000 


600.000 


1924 


1925- 


1954 






1929 


281 




150,000 


X 










1929 


282 




471,000 


X 








Total 




$ 870,000 










Wicomico 








§ 














1929 


196 


$ 


♦300,000 


X 










Worcester 


1920 


585 


$ 


45,000 


Never Issued 












1929 


175 




§ 

*300.000 


$ 300,000 


1929 


1932- 


1951 




Baltimore City. . . 


1920 


373 


s 


■» 7. 000. 000 


$ 7 . 000 . 000 


1921 


1922- 


1946 


5 


1922 


379 




* 15, (MM). 000 


15. (MM), 000 


1923 


1924- 


1948 


4 




1927 


470 




* 10. (MM). 000 


10,000,000 


1928 


1933- 


1967 


4 




1929 


243 




1 , 500 , 000 


t 










Total 










S 32.000,000 











X Not yet issued. 

a Of this $230,000 was used for schools; the remainder, for roads, 
b Held up by technicality. 
§ Unfavorable referendum. 

Wicomico— 1920 (Charter 80). $200,000; 1922 (Chapter 238). ?300.000 ; 1927 (Chapter 
283). $500,000. 

Worcester— 1924 (Chapter 398), $300,000; 1927 (Chapter 482). $300,000. 
•Favorable referendum, 
t Referendum to be taken. 



250 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Except for the 1929 issues in Charles and Prince George's, the 
later issues have lower interest rates than the earlier ones. The 
new bonds are almost all serial bonds and in general run over a 
period from 20 to 40 years. A study of the interest required to 
finance these bond issues reveals the fact that in a number of 
cases the interest cost exceeds the total value of the bond issue. 
In Allegany, Anne Arundel, Cecil, Howard, ^Montgomery, and 
Prince George's, the interest costs will amount to a high per- 
centage of the value of the bond issues. In these calculations it 
was impossible to consider the interest which accumulates where 
there is a sinking fund, which, of course, would offset the inter- 
est payments required. The interest cost considered is therefore 
not the actual net cost of the bond issue, but is the cost inherent 
in the type and amount of the issue itself. The length of time 
between the date of issue, the first payment on the principal, 
and the final payment on the principal are important factors in 
determining the cost of the bond issue. 

Carroll and Garrett have had bond issues authorized by the 
legislature four and three times, respectively, in the period from 
1918-29, but in every case the bonds could not be issued because 
of an unfavorable vote of the people. Worcester and Wicomico 
had the same difficulty until 1929 when the authorization for 
bond issues of $:J00, ()()() received favorable referenda. In these, 
and other counties, where the capital outlay is and has been very 
limited, the progress of school consolidation and modern teaching 
methods ai-e either pi-evented or hindered by the anti(iuated, over- 
crowded buildings and lack of equipment which must be contin- 
ued in use until parents are sufl icieutly aroused to the conditions 
under which their children two doing their school work. 

St. Mary's and Wicomico Counties have adopted the policy of 
setting aside a fund in the tax levy for a period of years which 
will be used when sufficient has accumulated foi* the construction 
of a building. Especially in counties which need to erect one or 
more l)uildi ngs every yeai* mei'ely to keep pace with the growth 
in school population, pi'ovision of a tax levy appropriation for 
land and new construction is probably a most desirable pro- 
cedure. The counties are spending nearly a half million dollars 
a year in interest while in Baltimore City the interest charge is 
nearly $900,000. It would l)e desirable if some means could be 
devised for the future to save and use for construction purposes 
directly the amount which must now be used for interest. The 
interest payments, of course, may be looked upon as a rental 
charge necessary until the county is in a position to have paid 
off the bonds issued for construction of the buildings for which 
they are required. 

In Somerset another method of financing school construction 
was put into effect. As a result of movements which got under 



Bond Issues and Plans for Financing School Construction 251 



way in Crisfield in the early fall of 1925 and in Princess Anne in 
February, 1926, two lar^e school buildings were constructed. 

Following- the promise of the County Commissioners to the 
Crisfield Rotary Club to levy $10,000 and to recommend subse- 
quent annual levies of $10,000 up to a total of $50,000, the Cris- 
field High School Holding Company was organized and incorpor- 
ated for the purpose of financing the cost of erecting a high 
school building. While this was going on in Crisfield a similar 
movement was started by citizens of Princess Anne for the pur- 
pose of financing the erection of a building to house the elemen- 
tary grades. The County Commissioners agreed to make the 
same arrangements with the Princess Anne people that they had 
already made with Crisfield, and a Princess Anne Holding Com- 
pany was organized and incorporated. 

Both holding companies entered into agreements with the 
Board of Education providing for the securing and approval of 
sites and building plans, maintenance of buildings, and payment 
of annual installments when available. Under these agreements 
the holding companies will hold titles to the buildings until they 
are fully paid for by the county, when titles will be transferred 
to the Board of Education. 

Bond Issues Authorized in 1929 

The following counties had school bond issues authorized by 
the 1929 legislature: 

TABLE 154 



County Amount Referendum 

Anne Arundel ^1,000,000 to be taken 

Baltimore 2,000,000 

Charles 60,000 

Dorchester _ 25,000 

Howard 80,000 to be taken 

Montgomery 811,000 

Prince George's 207,000 

Queen Anne's 20,000 

Talbot 30,000 

W'ashington 621,000 

Wicomico 300,000 favorable 

Worcester _ 300,000 favorable 

Baltimore City „ 1,500,000 to be taken 



School Bonds Outstandinij: in September, 1929 

The school bonds outstanding in the Maryland counties in Sep- 
tember, 1929, totaled $13,5()(),()0(), an increase of $3,800,000 over 
a similar figure for the preceding year. Seven counties had 
more bonds outstanding in 1929 than in 1928, and in Baltimoi'e, 
Allegany, Montgomerj% and Prince George's the outstanding 
lx)nds totalled from one to 4.4 million dollars. The assessable 



252 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



basis back of each dollar of school indebtedness amounted to $68 
for the average county. Although the assessable basis increased 
by $34,000,000, the increase of $3,300,000 in the school debt 
brought a drop of $19 in the taxable basis back of each dollar of 
school debt. This measure of school indebtedness varied from 
$40 or less in Baltimore, Allegany, and Montgomery Counties to 
an infinite amount in Carroll, Garrett, and St. Mary's in which 
counties there is no outstanding debt. (See Table 155.) 

TABLE 155 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, September, 1929 



County 



School 
Bonds 
Outstanding 
September, 
1929 



1929 County 

Assessable 
Basis Taxable 
at Full Rate 
t 



Assessable Basis 
Back of Each 

Dollar of School 
Indebtedness 



Per Cent That 
Indebtedness 
for School 
Bonds Is of 
Total County 
Basis 



Total Counties. . 


.$13,514,667 


$ 914,135,824 


$ 68 


1.5 


Alleganv 


2.305,000 


81 ,512.995 


35 


2.8 


Anne Arundel. . . 


398.667 


48,039,900 


121 


.8 


Baltimore 


a4, 3X9,000 


164.768.458 


38 


2.7 


Calvert 


45 , 500 


5,489,323 


121 


.8 


Caroline 


113,000 


15,173,444 


134 


.7 


Carroll 




39.231.897 






Cecil 


MO. 000 


35,731.726 


255 


A 




DO, 000 


9.947.440 


111 


.9 


Dorchester 


220.000 


22,033.301 


100 


1.0 


P>ederick 


961 .000 


65.579.069 


68 


1.5 


Garrett 




21 .466,236 






Harford 


1 75 , 000 


50 . 76S . 7()7 


290 


.3 


Howard 


174.000 


18,389,611 


106 


.9 


Kent 


42.000 


16,113,803 


384 


.3 


Montgomery. . . 


. 2,028,500 


80,473.949 


40 


2 5 


Prince George's. 


1,024,500 


60,434,896 


59 


1.7 


Queon .Vime's. . . 


/;10.000 


1().421 .378 


1 .642 


.1 


St. Mary's 




8.700. 141 






Somerset 


34,000 


12.682.445 


373 


^3 


Talbot 


286,500 


20.808.561 


73 


1.4 


Washington .... 


c7()0 . 000 


74.021 ,426 


97 


1.0 


Wicomico 


d IS. 000 


25.633.091 


1,424 


.1 


Worcester 


300 . 000 


20.713.9()7 


69 


1.4 


Baltimore City. . 


. 24,110,373 


1.305.074.274 


54 


1.8 


Entire State 


.$37,625,040 $2,219,210,098 


59 


1.7 



a Excludes $1,000,000 authorized but .still unissued, 
b Excludes $20,000 authorized but still unissued, 
c Excludes $62,000 authorized but still unissued, 
d Excludes $300,000 authorized but still unissued. 

t The figures for assessable basis differ from those given in Table 159, page 262, because 
more exact data on assessment of motor vehicles came in after Table 155 was completed. 



Bonds Outstanding and Value of School Property 



253 



Another way of showing school indebtedness is the per cent 
that bonds outstanding- are of the assessable basis. In general, 
it is not considered good business policy to have the public in- 
debtedness for all purposes exceed 7 per cent of the assessable 
basis, and the school debt should pi'obably not amount to more 
than half of this total. The limit of wise school indebtedness is. 
thus put at 3.5 per cent of the assessable basis. In the ^Maryland 
counties, the bonds outstanding come to only 1.5 per cent of the 
assessable basis, and in no individual county do they exceed 2.8 
per cent. Allegany with 2.8, Baltimore with 2.7 and Montgom- 
ery with 2.5 per cent show high indebtedness, but they are still 
within a safe limit. Prince George's, Frederick, Talbot, Worces- 
ter, Dorchester, and Washington are the only other counties 
where the indebtedness for schools represents between 1 and 2 
per cent of the assessable basis. (See Table 155.) 

In Baltimore City the outstanding school debt is more than 
$24,000,000, but this indebtedness represents only 1.8 per cent 
of the taxable basis and means that there are $54 of assessable 
basis behind each dollar of the school debt. (See Table 155.) 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

At the end of the school year 1928-29 the property used for 
public elementary and secondary schools in Maryland was valued 
at $52,881,000. The county schools were appraised at $19,920,- 
000 and the Baltimore City schools at $32,881,000. The increase 
in value of school property in the entire State over 1928 was only 
$1,000,000, of which all but $110,000 was a gain in the valuation 
of the county schools. 

In the counties, the value per pupil enrolled ($124), was just 
$4 more than in 1928 and is a smaller annual increase than in 
any year since 1922. In Baltimore City the valuation per pupil 



TABLE 156 
Value of School Property, 1922—1929 





Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 


Year 


Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Mary- 
land 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 



1922. . 


S20 . 453 . 646 


S10,014.638 


SI 0.439. 008 


S82 


$68 


•SI 03 


1923 . . 


22 . 236 . ()3S 


1 1 . 79() , 630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


1924. . 


28 . 2()4 . 507 


12.813.396 


15,451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925. . 


33. 622.. 503 


14.94().810 


18.675.693 


129 


97 


164 


1926. . 


38.865,024 


16.704.564 


22. 160.460 


148 


108 


205 


1927. . 


48,654,045 


17.889.796 


30 . 7()4 . 249 


182 


114 


277 


1928. . 


5 1 . 765 .517 


18.994.670 


32.770.847 


191 


120 


291 


1929. . 


52.801,013 


19.920.102 


32.880,911 


193 


124 


290 



254 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



enrolled was $290, a decrease of $1 under the valuation of the 
year preceding. The valuation for the entire State $193 was $2 
more than the corresponding figure for 1928. (See Tabic 156.) 

In the average county in 1929 the value of school property per 
white and colored pupil belonging was $152 and $46 respectively. 
These amounts are each $4 higher than the corresponding figures 
for 1928. Baltimore City's valuation of property for each white 
pupil of $340 and for the average colored pupil belonging of $197 
shows a decrease of $3 and an increase of $8 respectively over 
the 1928 figures. For the State as a whole the value per white 
pupil was $229 and per colored pupil, $111. (See Tabic 157.) 

TABLE iri7 



Value of School Property Per Pupil Belonjrinp: 1929 





Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


COUNT\ 




Average 


Value 




Average 


Value 




Value 


Number 


r er 


Value 


Number 


rer 






Belonging 


rupil 




Belonging 


rupil 


1 otal i. oiinties . . 


«1S 741 QTQ 


122 953 


.SI 52 


$1 178 1*^3 


25 884 


S46 


AUofianv 


3,. 533. 000 


13,559 


2()1 


52,000 


303 


172 


Anno Arundel . . . 


()2() . (MM) 


b . o87 


/if 


103 , 4(K) 


2 , ()3() 


39 


Baltimore 


3.912.500 


17.354 


225 


205. S(M) 


1 .761 


117 


Calvert 


96.225 


9t)7 


KM) 


24.200 


996 


24 


C^arc)liTi(* 


353,200 


2,870 


123 


22.900 


856 


27 


Carroll 


425.659 


().037 


71 


13.263 


313 


42 


Cecil 


412.550 


3 , S75 


106 


18.000 


447 


40 


Charles 


1S4.475 


1,764 


105 


52.8(K) 


1 .491 


35 


Dorchester 


29S . 400 


3,687 


81 


38,000 


1 . 452 


26 


Frederick 


1 .2()'2.55() 


9 , 297 


129 


55 . 500 


917 


61 


Garrett 


344.070 


4 . 356 


79 








Harford 


579.900 


4,928 


118 


33.300 


690 


48 


Howard 


29S . 500 


2,247 


133 


15.900 


592 


27 


Kent 


214.750 


1.960 


110 


19.860 


897 


22 


Montgomery. . . . 


1 .744,000 


6.687 


261 


110,150 


1,637 


()7 


Prince CJeorge's. . 


1 .341 .200 


8,195 


164 


158.600 


2.734 


58 


Queen Anne's. . . 


183.550 


2.064 


89 


12,250 


740 


17 


St. Marv's 


95 . 200 


1 . 230 


77 


20.450 


1.045 


20 


Somerset 


315.100 


3,039 


104 


31 .950 


1 .818 


18 


Talbot 


338,500 


2.422 


140 


47.200 


1.166 


40 


\\'ashing;ton 


1 . 650 . 950 


12.404 


133 


40.700 


359 


113 


Wicomico 


364, 100 


4.494 


81 


66.100 


1.518 


44 


Worcester 


227,600 


2.930 


78 


35.800 


1.516 


24 


Baltimore City . . 


28,948,030 


85.049 


340 


3.932.881 


19,977 


197 


Total State 


47.690.009 


208,002 


229 


5 , 1 1 1 , 004 


45,861 


111 



Value of School Property Per Pupil 
CHART 35 



253 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY" PER miTE PUPIL BELDNGINO 



County 19H7 
Go. Average $143 

Montgomery 175 

Ali.egany 262 

Baltimore 233 

?r. George 'n 157 

Talbot 105 

Washineton 133 

Hovrard 135 

Frederick 104 

Caroline 124 

Harford 113 

Kent 115 

Cecil 121 

Charles 68 

. Somerset 100 

Calvert 100 

Anne Arundel 107 



otu, Anne '3 

■"('icomico 

Jorchester 

Garrett 

Worcester 

>t. Mary's 

Carroll 



91 
33 
47 
66 
76 
64 
78 



Balto. City 325 
State ^19 



192t3 1929 




The value of school property per white pupil belonging ranged 
fiom $*^61 in Montgomery and Allegany and $225 in Baltimore 
County to $71 in Cari'oll. In eight counties — Carroll, St. ^Mary's, 
Worcestei', Garrett, Doi'chester, Wicomico, Queen Anne's, and 
Amie Arundel the school property valuation per white pupil was 
less than $100. Increases over the 1928 per pupil valuations 



256 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



occurred in nine counties, the largest increases being in Mont- 
gomery, Dorchester, Talbot, and Garrett. The increase in Dor- 
chester is due to a revaluation of school property by the county 
superintendent. (See Chart 35.) 

For valuation of property used by colored pupils see Table 
157, and Chart 27, page 199. 

15 Additional Standard Schools 

During the year 1928-29 five counties increased the number of 
standard schools or standard rooms. Howard added an eight- 
teacher school, 2 two-teacher schools and 1 one-teacher school to 
the two schools which had been standardized prior to the present 
year. In Wicomico, Caroline and Talbot standard certificates 
were given to three schools or parts of three schools. In Wicom- 
ico a three-teacher, an eight-teacher and a ten-teacher school were 
standardized; in Talbot a five-teacher school, two rooms in a 
four-teacher school, and one room in a three-teacher school were 
given certificates; and in Caroline four rooms in a six-teacher 
school, 3 rooms in two five-teacher schools and 1 room in a four- 
teacher school were considered standard. Calvert added a one- 
and a two-teacher school to the four-teacher school previously 
standardized. 

Since a check of the schools previously standardized showed 
great changes due to increase in size of schools in many cases and 
elimination of schools in other cases since standardization, it was 
considered wise to omit the table showing the number of stand- 
ard schools in each county. An attempt will be made to de- 
termine the present status of schools previously standardized in 
the next annual repoil. 

COUNTY SCHOOL BIDGETS AND SCHOOL TAXES, 1929-30 

The county tax budgets for all purposes as reported by county 
superintendents of schools for 1929-30 total $14,946, ()()(), an in- 
crease of nearly $1,000,000 over the preceding year. The county 
levies for school current expense, $6,059,000, are only $135,000 
more than for the preceding year. For school debt service and 
capital outlay, the levies included $1,126,000, an increase of 
$227,000 over the year preceding, making the total increase in 
the counties which may be attributed to the schools $362,000. At 
the same time the county levies for roads and other county pur- 
poses total $7,761,000, a gain of $610,000 over the preceding 
year. (See Tabic 158.) 

The county levies for school current expenses in two-thirds of 
the counties are larger than for the preceding year. This must 
be expected in growing progressive school systems w^hich are in- 
creasing in school population in all the grades ; which are caring 



Standard Schools, County Budgets 1929-30 



257 



TABLE log 
County Tax Budgets, 1929-1930 



COUNTY 



Total 



COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS FOR 



SCHOOLS 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 



Schools 
Total 



Roads 

and 
Bridges 



Other 
County 
Purposes 



Total Counties . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 
Baltimore". . . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Carroll . . . . 

Cecil 

Charles . . . . 
Dorchester. 
Frederick. . 



Garrett 

Harford" 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 



Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 



Washington. 
Wicomico. . . 
Worcester . . . 



Baltimore Citya. 



$14,946, 128 


$6,059. 101 


$ 936.095 


1,346,152 
1,109,070 
2,930,360 
114.038 
278,447 


716,101 
408,606 
6880.418 
41 , 135 
113,500 


*1 19,763 
39 , 504 
272.103 
*4.573 
*15,050 


681,565 
438.725 
142,086 
413.567 
949.434 


312.495 
203 , 653 
66 , 400 
145,534 
421 ,000 


c*35,406 
♦11,875 
♦8.350 
♦12,658 
♦74,845 


382.715 
725 , 052 
346,914 
325,100 
1.208.000 


143.838 
227 , 000 
120,000 
107,426 
444 , 687 




♦24 , 250 
•9,830 
d*8.850 
123,613 


787,4481 
249.0131 
/1 29, 807 
245.362' 
309 , 673' 


437,180 
109,876 
/56.400 
87,633 
141,000 


•66.945 

• 6,475 

500 

• 3,438 
•12,850 


1,027.107 
481,817 
324,676 


545.834 
190,720 
138.052 


•67,157 
2.810 
•15,250 




10,695.783 


♦1,480.000 





S 190.201 



7.900 
1 1 . 500; 

355 
4,000 

4,950 
12.290 
1 ,600 



23,000 
1,500 
7,200 



4.000 



ffl 0.000 
25 . 882 
4.850 

11,174 
60,000 



$7,185,397 

♦836.477 
456.010 
1 ,164.021 
♦46,063 
♦132.550 

352.851 
♦227,818 

♦76 , 350 
♦158.192 
♦495,845 

166.838 
♦252 , 750 
•137.030 
il*116,276 
568.300 

•508,125 
•116,351 
/g66.900| 
•116.953 
•158,700 

•624,165 
253 . 530 
•153,302 

•12,175,783 



$3,528,798 

144.397 
329.032 
887.942 
32 . 820 
61.997 

98.350 
113.625 

22.700 
155,267 
291 .320 

72,905 
185.150 
131.106 
99.817 
el29.716 

150.451 
39.000 
22.000 
37.582 
97.473 

219,r)43 
118.005 
88.500 



$4.231 .933 
■ -4 

365.278 
324 . 028 
878 . 397 
35. 155 
83,900 

230,364 
97.282 
43.036 
100.108 
162,269 

142.972 
287.152 
78.778 
109.007 
509 . 984 

128.872 
93 . 662 
40,907 
90.827 
53.500 

183.299 
110.282 
82,874 



* Includes amounts paid for debt service by county commissioners directly, 
t Includes interest and principal for road bonds. 

a For Baltimore City and County and for Harford County for purposes other thaxi 
schools the appropriations cover the calender year 1930. 

b A cash balance of $100,000 which has been accumulatintj over a period of years •will 
be used in addition to the appropriation shown. 

c Includes amount deducted in error from budget of preceding year and $1,000 for a 
school bond paid by county commissioners. 

d Includes $5,000 to provide for defic't of preceding- year. 

e Excludes district tax for roads. 

f Excludes $1,697 in tongers' licenses. 

g Includes $5,000 under control of county commissioners to be set aside as nucleus for a 
new building. • 

for an increasing number of pupils in upper grades and high 
school each year; which are sharing to a greater extent in the 
cost of transportation of pupils to high school ; which are in- 
creasing the proportion of teachers of training with certificates 
of the higher grades, and holding in the service for a longer 
period the efficient experienced teachers ; and which are provid- 
ing more adequately for the necessary reference and library 
books and materials which are required by modern methods of 
teaching. The increases in the school current expense budgets 
were largest in Washington, Prince George's, and ]\rontgomery 
Counties, amounting to as much as $o7,()0() to Slo.ooo, and in 
Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, from $23,000 to $29,000. Anne 



258 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Arundel, Allegany, and Cecil had increases of from $11,000 to 
$16,000, and Caroline, Howard, St. Mary's, and Talbot had bud- 
gets larger by from $3,000 to $4,500. (See Table 158.) 

The only counties which do not show such increases are Balti- 
more (which would show an increase if the balance accumulated 
in previous years to be used in 1930 were included), Calvert, 
Dorchester, Garrett, Kent, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Wicomico, 
and Worcester. All of these counties except Baltimore received 
the Equalization Fund. In Garrett, Queen Anne's and Worces- 
ter, the county basis in 1929 is lower than it was in 1928, so 
that a minimum 67 cent levy yields less than a corresponding 
levy the preceding year. In Calvert, Somerset, and Wicomico, 
the assessable basis increased, but the levy ranging from 69 to 
75 cents in the later vear was lower than for the vear preceding. 
(See Table 158.) 

The item for school debt service in Table 158 includes not only 
amounts spent for interest and principal on school bonds paid by 
the county boards of education, but also the amounts for these 
purposes paid directly by the county commissioners in all of the 
counties, except Anne Ai'undel, Baltimore, Montgomery, St. 
Mary's, and Wicomico. In the counties listed, the County School 
Boards take care of all the expenses for debt service. The coun- 
ties carrying forward an extensive school building program from 
the proceeds of bond issues, most of which have been issued with- 
in the past decade, must necessarily increase the amount ex- 
pended foi* debt service. The expenditures for school debt ser- 
vice in the larger counties vary fi'om $67,000 in Prince George's 
and Washington Counties, $75,000 in Frederick, approximately 
$120,000 in Allegany and Montgomery, to $272,000 in Baltimore 
County. In Baltimore Citv the item for school debt service is 
nearly $1,500,000. (See Tabh 158.) 

The largest amount of the levy to be used for capital outlay 
has been set aside in Wicomico County — $60,000. Somerset 
comes next in paying off the amounts due the holding companies 
in Princess Anne and Crislield."^' Garrett has been unable to ob- 
tain approval of a bond issue and therefore is carrying $23,000 
for construction in the lew. Cecil, Baltimore, Washington, and 
St. Mary's have set aside between $10,000 and $12,000 for cap- 
ital outlay. 

Harford and Montgomery show the largest increases in ex- 
penditures for roads and other county purposes. 

The proportion of the county levy available for school current 
expense in the average county is 40 per cent and for all school 
purposes 48 per cent. Corresponding figures for the 1928-29 
levy w^ere 42 and 49 per cent. In obtaining this percentage no 
account is taken of the fact that certain counties have incorpor- 
ated cities and towns and districts which levy taxes in addition to 
those levied by the county. For example Cumberland and other 

See naKe 251 for plan of financing in Somerset County. 



County Budgets and Provision for Schools 
( HART 83 



259 



PER CKNT 0? 1930 COUNTY SnDGET OGKD FOR SCHOOLS 



County 



Total 
Per Cent 
Used For 
Schools 



Total 
Counties 






Pr. George's 




64.5 


Allegany 




62. 1 


WasMngton 




60.8 


Charles 




53.7 


Cecil 




51.9 


Carroll 




51.6 


Talbot 




51.2 


Frederick 




52.2 


Queen Anne's 




46.7 


St. I.'ary's 


a 


51.5 


Worcester 




47.3 


C arol Ine 




47.6 


Wicomico 




52.6 


Garrett 




43.6 


Anne Arundel 




41.1 


Montgomery 


b 


47.0 


Calvert 




40.4 


Somerset 




47. 7 


Dorchester 




38.2 


Horaurd 




39.5 


Kent 




35.8 


Harford 


c 


34.9 


Baltimore 


d 


39.7 



Current 

xocpense 



Debt 
Jerv ice 
^77772 



ss.s 



53.'2 



46-7 



5.5 



44.3 



44.1 ^ 



43.4 



42.S 



40-8 



Capital 
Outlay 



C 



Eh 



\e.7 



7.7 



^4.7 





: 12.5 


37-6 






369 




36.8 




36.1 




35.8 




105 


35.2 






'34.6 







33-1 



127 



•31.3 




30.0 





a E.xc.lucies amf)unt for toiiKeis' liceiises. 
b E.xclude.s di.strict taxes for road.^. 

c Excludes taxes use<l fcr Bel Air. Havre de Grace and Aberdeen. 

d Excludes accumulated balances from i)revious years which will bo use<l in HKUi for 
schools. 

incorporated towns in Allegany County levy taxes for municipal 
purposes, and a similai* condition exists in Harford, Fi'ederick, 
Wicomico and Washington, and there are district taxes for roads 
in Montgomery which do not appear in the county levy. Be- 
cause these additional levies are not included, the comparisons 
are not entirely on the same basis. (See Chart 33.) 



260 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 159 A 



*Assessable Basis in Maryland Counties 1923 to 1929 Taxable at the Full 

Rate for County Purposes 

in Thotisands of Dollars 



County 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Total Counties 


.$661,724 


§689,476 


.> ( 26.064 


% i 53,216 


$781,971 


?883,508 


$918,752 


Allegany 


69.886 


71.469 


75.718 


78.021 


78.837 


80.715 


81,931 


Anne Arundel 


30.692 


34.819 


36.956 


41.259 


44.565 


47.544 


48,124 


Baltimore 


104,232 


1 14,439 


124,971 


1 35.321 


139.232 


157.654 


164.769 




4.427 


4.505 


4.623 


4.801 


4.935 


5.305 


5.520 


Caroline 


14.027 


14.267 


14.616 


14.716 


14.761 


15.283 


15,179 


Carroll 


33.382 


33,425 


34,183 


34,633 


35.636 


.39.875 


39.212 


Cecil _ 


23,189 


24,026 


24.700 


25.201 


25.628 


30.408 


35,732 


Charles 


8,394 


8.427 


8.854 


8.845 


9.315 


9.938 


9.956 


Dorchester 


18,987 


19,507 


19.628 


19,907 


20.439 


21,918 


22,033 


Frederick 


51.248 


53.228 


54.941 


55,028 


57,655 


65.234 


65.860 


Garrett 


16,303 


16,674 


19,556 


18.945 


18,903 


21.653 


21,468 


Harford 


28.580 


27.856 


29.487 


28.866 


29.561 


39,763 


51,078 


Howard 


15.670 


15.475 


15.682 


16.043 


16.539 


18,063 


18.390 


Kent 


14,519 


15.077 


14.777 


14,735 


14.956 


16.162 


16 294 




45,503 


47,849 


50.676 


54,809 


60.23» 


77.889 


81.190 


Prince Geortre's ... 


33.651 


34,870 


37.776 


40.213 


42.878 


59.312 


61.195 


Queen Anne's ... 


14,793 


14,491 


15,024 


14.705 


14.80.-? 


16.692 


16.607 


St. Mary's 


7,162 


7,671 


7.825 


7.860 


7.809 


8,289 


8.700 


Somerset 


10.609 


10.938 


11.307 


11.972 


11.972 


12,392 


12.700 


Talbot - 


16.927 


17.207 


17.524 


17.648 


18.048 


20.478 


21,009 


Washington 


62.570 


65,605 


68.281 


69.424 


72.867 


72.908 


75,113 


Wicomico 


20,394 


20.610 


21.379 


22.395 


24.109 


25.092 


25,943 


Worcester 


16.579 


17,042 


17.580 


17.869 


18,284 


20.941 


20.749 


Baltimore City 


902.208 


992.281 


1,083,959 


1.166.356 


1.230,198 


1.255.978 


1,305.074 


Total State 


$1,563,932 


$1,681,757 


$1,810,023 


$1,919,572 


$2,012,169 


$2,139,486 


$2,223,826 



* Figures furnishetl by State Tax Commission. 



Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County Purposes 



261 



The counties vary in the per cent of the total county budget 
available for school purposes. In Baltimore, Harford and Kent 
less than one-third of the county tax budget was assigned to 
school current expense, but one-half of the county levy was pro- 
vided for this purpose in Washington, Allegany and Prince 
George's Counties. If all school expenses are included, debt ser- 
vice and capital outlay as well as current expense, there is varia- 
tion from providing less than 40 per cent of their budgets for all 
school purposes in Harford, Kent, Dorchester, Howard and Balti- 
more Counties, to provision of over 60 per cent for all school 
purposes in Prince George's, Allegany and Washington. (See 
Chart 33.) 

The 1929 Assessable Basis 

In 1929 the county assessable basis taxable at the full rate for 
county purposes as reported by the State Tax Commission in- 
creased to 919 million dollars, a gain over 19:28 of 35 million 
dollars. The corresponding assessment in Baltimore City was 
1,305 million dollars, an increase of 49 million dollars over the 
preceding year. (See Table 159 and 159A.) 

In the counties there was an increase of 37 million dollars in 
real and personal property, but this was offset by a decrease of 
one million dollars in railroad rolling stock and of one million 
dollars in the assessment of ordinary business corporations. In 
the next report on taxable basis assessable at the full rate for 
county purposes, nearly six million dollars shown in column 5 
will be excluded. The 1929 legislature made the rate one dollar 
instead of the full rate which had formerly been the tax on fidel- 
ity, casualty and guaranty company shares. (See Table 159.) 

Every county, except Caroline, Carroll, Garrett, Queen 
Anne's, and Worcester, showed an increase in assessable 
basis. The largest increases appeared in Allegan5% Prince 
George's, Washington, Montgomery, Cecil, Baltimore, and Har- 
ford Counties, in which the gains varied from 1 million to 11 
million dollars. In Harford and Cecil Counties the increases are 
explained by the settlement of the assessment of the development 
at Conowingo. (See Table 159.) 

The figures on taxable basis furnished by the State Tax Com- 
mission include not only the assessment of real and personal 
property as reported by the county commissioners to the State 
Tax Commission, but also the assessment of railroad rolling 
stock and corporations which are made directly by the State Tax 
Commission. Since the county levies are fixed before the exact 
figures regarding assessments made directly by the State Tax 
Commission and those on automobiles are available, the rate of 
taxation in counties receiving the Equalization Fund appears in 
some cases to be lower than 67 cents. Any county which is en- 
titled to share in the Equalization Fund hut which levies only 
the minimum is required by law to appropriate to the Board of 



262 



1929 Report of 



State Department of Education 



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1929 County Assessable Basis and Tax Rates 



263 



Education 67 cents on all property assessable at the full rate for 
county purposes. It is therefore the duty of the county superin- 
tendent and county board of education to insist that the county 
commissioners furnish them the entire levy which is the yield of 
a 67 cent tax on all property assessable at the full rate for county 
purposes. The only exception is that funds available from 
licenses or taxes collected from sources other than the levy may 
be used to offset an equal amount required from the county levy. 

1929-30 County School Tax Rates 

The last column in Table 159 and the first in Table 160 show 
the tax rate for school current expense obtained by dividinj^ the 
amount of levy for school current expense (see column 2 in Table 
158) by the total county basis taxable at the full rate (see next 
to last column in Table 159.) In Table 159 the counties are ar- 
ranged alphabetically and in Table 160, in accordance with the 
amount of the tax rate for school current expenses. Queen 
Anne's, Worcester, Dorchester, Kent and St. Mary's should re- 
ceive somewhat more than is included in the levy for school cur- 
rent expense if they are to collect the full amount of 67 cents on 
all property assessable at the full rate for county purposes. 

It will be seen that the current expense tax rates vary all the 
way from 45 cents in Harford to nearly double this amount in 
Allegany and Anne Arundel Counties, the mean and median fall- 
ing between 66 and 67 cents. Nearly one-half of the counties re- 
ceiving the Equalization Fund are levying considerably more 
than the required minimum '(67 cents) in order to give their 
schools an enriched program of special subjects, to hold capable 
and experienced teachers and principals on their staffs by paying 
salaries above the minimum State schedule, and to supply their 
schools with books and reference materials more adequately than 
is possible with only the minimum levy of 67 cents. These coun- 
ties are Allegany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Caroline, Calvert, 
Wicomico and Somerset. In addition Washington, Prince 
George's and Talbot are levying slightly more than 67 cents, al- 
though they are rich enough to carry the minimum program on a 
tax rate of less than 67 cents. 

Harford, Baltimore, Montgomery, Cecil, Frederick and How- 
ard Counties are carrying their county school current expense 
budgets for 1929-30 on tax rates varying from 45 to 65 cents. 
*Baltimore and Montgomery Counties are able to pay salaries 
much above the minimum and to offer verv enriched programs 
on tax rates under 55 cents. Although Harford, Cecil, Frederick 
and Howard are among the wealthier counties in the State, their 
low school tax rates do not provide a program much in advance 
of the minimum required by law. 

When the rates for school debt service and const I'uction are 
added to the current expense rate, the total rate for schools 
varies from 50 and 64 cents in Harford and Cecil, respectively, 



* Baltimore has funds other than the 19:50 levy available for use during the year 1930. 



264 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 160 



County 



tl929-30 County School Tax Rate For 
School 



Current 
Expensesf 



Debt 
Service t 



Capital 
Outlayf 



Totalf 



Total 
Published 

County 
Tax Rate 

1929-30 



Total Counties. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Calvert 

Wicomico 

Washington . . . . 
Prince George's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Garrett 

Charles 

Queen Anne's . . 

Worcester 

Dorchester. . . . 

Kent 

Howard 

St. Mary's .... 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Montgomery . . 
Baltimore c. . . 
Harford e 



fifi9 


S 102 

•4? . IVJ^ 


(IP . yj^ 1 


•is 782 


S 1 63 


875 


*.147 




1.022 


1.47 


849 


.082 


.016 


.947 


2.33 


797 


a*. 090 


.013 


.900 


1.65 


748 


*.099 


.027 


.874 


1.80 




. V700 


007 


. oo«j 


2 1 1 


735 


Oil 


.234 


.980 


1.73 


727 


*.091 


.015 


.833 


1.30 


.714 


*.lll 


.007 


.832 


1.36 


. ()90 


*.027 


.204 


.921 


1.85 


.071 


*.062 


.023 


.756 


1.46 


.670 




.107 


111 


1.83 


. ()()7 


* . 084 


.016 


.767 


1 43 


. t')02 


*.040 




. 702 


1.50 


. 0()5 


*.074 




.739 


1.45 


.001 


* . 057 




.718 


1.80 


.659 


6*. 055 




.714 


1.90 


.653 


* . 053 


. 039 


.745 


1.71 


. ()48 


. OOli . 


d.ll5 


C.769 


1.51 


. 639 


M14 




.753 


1.30 


.570 


*.033 


.035 


.638 


1.40 


.548 


.154 




702 


f 1 . 30 


. 534 


. 165 


. 007 


/•.706 


1.65 


.444 


*.048 


.003 


.495 


1.45 



t Obtainetl by di\nding county budget for various school purposes by county basis taxable 
at the full rate. 

* Includes amounts paid by county commis.sioners directly. 

a Includes amount (UHluctcii in error from budget of preceding year and $1,000 for a 
school bond paid by county commissioners. 

b Includes ^.'i.OOO to i)rovide for deficit of preceding year, 
c Excludes $1,697 in tongers' licen.ses. 

d Includes $5,000 under control of county commissioners to be set aside as nucleus for a 
new building. 

e Baltimore and Harford County levies are for the calendar year 1930. 
f Does not include $100,000, a ca.sh balance which has been accumulating over a period 
of years to be used in addition to the levy shown. 

to $1.02 in Allegany, with Anne Arundel, Somerset and Carroll 
levying 90 cents or more. 

The total county tax rates as published vary from $1.30 in 
Washington, Frederick and Montgomery Counties to $2.33 in 
Anne Arundel and $2.11 in Calvert. The total tax rate depends 
not only on the basis taxable at the full rate, but also on other 
revenues from securities, bank stock, etc., which pay lower rates. 
It must be noted that the school rates given are obtained by using 
only the county basis taxable at the full rate as a divisor. 



County School Tax Rates in Relation to State Aid 



265 



How the Maryland Counties Compare in Financial Ability to Support the 
State Minimum School Current Expense Proj^ram* 

Several superintendents have wished to compare the counties 
on the basis of wealth back of each child or teacher. Numerous 
plans for such indices have been calculated without great success 
because of the variability among the counties in proportion of 
population of school age in public school, in per cent of colored 
children in total school population, in per cent of school popula- 
tion in high school, in per cent of pupils in large or small classes 
(one room schools), and in per cent of pupils transported to 
school. After considerable experimentation the fairest basis for 
comparison under present conditions seemed to result from a 
determination of the county tax rate needed to carry the min- 
imum State program for public school current expenses. This 
was obtained by dividing the cost of carrying the minimum pro- 
gram by the assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county 
purposes. 

The cost of carrying the minimum program with the present 
State salary schedule for the pupils and teachers in public school 
in 19'28-29 was calculated on a similar basis in all of the counties. 
The salaries of the teaching staff required by State law were 
divided by .76 and transportation expenditures were added. 
From these calculations it appeared that were there no State aid 
available for schools, the county tax rates required to carry the 
minimum school current expense program in 1928-29 would have 
varied from 51 and 52 cents, respectively, in Montgomery and 
Baltimore Counties to $1.64 and $1.72, respectively, in Calvert 
and Somerset. In other words, without State aid the financial 
burden of the minimum school current expense program to tax- 
payers in Calvert and Somerset would have been three and a half 
times as great as the same program in Montgomery and Balti- 
more Counties. (See column 1 of Table 161.) 

The cost of carrying the minimum State program in 1928-29 
with existing State subsides such as high school aid, free books 
and materials fund, part payment of salaries, census and at- 
tendance fund, but excluding the Equalization Fund, would have 
required county tax rates ranging from 38 and 39 cents in ]\Iont- 
gomery and Baltimore to rates of $1.19, $1.14 and $1.26 in Gar- 
rett, Calvert and Somerset, respectivelv. (See Column 2 in 
Table 161.) 

Because of the Equalization Fund, the county tax rates re- 
quired to carry the minimum program* in 1928-29 covered a 
range from 38 and 39 cents in Montgomery and Baltimore to 66 
or 67 cents for the first 15 counties listed in Table 161, the dif- 
ference between column 1 and 3 being the State aid provided to- 
ward carrying the minimum program presented in Column 4. 



* The vocational education Federal and State aid is not include*! in the fiirures for the 
minimum program. 



266 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 161 



Countv 



Tax Rate Required to Carry Minimum 

State School Current Expense Pro- 
gram in 1928-29* 



If County Paid 
Entire Cost 



Without 
Any 
State 
Aid 



With 
State 
Aid Other 
Than 
E(iuali- 
zation 



Part Actuallv 
Paid By 



Countv 



State 



Taxable 
Wealth 
Behind 
Each Dol- 
lar Needed 
To Carry 
Minimum 
Program 



$ .61 


$ .56 


$ .26 


$122 


1.26 


.67 


1.05 


59 


1.14 


.67 


.97 


61 


1.19 


.67 


.79 


68 


.94 


.66 


.72 


73 


.88 


.67 


.55 


82 


.78 


.67 


.55 


82 


.89 


.67 


.51 


85 


.84 


.67 


.46 


88 


.82 


.67 


.43 


92 


.73 


.67 


.32 


101 


.72 


.67 


.31 


103 


.70 


.67 


.26 


108 


.66 


.66 


.24 


111 


.68 


.67 


.21 


114 


.67 


.67 


.20 


115 


.60 


.60 


.24 


119 


.62 


.58 


.25 


120 


.62 


.62 


.18 


125 


.57 


.57 


.22 


127 


.60 


.60 


.18 


129 


.52 


.52 


.18 


143 


.39 


.39 


.13 


194 


.38 


.38 


.13 


197 



Average $ .82 

Somer.^et 1.72 

Calvert 1.64 

Garrett 1.46 

Charles 1.38 

Caroline 1.22 

St. Mary's 1.22 

Dorchester 1.18 

Wicomico 1.13 

Worcester 1.10 

Queen Anne's 99 

Kent 98 

Carroll 93 

Talbot 90 

Allegany _ 88 

Anne Arundel... .87 

Howard 84 

Prince George's .83 

Washington 80 

Cecil 79 

Frederick 78 

Harford 70 

Baltimore 52 

Montgomery 51 



It will be noted that the total State aid pi-ovided, including the 
Equalization Fund as well as other bases for apportionment, 
meant a saving in county tax rates varying from 13 cents to 
$1.05 between the financially richest and poorest county, respec- 
tively. (See Columns 3 and 4 in Tabic 161.) 

Another way of showing the need of the counties is by indi- 
cating the taxable wealth behind each dollar needed to carry the 
minimum State school current expense program. This is ob- 
tained by diving assessable basis by the total budget required to 
maintain the schools on the minimum basis required in the State 
school law. Whereas Somerset had $59 back of each dollar 
needed to maintain a minimum school program entirely at county 
expense, Baltimore and Montgomery Counties had $194 and 
$197, respectively, available. (See Column 5 in Table 161.) 



* The vocational education Federal and St-ate aid is not include<l in the fiKures for the 
minimum program. 



Effect of Equalization Fund 



267 



The purpose of State aid should be to reduce these inequalities 
and for the majority of the Maryland counties this seems to be 
the result of the Maryland plan of State aid. 

For the most part the aid given by the State varies with the 
need. The rank in column 4 should be the same as in column 
1 or as in column 5 reversed. A few counties seem to be out of 
place in State aid, e. g., Allegany and Anne Arundel appear to 
rank lower in State aid than they do in need, while Cecil, Prince 
George's, and Howard rank higher in State aid than their need 
would warrant. Allegany and Anne Arundel would probably 
have their normal ranking in State aid, were they not displaced 
by Howard, Cecil and Prince George's. In Howard and Cecil, 
which do not receive the Equalization Fund, other forms of State 
aid, such as that for high schools and salaries of superintendent 
and supervisor, include a higher percentage of the amount re- 
quired to carry the minimum program than was found in any 
other non-Equalization Fund county. The proportion of State 
aid given to small high schools is greater than that given to 
large high schools. Howard also received more than the average 
county from the census fund. (See Table 161.) 

It would have been possible for eight counties in 1928-29, with 
the State aid available, to carry the minimum public school pro- 
gram on a county tax varying from 38 cents to 62 cents. Sev- 
eral of these counties, especially Baltimore and Montgomery, had 
much higher county rates because they carried an enriched pro- 
gram, paid higher salaries, provided more books, etc., than the 
minimum program called for. (See Table 161.) 

The plan of State aid adopted in 1922 continued existing forms 
of State aid, but through provision of the Equalization Fund 
made it possible to equalize the county tax rate to carry the min- 
imum program in counties levying the school tax rate paid in the 
average county. The counties carry the entire program for debt 
service and capital outlay in addition. 

A research bulletin of the National Education Association 
about to be published entitled **A Self Survey Plan for State 
School Systems" contains the following statement regarding 
Maryland's plan of State aid : 

"With the exception of its use of the census basis of apportion- 
ment the Maryland System successfully meets every criterion pro- 
posed for the evaluation of a State system for apportioning- school 
funds. A minimum local tax is fixed, an equalizing: apportionment 
is made, the State participates in a significant way in school sup- 
port, and the State department of education continuously studies 
facts and conditions pertaining to the apportionment of school 
funds." 



268 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION 
County Superintendents 

During 1929, of the 23 Maryland counties, 8 employed fewer 
than 150 teachers, 7 had more than 150 and fewer than 200, and 
8 had 200 or more teachers. The salary of the superintendent, 
in which the State shares to the extent of two-thirds of the mini- 
mum salary schedule, is based on the size of the teaching staff. 
Although the State minimum salary schedule ranges between 
$2,500 and $4,140, a number of counties pay salaries considerably 
above these amounts. In 1929, salaries of county superinten- 
dents ranged between $2,500 and $6,875. (See Table 162 and 
column 5, Table XXIII, page 330.) 

TABLE 162 



Minimum State Salary Schedule for SupiTintendents and for Supervisinpr 
and Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties 



Experience 
in Years 


County Superintendents in 
Counties Having 


Supervising 
Teacher 


Helping 
Teacher 


Less Than 
150 Teachers 


150-199 
Teachers 


200 or More 
Teachers 


1-4 
5-7 
8+ 


f1!2.500.00 
1 2.940.00 


$2,940.00 
3.240.00 
3.540.00 


$3,540.00 
3.840.00 
4,140.00 


$2,040.00 
2,340.00 
2.640,00 


$1,440,00 
1,740.00 
2,040.00 



After the resignation of Mr. Oscar M. Fogle of Talbot County 
in June, 1929, Mr. Eugene \V. Pruitt, the former superintendent 
of Somerset County, was appointed to the Talbot superintend- 
ency. Mr. W. Stewart Fitzgerald was appointed to fill the 
Somerset vacancy. Prior to his appointment, Mr. Fitzgerald was 
principal of the Washington High School in Princess Anne. 

Supervision of Hiph Schools 

The high schools of the Maryland counties are supervised by 
• three State supervisors. The state is divided into three sections 
— Western, Central, and Eastern — and each supervisor is re- 
sponsible for the supervision of all of the high schools in his ter- 
ritory. The high school supervisors work with the 746 teachers 
of academic subjects in the 152 State high schools, and to only a 
limited extent with the teachers of special subjects. There are, 
in addition, State supervisors of music, agriculture, home eco- 
nomics, and industrial arts, who work directly with the respec- 
tive teachers of these subjects. The distribution of counties, 
high schools, academic and special teachers among the three 
State supervisors is shown in Table 163. 

The State high school supervisors spend most of their time in 
the field, working with the indivdual teachers or holding group 
meetings of teachers of a particular subject. These groups have 
been particularly active in the past year in the formation and de- 



County Superintendents, Supervision of 



269 



TABLE 163 
Supervision of Hij^h Schools 



Section 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 
Public High 
Schools 


Number of Teachers 


Academic 


Special 


Western 

Central 

Eastern 


5 
8 
10 


41 

55 
56 


241.9 
244.5 

260 


103.7 
91.2 
76.7 



velopment of certain units of work. Several times a year the 
high school teachers hold county-wide meetings under the pro- 
fessional leadership of the State high school supervisors. 

Inexperienced high school teachers need more assistance and 
guidance than the State supervisors can supply in three or four 
visits a year. In Baltimore, Montgomery, and now Allegany and 
Anne Arundel, this situation has been alleviated by the appoint- 
ment of a county high school supervisor. The county supervisors 
in Montgomery and Anne Arundel spend only a part of their 
time in supervision. 

Since a number of the counties are too small to justify the em- 
ployment of a county high school supervisor, the high school 
principals who are ready for it must be developed along super- 
visory lines in order to supply this guidance for the teachers. 
Well planned teachers' meetings and constructive visitation by 
the principal followed by conferences can do much to improve 
high school instruction. If the high school principal has the nec- 
essary knowledge and ability, he can supplement the work of the 
State supervisors by becoming a real professional leader of his 
faculty. 

The problems of the high school principal are considered each 
year at a series of regional conferences. The following is the 
program of the principals' conference for 1928-29: 

Objectives — To consider ways and means 

1. Of getting a larger percentage of pupils into high school 

2. Of decreasing the percentage of eliminations and failures 
of high school pupils 

3. Of more nearly equalizing the persistence to graduation 
of boys to girls 

I. Discussion of factors causing elimination and failures : 

(A (Uffereyit principal was assigned to Ivad each topic) 

1. Inability to offer elective courses, due to size of teaching corps, 
combined with failure to take full advantage of possibilities of 
alternating subjects and combining classes. 



270 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



2. Failure to keep parents in close and frequent touch with the 
progress and attitude of pupils. 

3. The failure of the principal to acquaint beginning teachers with 
the scope of work to be covered during a semester and the stand- 
ards to be maintained, 

4. The practice of allowing backward pupils to elect subjects that 
require better native ability and better previous preparation than 
they possess. Failure to give adequate guidance to pupils in the 
choice of subjects and courses. 

5. The practice of allowing teachers to frame their own final exami- 
nation questions without any checking by principal or superin- 
tendent. 

6. The practice of some teachers of assuming a certain quantity and 
quality of previous training for all pupils and beginning their , 
courses at this assumed point regardless of the real facts of 
preparation. 

7. The failure to provide a type of school organization and classroom 
l)rocedure that would make possible effective study in school under 
the teacher's direction. 

8. The lack of uniformity in the ))iiniun(ni requironents in the sec- 
tions or classes taught by different teachers with the result that 
twice as much work may be required by some teachers as is re- 
(juired by others. 

9. The j)ractice of some principals of allowing teachers to fail large 
numbers of pupils without requiring an explanation of the causes 
for the same. 

10, The practice of assuming that first-year pupils do not need special 
help and counsel in making an adjustment to the new and perplex- 
ing conditions presented in the high school. 

11, The failure of teachers to organize their work in terms of definite, 
specific tasks that pupils must perform at a stated time. 

12, The failure of teachers to define clearly the minimum essentials 
in their courses and to provide a<le<|uate drill for same, 

II. Rating of factors causing failures and eliminations by prin- 
cipals attending the conference. 

General References 

Roberts and Draper — The High School Principal as Administrator — Chap- 
ters I and VIII — I). C. Heath and Company. 

Fontaine — Waiis to Better Teaching in the Secondar)/ ScJiool — Chapter IV 
— Ginn and Company. 

(This reference has special application to factor 7 above). 

Sixti/-Seco7)d Annual Report of the State Board of Education for 
Marijland (1928). 

(The report should be studied carefully with particular reference 
to records of failures and eliminations in the principal's own 
county and school.) 



Supervision of High and Elementary Schools 



271 



Supervision of White Elementary Schools 

The Assistant State Superintendent and the State Supervisor 
of Elementary Schools act as leaders for the gi'oup of Maryland 
county elementary supervisors. They spend about two-thirds of 
their time visiting schools with the county supervisors and at- 
tend a number of teachers' meetings conducted by the super- 
visors. The group of 54 w^omen who in 1928-29 made up the 
county supervisory corps is composed of carefully selected per- 
sons who have not only fulfilled the requirement of at least three 
or four years' training beyond high school but who have also had 
at the minimum four years of successful teaching experience. 
Most of the supervisors have far more than the minimum train- 
ing and experience required. 

The requirements for a supervisor's certificate were published 
in the 1928 Annual Report. 

But few changes were made in the supervisory stalT in the fall 
of 1929. Two supervisors went from one county to another. 
Five new members were added to the supervisory group to take 
the places of six supervisors who resigned. The causes of res- 
ignation were in three cases marriage, in one case further study, 
and in one case a change to adminstrative work in another 
county. Prior to their appointment, of those who filled five of 
the vacancies, two were successful teachers in the Maryland 
counties, two more had done outstanding work in two of the 
normal elementary schools, and the fifth came from outside the 
State. One of the vacancies was not filled. Mr. William Phipps, 
who went to Talbot County as supervisor, is the first man to be- 

TABLE 164 

Number of Supervising or Helpin<^ Teachers Required and Employed in 
Maryland Counties for Various Numbers of Teachers, 
Year Ending July 31, 1929 



Supervising or Helping Teachers 



Number of Number 
White Elementary Number of Coun- Name of Counties 

Teachers Required ties 



Less than 80 1 10 Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Howard, 

Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's 
Somerset, Talbot, Worcester (2). 

80-119 2 3 Cecil, Dorchester, Wicomico. 

120-185 3 4 Anne Arundel (2), Carroll, Garrett 

(4), Harford (2). 

186-235 4 3 Frederick, Montgomery (3), Prince 

George's (3). 

236-285 5 

286-335 6 2 Allegany (4), Washington (4). 

336-385 7 1 Baltimore. 



( ) The number of supervisinft or helpint; teachers actually employed for the year 
cndiriK in July. 1929, is shown in parentheses when this number difTers from the schedule. 



272 1929 Report of State Department of Education 




Supervision of White Elementary Schools 



273 



come a member of the county elementary supervisory ^I'oup since 
the 1922 program of having- at least one supervisor in every 
county was adopted. Three of the present corps of county super- 
intendents, those in Baltimore, Kent and Wicomico Counties, 
were formerly members of the supervisory staff. 

There was in 1928-29 an average of one supervisor for every 
57 teachers in the white elementary schools. Six counties em- 
ployed fewer than the number for whom State aid was available. 
Ten counties employed fewer than 80 white elementary teachers, 
and were therefore entitled to only one supervisor. Anne Arun- 
del and Harford, although entitled to three supervisors, employed 
but two and Prince George's and Montgomery had the services 
of three instead of four supervisors as provided for in the State 
schedule. Allegany and Washington fell further short of their 
quotas by employing four instead of six supervisors. (See Table 

164 and Chart 36.) 

Each county superintendent is authorized to organize the 
scheme of supervision within his own county. The details of the 
various county organizations were given in the 1928 Annual 
Report. 

Each year the county supervisors make a report to the State 
Superintendent of the supervisory program, activities, and 
progress in the schools with which they work. These reports 
are read by the Assistant State Superintendent and those por- 
tions which are of value to all members of the supervisory staff 
are incorporated in a published bulletin or in the program of 
supervisory conferences. In the fall of 1929, excerpts from the 
reports of the supervisors became the core of the program for 
the supervisors' conference. 

Distribution of Time of County Supervisors of White Elementary Schools 
Included in the supervisor's annual report is a statistical sum- 
mary of the year's work. These have been summarized in Table 

165 and show the framework of the county supervisory work. 
On the average, during 1928-29, a supervisor spent 133 days in 
field work visiting 434 teachers in 258 schools. This indicates 
that an average day of field work includes visits to 2 schools and 
3 teachers. The reported total of 21,682 visits to teachei's for 
supervision during 1928-29 means that the average county ele- 
mentary teacher was visited about 7 times during the j^ear by the 
county supervisor. 

The average supervisor conducted 13 teachers' meetings and 
attended four others in 1928-29. The supervisors in most of the 
counties participated in the work of Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions, addressing on the average four meetings a year and attend- 
ing five. (See Tabic 165.) 

Office work, including preparation for teachers' meetings, 
summarizing and studying tests, preparation of letters and mim- 
eographed material for teachers, as well as conferences with 



274 

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Supervision of White Elementary Schools 



277 



principals and teachers required an average of 38 school days 
and 28 Saturdays. Of those that reported, an average of 102 
conferences with principals and teachers and 23 conferences 
with superintendents were held during 1928-29. (See Table 
165.) 

Conferences of the County Superintendents and Supervisors With the State 

Department of Education 

A joint meeting of the superintendents and supervisors was 
held on September 27 and 28, 1928, at the Maryland State Nor- 
mal School at Towson. The discussions dealt with the various 
phases of supervision as presented in the bulletin, Supervisory 
Activities, which was based on the annual reports of the county 
supervisors for the year 1927-28, and the preliminary report on 
Standards for Judging Supervision from the Standj)oint of an 
Administrator. Dr. Frank A. McMurry of Teachers College, 
Columbia University, and Dr. H. B. Wilson, were present and 
assisted with the discussion. 

I. Discussion of the Report of Committee of Supervisors on 
Standards for Judging Supervision from the Standpoint of 
an Administrator 

A. Aims and Functions of Supervision 

B. Qualifications of the Supervisor 

C. Principles upon v^hich Standards should be Based 

D. Standards for Judging the Supervisor's Program 

1. Standards for Judging Objectives Set up for Achievements 

2. Standards for Judging the Means of Achieving Objectives 

a. Teachers' Meetings 

b. Classroom Visitation 

c. Group and Individual Conferences 

d. Miscellaneous Supervisory Activities 

3. Standards for Judging the Criteria, Checks, or Tests used by 
the Supervisor 

E. General Principles 

F. Supervisor's Program 

G. Supervisory Activities 

1. Teachers' Meetings 

2. Classroom Visitation 

3. Group and Individual Conferences 

4. Miscellaneous Activities 

II. Discussion of the bulletin, Supervisory Activities in Mary- 
land 

A. Basis of Supervisory Method 

B. Activities Pertaining to Classification, Retardation, and Promo- 
tion 



278 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



C. Activities Designed to Set New Ideals and Standards for Teach- 
ers 

D. Activities in Connection with the Social Studies 

E. Activities in Connection with Art and Literature 

F. Developing Leadership in the Elementary School Principal 

G. Use of Professional Bulletins of the State Department 

H. Encouragements and Discouragements 
L Plans for the year, 1928-29 

At the conference, Mr. L. D. Martin, Director, Division of 
Records and Membership, N. E. A., spoke concerning the small 
number of Maryland teachers who held membership in the N. E. 
A., and urged that efforts be made to "ncrease the percentage for 
the next year. 

The superintendents and supervisors met separately on Sep- 
tember 29, 1928. The Maryland county superintendents dis- 
cussed the following program : 

I. Reports of Standing Committees: 

A. Committee on Teachers' Retirement System — E. W. Broome, 
•Chairman 

B. Committee on School Consolidation — C. G. Cooper, Chairman 

C. Committee on Certification of Teachers — C. Milton Wright, 
Chairman 

II. A State-wide Plan for Working out a High School Course in Prob- 
lems of Democracy — Introduced by E. Clarke Fontaine 

III. The State Supervisor of Education in the Trades and Industries 
(under the Smith Hughes Act) — John J. Seidel 

IV. State-wide High School Tests in English— Introduced by E. W. 
Pruitt 

V. The High School Principal's Comprehensive Report — Introduced by 
W. K. Klingaman 

VI. The County Superintendent's Annual Report to the Citizens of the 
County — Introduced by George Fox 

VII. The Supervisor's Annual Re])ort to the County Superintendent and 
to the State Department — Suggestions for Improvement? 

Discussion at the supervisors' meeting on September 28, 1928, 
centered around the following program : 

I. Developing Children's Interests in Reading — Discussion led by Miss 
Winifred Green (Grades 1-8), and Miss Lula H. Crim (Grades 4-7) 

II. Activities in Connection with the Social Studies — Discussion led by 
Miss Myrtle S. Eckhardt 

III. A Unified Program for Primary Grades — Discussion led by Miss M. 
Theresa Wiedefeld 

IV. Miscellaneous Topics and Problems Raised by Members of the Group 

Two mid-winter regional conferences of superintendents and 
supervisors were held in the latter part of January, 1929, in 
Montgomery and Anne Arundel Counties, respectively. On the 



Conferences of County Superintendents and Supervisors 279 

first evening of each conference, the superintendent and super- 
visors of the county being visited set forth their objectives and 
explained the phms arranged for visiting schools in the county 
the following day. The visitors were divided into a number of 
groups and each group visited from 4 to 6 of the county schools. 
By this planning almost every school in each county was visited 
by at least one of the groups. The teaching observed was con- 
sidered in the light of the unit method of instruction as clarified 
by Morrison,* and formed the basis of the conference held on the 
day after the visits to the schools. In both the Montgomery and 
Anne Arundel meetings the discussion centered around questions 
pertaining to unit organization, to self-initiated activity, and to 
special problems in unit-teaching of the social studies. 

The spring conference of superintendents was held on April 
12, 1929. The normal school principals were present and con- 
tributed to the discussion. The topics considered were of an ad- 
ministrative nature and the following program was used: 

I. Reports of Standing Committees: 

1. Committee on Teachers' Retirement System — E. W. Broome, 
Chairman 

2. Committee on School Consolidation — C. G. Cooper, Chairman 

3. Committee on Certification of Teachers — C. Milton Wright, 
Chairman 

II. N. E. A. Membership in the Counties 

III. The County Library — Miss Pratt and a county superintendent from 
New Jersey 

IV. High School Transportation 

1. Should a high school student be permitted to attend a school 
nearest his residence, even if the school is in another county, 
providing he furnishes his own transportation? 

2. High School Consolidation as a State Policy? What shall be 
done with the small high school? 

3. A bill in the present Legislature requiring that counties shall 
pay the entire cost of high school transportation was withdrawn 
at the request of the State Department of Education. What 
should be the State policy in reference to this matter? 

V. The Teaching Load of High School Principals. Who shall decide 
and what principles shall govern? — Introduced by Superintendent 
Grimes 

VI. Shall music be a required subject for entrance to the State Normal 
Schools? For graduation from State Normal Schools? 

VII. Should there be an age limit for required summer school attendance 
on the part of the teachers? 

VIII. Method of Operating the New Health Certificate Requirement for 
Teachers. 

* Morrison, Henry Clinton in his "The Practice of Teachinvr in the Elementary School." 



« 



I 

280 1929 Report of State DepartiMent of Education 



CONFERENCE OF COUNTY ATTENDANCE OFFICERS 

The annual meeting of county attendance officers was held 
February 14 and 15, 1929. Mr. Thomas L. Gibson presided. The 
following program was discussed. 

"A Child Accounting Program and the Problems to be Solved," Mr. J. Y. 
Shambach, head of the Bureau for Child Helping and Accounting, Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Discussion, from the point of view of: 

1. The State Board of Health, Dr. John Collinson, Chief of the 
Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Board of Health 

2. The Maryland Children's Aid Society, Miss Katherine T. Kir- 
wan, Director 

3. A Probation Officer, Miss Estelle Everett, Harford County 

4. Bureau of Labor and Statistics, Employment of Children, Miss 
Mary M. Wootton 

Topics and Questions for discussion: 

1. Attendance devices 

a. One new device used in your county this year for the first 
time? 

b. Former devices used, discarded. Why? 

c. Which devices shown in last year's exhibit were adopted and 
found of value? 

2. Is tardiness a j^roblem in your county? The remedy. 

3. The values and shortcomings of comparisons of percentages of 
attendance 

(a) State-wide 

(b) County 

4. Brief report of the national meeting of Attendance Officers 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Cooperative associations of parents and teachers were active in 
588 white schools in Maryland in 1929. This is a smaller number 
of Parent-Teacher Associations than was reported last year, but 
due to the consolidation of many schools, it is a slightly higher 
percentage of all schools than in 1928. (See Table 166.) 

There were 242 P. T. A.'s in white elementary schools with 
three or more teachers. This includes almost 83 per cent of all 
schools classed as graded schools. Parent-Teacher Associations 
were organized in 57 per cent of the two-teacher schools and 28 
per cent of the one-room schools. There were ten more graded 



Attendance Officers, Parent-Teacher Associations 



281 



TABLE 166 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1929 

Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 

Year Number Per Cent 

1924 490 30.8 

1925 623 40 . 6 

1926 638 42.8 

1927 ; 649 45 . 1 

1928 617 45.4 

1929 588 45 . 8 



schools with P. T. A.'s in 1929 than in 1928, but the organizations 
in two-teacher schools decreased in both number and per cent. 
The decreasing number of one-teacher schools accounts for the 
increased per cent of P. T. A.'s in these rural schools. (See 
Table 167.) 

TABLE 167 

Parent -Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 



Parent-Teacher Associations 



White Elementary Schools Having Number Per Cent 

One teacher 208 28 . 2 

Two teachers 130 56.8 

Three or more teachers 242 82 . 6 



All Elementary 580 46 . 1 



In Caroline County every white school sponsored a Parent- 
Teacher Association. Baltimore County was a close second with 
P. T. A.'s in 99 per cent of the white schools. In only two other 
counties — Anne Arundel and Talbot — did as many as 90 per cent 
of the white schools have organized groups of parents and teach- 
ers. The addition of St. Mary's made every county in the State 
have P. T. A.'s in at least one school during 1929. The decrease 
in the number of P. T. A.'s in Queen Anne's is most marked. 
(See Chart 37.) 

Some Interests and Activities of P. T. A.'s 

With the hope of stimulating an interest in the school libraries, 
as well as an appreciation of better and more books in the home, 
35 Parent-Teacher meetings were addressed by the Director of 
the IMaryland Public Library Commission, and to further empha- 
size this an exceptionally fine collection of books for children of 
all ages and tastes was exhibited at the State Congress of 
Parents and Teachers held at Salisbury in November. 



282 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 37 



PARBNT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN CODNTY TOITE SCHOOLS 





Number 


Per 


Jounty 1928 


1929 


1928 










Co, Average 


617 


388 


45.4 


Carol Ine 


29 


do 


90.6 


Rql t Inore 

^ ^ w A Lii \J A W 


92 


94 


100.0 


i 1 1 1 w n A LA 1 l\A X 


37 


36 


62.2 


Talbot 


20 


20 


90.0 




54 


51 


9] .5 


Kent 


26 


24 


61.3 


Wloomlco 


40 


37 


70.2 


Pr. George 'o 


43 




61.4 


Howard 


21 


21 


61. b 


Somerae t 


17 


17 


50.0 


nan u m 


oc 


32 


47.0 


Frederick 


49 


40 


45.3 


Allepany 


36 


32 


45.6 


Worcester 


18 


13 


46.2 


Dorchester 


IB 


17 


29.0 


Charles 


8 


7 


25.0 


Carroll 


22 


23 


22.7 


Calvert 


7 


5 


30.4 


Cecil 


7 


10 


11.7 


Was hlngtoa 


9 


17 


8.3 


Garrett 


19 


19 


13.5 


Queen Anne '3 


14 


3 


40.0 


St. r.'^ry's 





1 


0.0 



100^ 
96.9 

90.9 





38£ 

J4j0 
28.0 



The Baltimore County Federation of Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions pubHshed in the Federal P. T. A. News for September, 1929 
the plan for the Federation Trophy Competition which included 
the following excerpts pertaining- to the score card for rating 
each Parent-Teacher Association monthly: 



A. Executive Committee Meeting's 

For each meeting of local Executive Committee attended by at least 
a majority of the members, when a copy of the Minutes is mailed to 
Federation Headquarters within one week of the meeting _ 23 



Parent-Teacher Association Activities in Baltimore County 283 

B. Advance Orjs^anization of Season's Program 

For advance organization of the season's program, provided the 
following requirements are met with: 

1. The date of each meeting? and the subject, of educational char- 
acter stated. 

2. This propfram must be approved by the local Executive Com- 
mittee and sent in to Federation Headquarters not later than 
November 15th, 1029 _ 100 

3. When subjects taken from the list below are used, not more than 
one subject to a meeting-, an award for each subject used of 10 

a. Study of the Educational Needs of a Community 

b. Better use of Leisure Time 

c. Selecting a Vocation 

d. Developing Interest in Civic Matters 

e. Development of Character 

f. Developing an Interest in Better Music 

g. Developing an Interest in Nature Study 

h. Improvement in Home Study Conditions, 

i. The Relation of Play to Education 
j. Adult Education 

k. The Child: His Nature and His Needs 

1, Art in the Home 

m. The Christmas Book Shelf 

n. Better Home Conditions 

o. Living with Your Children 

p. Feeding the Family 

q. Unspoiling the Spoiled Child 

r^ What Motion Pictures do Your Children See? 

s7 Choosing the College 

t. Fewer and Better Forms of Punishment 

C. Meeting Notices 



(Credit based on one meeting a month for nine (9) months of each 
year). For each official notice of club meetings mailed to Federa- 
tion Headquarters at least four days before the meeting is held 10 

D. Attendance of Men 

In order to encourage the attendance of fathers at meetings, the 
following points are offered for each meeting: 

Where 50 per cent of the total attendance is men 30 

Where 40 per cent of the total attendance is men „ „ „ 20 

Where 30 per cent of the total attendance is men ... .. 10 

E. Federation News 

Where Federation News is ordered and paid for for every family 
having children in the school, a maximum of 500 

F. Health Activities 

1. To the club holding at least one meeting, having a speaker talk 

on the subject of "Greater Health Supervision and Correction" 10 

2. To the club putting on a health play or pageant at one of its 
regular meetings 10 



284 



1929 Report of State Depaktment of Education 



3. To clubs representing- elementary schools that install in such 

schools a first aid equipment valued at not less than $5.00 _ 20 

To clubs representing- high schools that install or maintain a 
first aid or hospital room _ _ 20 

4. To clubs that arrange for the serving of hot lunches in their 
schools, subject to the approval of the Director of Home Eco- 
nomics _ 100 

5. To clubs that provide for the physical examination and correc- 
tion of children in the school, subject to the approval of the 
Health Supervision and Correction Committee of the Federation, 
from 1 to 100 points according to the percentage of children 
examined. 



G. Improvement of Property 

1. For each local club submitting to the Committee on Grounds and 
Property Improvements before December 1st, 1929, a definite at- 
tainable program providing for either interior or exterior im- 
provements, approved by its Executive Committee, an award will 

be made of 15 

2. For the complete and successful accomplishment of the above 
program, as shown by a detailed report signed by the officers of 
the local club, an award will be made of „ 35 

3. For every club having- for one of its regiilar meetings a pro- 
gram in which the need for artistic and beautiful school grounds 
is particularly emphasized and discussed, either by a landscape 
engineer, architect or other authority on the subject, an award 
will l)e made of 15 

4. For each clui) submitting snapshots or photographs of conditions 
in a school yard "before" and "after" an improvement has been 
made, with an explanatory report of the procedure involved, an 
award will be made of - - - 15 

5. For each clul) purchasing or adding new e(|uipment, such as pic- 
tures, piano, radio, chairs, stage curtains, outside drinking- foun- 
tains, bookcases, etc., an award of 20 

H. Safety 

1. For featuring "Safety" at one regular meeting during the year, 
with a "Safety" play or pageant — 25 

2. For organizing a Junior Safety Council and Junior Safety Patrol 50 

3. For subscribing to school membership in the National Safety 
Council 25 

I. Library 

1. Meeting requirements of Board of Education — $10.00 per year 
per room, for purchase of books 25 

2. Library Activities 

a. Program during book week - 15 

b. Library assembly at least once during- the year (debate, play, 
essay, or book reports) 15 

c. Establishment of reading club _ _ 20 

3. One regular meeting devoted to Library Project 25 



J. School Attendance 

p]ach club will be allowed the following numi)er of points each 
month, based on the attendance record as published in Federa- 
tion News for that month: 



Parent-Teacher Association Activities in Baltimore County 28') 



1. For an attendance of 85 per cent of pupils belonj^inp;- 10 

2. For an attendance of 87 per cent of pupils belonj^ing _ 20 

3. For an attendance of 90 per cent of pupils belon^^in^ 40 

4. For an attendance of 92V2 per cent of pupils belonging- 60 

5. For an attendance of 1)5 per cent of pupils belong-ing 80 

G. For an attendance of 91 V2 per cent of pupils belonging _ _ 100 



jv. High School Registration 

Each school will receive a number of points equal to the percentage 
of the seventh grade graduates entering high school the foil owing- 
fall. For example, if there are 10 seventh-g-rade graduates and 5 
enter high school in the Fall, the club will receive a credit of 50. 
The maximum credit that can be received under this heading is 100 

L,. Special Activities 

For Special activities, not covered in the rules, which are in the in- 
terest of the objectives of the Federation, successfully conducted 
by the local club, each club may receive during the year a maximum 

of 200 

A suggestion under this heading is a formation of a Child Study Club 

M. "Get Together" Patrons' Club Meetings 

There may be two of these during the year. One an outing during 
the vacation period with basket lunches, and the other a dinner meet- 
ing during the school year. Such occasions must have a talk on some 
educational subject. For each such meeting „ 50 

N. Visitation of Patrons 

Each club will be allowed at the end of the year the following points 
according to the number of patrons visiting the schools while it is 
in session: 



1. Visitation of 100 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging 200 

2. Visitation of 90 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging 180 

3. Visitation of 80 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging IGO 

4. Visitation of 70 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging 140 

5. Visitation of 60 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging 120 

6. Visitation of 50 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging 100 

7. Visitation of 40 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging _ 80 

8. Visitation of 30 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging 60 

9. Visitation of 20 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging „ 40 

10. Visitation of 10 per cent of patrons for pupils belonging 20 

O. Athletic Meetings 

For each school taking part in the Annual Athletic Meet 25 

P. Accepted Suggestions 

For all suggestions made to the Executive Committee of the Fed- 
eration, pertaining to Parent-Teacher Activities, when accepted by 
the Committee, a maximum of _ 100 

Q. District Meetings 



For each clul) having five or more members in attendance at a Dis- 
trict Meeting held by the Chairman of the District; two meetings, 
ings, one in the Spring and the other in the Fall, are recommended 25 

R. Election of District Committeeman 

For each club represented at a meeting of Delegates for the purpose 
of electing the District Committeemen, provided such meeting is held 
at the proper time and Federation Head(iuarters notified of the elec- 
tion, an award of _ _ 25 



286 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



MARYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOL GRADUATES 

There were 431 graduates from the three Maryland normal 
schools for white students in 1929. The Towson graduates, 268 
in number, included 153 from the counties and 115 from Balti- 
more City. The county graduates from Towson were 36 fewer 
than in 1928, but an increase of 18 in the number from Balti- 
more City made the total number of Towson graduates just 18 
lower than in the preceding year. Frostburg had 81 graduates, 
one less than in 1928, and at Salisbury 82, or 7 more than in 1928, 
completed the two year professional course. (See Table 168.) 



TABLE 168 

White Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools, 1920-1929 



year 


Counties 


Towson 

Baltimore 
City 


Total 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Total 
Counties 


1920. . 


37 




37 


13 




50 


1921 . 


'yO 




50 


29 




79 


1922 


114 




114 


28 




142 


192:^ 


240 
239 




240 


58 




298 


1924. 




239 


71 




310 


1925. 


293 


234 


527 


59 




352 


192(i. 


214 


214 


428 


84 


27 


325 


1927 


214 


139 


353 


91 


72 


377 


1928 


189 


97 


286 


82 


75 


346 


1929 


153 


115 


268 


81 


82 


316 


Total. 1920-29 


1.743 


799 


2.542 


596 


256 


2.595 



During the period from 1920 to 1929 there have been 2,595 
county graduates fi-om the State normal schools at Towson, 
Frostburg and Salisbury, and since 1925, in addition, 799 Balti- 
more City graduates have completed the course at Towson. The 
work of the normal schools in training the county high school 
graduates has made possible the change from a county teaching 
personnel with but one-third of the teachers having the necessary 
training to one in which 93 per cent of the staff have completed 
the prepai'ation desired. (See Table 168.) 

Graduates Teach in One-Teacher Schools 

That the county graduates fill the vacancies in the one-teacher 
schools is evident since 140 of the 285 graduates who were as- 
signed positions in the counties went into these schools. Frost- 
burg contributed the largest number and per cent to one-teacher 
schools, 73 per cent of its graduates ; Salisbury 64 per cent, and 
Towson 30 per cent; making the State average for 1929 county 
graduates placed in one-teacher schools 49 per cent. All three of 



Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools 



287 



the normal schools contributed between 16 and 18 per cent of 
their 1929 county graduates to schools with a two-teacher organ- 
ization. Towson sent 53 per cent of its graduates teaching in 
county schools to those having at least three teachers, while this 
was the case for 18 per cent of the Salisbury graduates, and for 
11 per cent of the Frostburg graduates who took positions in the 
counties. (See Table 169.) 



TABLE 169 

Per Cent of 1929 County Normal School Graduates Teaching in the 
Counties in Various Types of Schools 



Type of School 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


One-Teacher 

Two-Teacher 

Graded 

Total 


44 
24 
77 


30.3 
16.6 
53.1 


53 
12 
8 


72.6 
16.4 
11.0 


43 
12 
12 


64.2 
17.9 
17.9 


140 
48 
97 


49.1 
16.8 
34.1 


145 


100.0 


73 


100.0 


67 


100.0 


285 


100.0 



In addition to those who obtained positions in the counties, in 
October, 1929, there were still 8 county graduates of 1929 from 
Towson, 8 from Frostburg, and 15 from Salisbury who did not 
have positions. (See Table 170.) 

Every county except Allegany, Howard, and Wicomico, em- 
ployed at least 1 of the graduates from Towson. Baltimore 
County employed 39, and Washington, Harford, Frederick, Anne 
Arundel, and Carroll employed from 12 to 17 of the Towson 
graduates of 1929. (See Table 170.) 

Baltimore City gave positions to 57 of the 1929 graduates of 
Towson, which left 58 of the city graduates without positions in 
October, 1929. (See Table 170.) 

Frostburg sent the largest number of its graduates to Garrett 
and a considerable number to Alleganv, Washington, and Carroll. 
(See Table 170.) 

Salisbury found the largest number of positions for its grad- 
uates in Carroll, Wicomico, Worcester, Howard, Prince George's, 
and Cecil. Each employed between 5 and 8 Salisbury graduates 
of 1929. (See Table 170.) 

Graduates Return to Their Home Counties 

Of the 311 county graduates of the three State Normal Schools, 
203 or 65 per cent returned to teach in their home counties. A 
much larger proportion of the Towson county graduates, 88 per 
cent, returned to teach in their home counties than was ix)ssible 



288 



1929 Report of State Departivient of Education 



TABLE 170 

Distribution of 1929 Normal School Graduates by County Placement 

and Type of School 





TowsoN 


1 Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Grand Total 


COUNTY 


J= 
cd 

0/ 

c 
C 


a> 
J? 

o 

r ■ 


a; 

T3 
u 


Total 


' 1 1 (-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


w 

a; 

"C 
rt 


Total 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total ^ 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


0/ 
T3 
e<3 
1. 


Total 


AUeganv 










1 9 


9 


1 


15 












9 


1 




Anno AninHol 


3 




9 


12 




1 


1 










3 




10 


13 


K ^Itinioro 


4 


4 


31 


39 






1 


1 


1 




2 


3 


5 


4 


34 


43 


Ca\vprt 


5 


3 


Q 

o 














c 
O 


Q 
O 


a 
o 


i^Ki f*/i1 1 no 




1 


2 


Q 

o 




I 




I 


1 






1 

I 


1 
1 


9 


2 




Pnrrnll 


5 


3 


4 


12 


6 


3 




9 


8 


2 


3 


13 


19 


8 


7 


34 




2 






9 










A 


1 






A 
U 


1 
1 




7 




1 


1 




2 
















1 
1 


i 




9 


Dorchester 


2 






2 










2 


2 




4 


4 


2 




6 


F'rederick 


4 


4 


6 


14 


2 




1 


3 






i 


1 


6 


4 


8 


18 




1 






1 


22 


3 


1 


26 






23 


3 


1 


27 


Harford 


c 
O 


7 


Q 
O 


15 












5 


7 


o 


15 


















4 


1 


1 


6 


4 


1 


1 


6 




1 






1 










1 






1 


2 






2 




1 




3 


4 










1 




1 


1 


1 


3 


5 


Prince George's 




6 


6 












3 


3 


6 




3 


9 


12 




1 




1 










2 


1 




3 


3 


1 




4 






1 


1 


1 


1 




2 




1 




1 


1 


2 


i 


4 


Somerset 


1 




1 






2 




1 


3 


3 




1 


4 


Talbot 


3 






3 










2 




1 


3 


5 




1 


6 


Washington 


4 


1 


12 


17 


10 


2 


3 


15 










14 


3 


15 


32 










8 






8 


8 






8 




1 






1 










8 






8 


9 






9 






























Total Counties: 


44 


24 


77 


145 


53 


12 


8 


73 


43 


12 


12 


67 


140 


48 


97 


285 










8 








15 








31 


l^:iltimore City: 






57 


57 




















57 


57 








5» 
























58 




































Entire State: 


44 


24 


134 


202 


53 


12 


8 


73 


43 


12 


12 


67 


140 


48 


154 


342 




6G 








8 








15 








89 

































for Frostburg and Salisbury where the corresponding percen- 
tages were 46 and 41, respectively. (See Tabic 171.) 

All of the Towson graduates from Baltimore, Calvert, Carroll, 
Cecil, Dorchester, Fi-ederick, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. 
Mary's, Washington, and Worcester received positions in their 
home counties. This was true of the Frostburg graduates from 
Washington, and of the single graduate from Frederick, from 
Carroll, and from Caroline; also of the single Salisbury graduate 
from Carroll, from Frederick, and from Montgomery. (See 
Tabic 171.) 

Carroll, Garrett, Baltimore, Prince George's, and Howard 
Counties employed the largest number of graduates whose homes 
were in other counties. (See Table 171.) 



Teaching Position 



A.v[> Home County of Graduates 



289 





tfi 

'Ops 
rt £ c 
c tcO 


Per 
Cent 


Vt 




o c ^ 
g o£ 


c 




total 


urned 
pach in 
County 


Per 
Cent 






Ret 
to Ti 


d 
Z 






i^iuno^ q3B3 uiojj 
3UIUI03 jaquinisj 






ling and 
ng from 
Counties 


Per 
Cent 












Teach 
Comi 
Other 


6 

:z: 




LISBUR-5 


urned 
each in 
County 


Per 
Cent 




< 


Ret 
to T, 
Home 


6 


-Ci 




itluno3 qoB3 uiojj 
3UIUI03 jaquin^vi 


<3 




ting and 
ng from 
Counties 


Per 
Cent 


\> 


DSTBURG 


Teach 
Comi 
Other 


6 
Z 


-a 


Returned 
to Teach in 
Home County 


Per 

Cent 


Vt 


fa 


d 






i?:juno3 qoBg uiojj 
3UIUI03 jaquin^ 


<3 




ling and 
ng from 
Counties 


Per 
Cent 






Teach 
C^omi 
Other 

\y ci 1 CTi 


d 


-a 


TOWSON 


urned 
each in 
County 


Per 
Cent 




"^C-i ^ 

C5 c 1 








d 






y^^unoQ qoB3 uiojj 
3UIUIOJ jaquin^ 




COUNTY 



00^ 



1.1 



•— -r O 



CC ^ o •o o 
— — o 



— r: 



CO 



(N C. C O t" O — — X O CC I- 



i-t CI QO '■'^ rc C^l QC 't 

„ ^ fT) ^ — 



CO iM 00 ^ po i.t --r -c 
»o CO •-11— — ' 



OOOCOOO'^OCOf 



c^"i o S £ 5 CO ■ 



00 



'O 'C t — 



>0 00 00 00 



CI 



00 



00 
(N 



XiCOCN— "XCIOO'TX 



CO 



CO 



OO 



oo 

OO 



(X) 



o 



CO O 



<N O 

c: » 



OCO 



cc o cc 
rH o ro 



CO 



O o 
oc 



oo 



oo 

CO o 



U5 •—I 



to ■ ^ 



CO a> 
oco 



(NOO 



O C5 



C 00 
O 00 



— 00 



1—1 05 



Ol^ 



O CO 
O 



OO 



O o 
o 



oo 



oo 



o 



CO — 

CO 



n 



CO 



o 



CO 



o 



CO 
CO 



C M 



00 



eoCwCCCr^oo 



CO 



to 

CO 



CO 



CO 



CO 



CO 
CO 



CO 



^ £ S S 



I" £ c 



(N 



— CO 
CO 



CO 



o 

CO 



00 



o 



00 



— COC^Xf — <NfO — — X COiJ-iCCO — M-^r^ — I — M 



00 

CO 



C 

cS 



c — 



X C^ 

5. -r : 



£ o c 

C 0^ c 
Mo 



• i.e. 
. ■ o ■ ^ 



c3i 

_ V. 



c8 

■j: 



^ c.= ^ i t p K s c § = r ==: 5 c ^ 



- E 5 



290 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



ENROLLMENT IN NORMAL SCHOOLS FALL OF 1929 

Except for the years 1924 to 1926 inclusive the normal school 
enrollment in the fall of 1929 (1,061) was higher than in any 
year preceding. The increase was found at Towson. The map 
shows a good distribution among the counties except in Prince 
George's and Charles Counties. (See Chart 38.) 

The enrollment of 388 county juniors at the normal schools in 
the fall of 1929 included 31 more than in the year preceding, but 
the 314 seniors enrolled were 38 below the number a year ago. 
An increase in juniors occurred at Towson and Frostburg, while 
the decrease in seniors was found in all three of the normal 
schools. Salisbury admitted no men juniors in the fall of 1929 



TABLE 172 

Enrollment in Maryland State Normal Schools for White Student i 

October 1929 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


All Normal Schooi-s 


COUNTY 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Total 




c 

ii< 

E 

c 


c 


c 

B 

o 


c 

s 


c 

£ 

o 


c 

0' 

IS 


Women 


c 

ii 


Women 


c 


c 

e 

o 


c 


c 

E 

o 


c 

s 


Women 


c 




c 


AlIpRunv 


2 









53 


6 


49 


2 










55 


6 


55 


2 


110 


8 




10 




8 






2 








12 


8 




20 




38 


6 


45 


3 














2 




38 


6 


47 


3 


85 


9 




2 


4 






■■\ 














2 




4 




6 






3 


i 


:i 












9 




2 




12 


i 


5 




17 


1 


Carroll 


7 


3 


'.I 










1 


2 




1 




9 


3 


10 


1 


19 


4 


Ceril 


g 


3 










4 




4 




13 




7 




20 






3 




2 




















3 




2 




5 






5 


3 


8 












19 




5 


1 


24 


3 


13 




37 


4 


Frederick 


22 


5 


8 








2 




2 




1 


24 


5 


11 




35 


5 




I 




15 


3 


7 












16 


3 


7 




23 


3 




11 


1 


4 










1 




3 




12 


1 


7 




19 


1 




13 


1 


6 
















1 




13 


1 


7 




20 


1 


Kent 


6 












2 




5 




8 




5 




13 






12 


1 


5 




1 
















13 


1 


5 




18 


1 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


2 


1 


















2 




I 




3 




6 




5 












4 




4 




10 




9 




19 




St. Mary's 


1 




4 




















1 




4 




5 




5 




6 












8 




11 




13 




17 




30 




Talbot 


3 


1 


3 


1 


2 




1 




4 




7 




9 


1 


11 


1 


20 


2 




14 


19 


1 


16 


2 


8 


4 










30 


2 


27 


5 


57 


7 


Wicomiro ... 




1 






21 




19 


3 


21 




20 


3 


41 


3 


Worees»ter . . 

Total Counties ... 


4 




5 












11 




11 




15 




16 




31 




179 


22 


155 


5 


87 


11 


67 


7 


89 




76 


4 


355 


33 


298 


16 


653 


49 


Out of State 


2 


1 


4 












3 




1 


1 


5 


1 


5 


1 


10 


2 


Baltimore Citv 


157 


33 


136 


20 






1 








157 


33 


137 


20 


294 


53 




338 


56 


295 


25 


87 


11 


68 


7 


92 




77 


5 


517 


67 


440 


37 


957 


104 




























394 


320 


98 


75 


92 




82 


584 


477 


1 ,061 




714 


173 


174 


1,061 







1929 Fall Enrollment at Normal Schools 



291 




292 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



and after the close of the year 1929-30 will have only women stu- 
dents. (See Table 172.) 

All of the counties except Dorchester, Howard, Somerset, Bal- 
timore, St. Mary's, Talbot, and Washington will have fewer home 
county girls graduating from the normal schools in 1930 than 
they had in 1929. In Howard, Baltimore, Washington, and St. 
Mary's there is undoubtedly a need for an increase in graduates, 
since these counties had to employ graduates from other counties 
in order to fill their vacancies in the fall of 1929. (See Table 
172.) 

It is encouraging to find that Frederick, Garrett, jMontgomery, 
Cecil, Howard, and Anne Arundel have an increase in the junior 
enrollment in the normal schools, since a number of these coun- 
ties have a high percentage of tui'nover due to the short stay of 
many teachers employed whose homes are located outside the 
county. (See Table 172 and also pages 101 and 102.) 

Courses Taken by Juniors Admitted in 1929 

Of the 1929 normal school entrants nearly 90 per cent at Tow- 
son and Salisbury had had the academic course. At Frostburg 
the percentage who had taken the academic course was 84 with 
an increase in the proportion having had the general course. At 
Towson 5 per cent, at Salisbury I ])er cent, and at Frostburg 2 
per cent of the junior entrants in 1929 had had the commercial 
course. At Salisbury 2 per cent of the junior entrants in 1929 
had had the vocational course. (See left half of Table 173.) 



TABLK 17;i 
1929 Normal School Entrants 



High School Course 


Per Cent HavinR 
Had Various Hi^h 
School Courses 


Third of 
Class 


Per Cent from Upper. 
Middle and Lower Third 
of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg: 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Academic and College Prepara- 
tory 

General 

Coinnierrial 

Scientific, Vocational or Tech- 
nical 

Unclassified 

Total 


89. (> 
4.6 
5 . .3 

. "> 


83,7 
13.3 
2.0 

10 


90.2 

3 3 

4 3 

2.2 


I'pper 

Middlr. . 
Lower ... . 
Unclassified... 

Total . 


*47.7 
*35 . 
*13.7 
* 3 .() 


39 8 
4(» 9 
10 2 
3 1 


46.7 
41 3 
8.7 
3.3 


394 


98 


92 


394 


98 


92 



* After the withdrawal of 47 entrants, the percentages became: Upper, 51.0; Middle, 34.9; Lower, 
11.8, Unclassified, 2.3 respectively. 



High School Class Standing of Junior Entrants in 1929 

Nearly one-half of the entrants at Towson and Salisbury came 
from the upper third of their school classes, and at Frostburg 
this was the case for 40 per cent of the group. Towson had but 
35 per cent from the middle group, Salisbury 41 per cent, while 



1929 Enrollment and Withdrawals of 1928 Juniors 



293 



Frostbur(>- had 47 per cent in this group. Frostburg made up for 
its lack in the upper group from the middle group. Salisbury 
had the smallest per cent from the lowest third in the high school 
classes, 9 per cent, while Towson had 14 per cent in this group 
before the elimination of non-recommended entrants. After this 
elimination the percentage at Towson from the lowest group was 
reduced, to 12. (See right half of Table 178.) 

Withdrawals of Juniors Who Entered in 1928 

There was a loss of juniors who entered in September, 1928, 
before the following September of 23 per cent for Baltimore City 
juniors, and of 18 per cent for county juniors admitted to Tow- 
son; of 20 per cent for Frostburg juniors; and of 16 per cent for 
Salisbury juniors. Frostburg had the largest percentage with- 
drawn at the request of the school, viz. 10 per cent, while Salis- 
bury asked for the withdrawal of 3 per cent. Voluntary with- 
drawals, however, occurred in the case of certain students who 
expected that a request for withdrawal might be forthcoming. 
Voluntary withdrawals were lowest at Frostburg, 9 per cent, 
while they were highest for the City juniors at Towson, nearly 
15 per cent. At Salisbury and for county students at Towson, 
voluntary withdrawals of juniors between September, 1928 and 
1929, averaged about 13 per cent. Some of the withdrawals oc- 
curred immediately after the entrance examinations, while others 
came during the year after the close of the various tenns when 
students failed to meet the standards set up by the school. (See 
Table 174.) 

TABLE 174 



Juniors Who Entered Maryland Normal Schools in September, 1928, Who 
Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily Before 

September, 1929 





Towson 


Frost- 


SaHs- 


Junior Enrollment September, 1928. . . , 


City 


County 


burg 


bury 


174 


178 


89 


98 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer or 










Death 


3 


3 


2 




Withdrawals bv Request 


15 


10 


9 


3 


Withdrawals Voluntarily 


25 


22 


8 


13 


Per Cent Withdrawn by Request 


8.8 


5.7 


10 3 


3.1 


Per Cent \\'ithdrawn Voluntarily 


14.6 


12.6 


9.2 


13.3 


Total Per Cent Withdrawn 


23.4 


18.3 


19.5 


16 4 



Quality vs. Quantity for Normal School Entrants 

Early in the last decade it was necessary to campaip^n for hig^h 
school graduates to enter the normal schools in sufficient num- 
bers so that there would be enough graduates from the nomial 
schools to fill the vacant positions in the elementary schools. 



V 



294 1929 Report of State Department of Education 

Now, however, it is no longer a problem of large numbers, but 
one of securing the most desirable candidates for the teaching 
profession. The presence of more normal school graduates in 
the schools who have adopted teaching as a career; the stability 
given the profession by the retirement system; the more nearly 
adequate salaries; the better equipped schools and work under 
the leadership of trained supervisors made possible through the 
aid of the Equalization Fund in the financially poorer counties, 
have all contributed to reduce the turnover in the teaching staff. 

Normal Schools Have Same Standards as Colleges 

Admission to the normal schools is on the same basis as that 
to other State aided and State supported institutions of higher 
learning in Maryland. The application for admission has been 
revised so that the high school principal will state definitely 
whether the high school graduate applying for admission has or 
has not met the standards set up by the State Board of Education 
for county students and those set up by the Board of School Com- 
missioners for city students. These standards are shown below. 

requirements for admission to the normal school without exami- 
nation IN HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECT MATTER 

Adopted by State Board of Education 

Maryland high school principals shall certify for entrance to 
any Maryland State-supported or State-aided institution of 
higher learning any student who has met the published subject- 
matter requirements of the particular higher institution, and 
who has made a grade of A or B in at least 60% of the college 
entrance courses which have been pursued in the last two years 
of the high school course, and a grade of C or higher in all other 
college entrance courses which have been pursued during the last 
two years of the high school course. 

An applicant may, at the discretion of the noiTnal school prin- 
cipal, be admitted on probation without meeting the standards, 
provided — he passes the entrance tests satisfactorily. 

Adopted by the Board of School Commissioners in Baltimore City in 
February, 1928 

(a) The principal of the senior hi^h school shall certify for admis- 
sion to college, without examination, any pupil who has at- 
tained a scholastic average of 809r or more in senior high 
school major subjects, provided that the pupil has not received 
a grade lower than 70% in any major subject. 

(b) Any pupil whose general scholastic average in senior high 
school major subjects if 75% or more, but less than 807r, may 
be certified by the principal of the senior high school if, in the 
judgment of the principal, such pupil should be recommended. 

(c) Any pupil not recommended under regulation (a) or (b) in this 
rule shall be certified only in those subjects in which he has 
received an average of 80% or more. 



Entrance Requirements at Normal Schools 



295 



(d) A pupil shall not be certified to a hi^^-her institution of learn- 
ing- if the curriculum completed by him in the secondary school 
does not prepare him for the particular curriculum to be pur- 
sued in the college or university. 

Results of Entrance Tests at Towson 

Every junior student admitted to the normal schools is given 
a battery of tests of intelligence, reading, English, arithmetic, 
and music. Records of the results of the intelligence tests given 
juniors entering Towson since 1923 show a remarkable gain in 
the per cent above the college norm in intelligence. Since 1926 
the same test has been in use and the per cent above the college 
noi*m in intelligence has increased from 24 to 42. 

The facts regarding junior students who were admitted to 
Towson on probation in September, 1929, are given below: 



TABLE 175 

Junior Entrants Admitted on Probation at Towson Normal School 

September, 1929 

From From the Counties 

Baltimore Not 
City t Recommended Recommended 

Admitted on probation 53 38 34 

Failed to pass entrance tests 14 3 3 

On probation one term _ , 39 35 31 

Dropped at end of first term 10 4 7 

Per cent on probation dropped 45.3 18.4 29.4 

Reason for Having- Higher Standards at Normal Schools 

The normal schools are training graduates for the teaching 
profession to which admission is possible by normal school grad- 
uation. By virtue of holding the normal school diploma, the 
graduate receives a State teacher's certificate good for three 
years and renewable under certain conditions. It is probably 
necessary for the normal schools to have even higher standards 
for its student body than do the liberal arts colleges in courses 
other than those leading to teaching, and the universities train- 
ing engineers, doctors, lawyers, etc. When the latter graduate a 
student, the building up of his practice or profession is a slow 
process depending on his success in competition with others in 
his profession. There is no similar competition in the teaching 
profession. Parents and children who do not approve of a 
teacher cannot choose to have instruction from another teacher 
as long as the one employed meets the requirements of the board 
of education. It is, therefore, necessary for the normal schools 
to be reasonably sure that those that graduate will do satisfac- 
tory work under ordinary conditions. 

t By hiKh school principals, but did not meet State requirement of 60% A and B grades, 
and no yrade below C during the last two years of hijfh scho<il course. 



296 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



Because it is difficult to give normal school students sufficient 
subject matter, observation and practice in the two-year course, 
the lengthening of the course to three years is under considera- 
tion. Legislation will be needed to bring this change about and 
the cooperation of the 1931 legislature in this matter may be 
sought. 

FACULTY AND TRAINING CENTERS 

There were 47 instructors on the faculties of the three State 
normal schools in October, 1929, an increase of 2 over the pre- 
ceding year, one each at Towson and Salisbury. Each of the 
three campus schools showed an additional teacher, Towson hav- 
ing 12, Frostburg 5, and Salisbury 3. Towson had 18 coopera- 
ting county training centers, Salisbuiy 11, and Frostburg 5. In 
Baltimore City there were .21 centers for observation and prac- 
tice by the city students at Towson. Salisbury added one to the 
office staff and one to the library staff, thus making available two 
for the office and two for the library work. (See Table 176.) 

TABLE 176 

Faculty at Maryland Normal Schools for White Students, Fall of 1929 



Towson Frostburg Salisbury Total 



Principal 1 1 1 3 

Instructors 31 8 Jt§8 47 

Library 5 2 t2 9 

Eleniciitary Campus 

School *12 x5 3 20 

Training Centers 

County 18 o 11 34 

Baltimore City 21 21 

Office Staff 8 2 2 12 

Dormitory Staff 7 °2 §2 11 



♦Includes a principal, kindergartner, 8 teachers of grades, a helping teacher and a clerk, 
xincludes an "intern critic". 

"The social director pives a course in education. 

t Includes the director of training: who also acts as principal of the elementary school. 
tThe librarian teaches English and the assistant librarian acts also as junior stenog- 
rapher in the office. 

§ The social director teaches home economics and the nurse also acts as assistant social 
director. 

The county training centers cooperating with Towson showed 
a decrease of two in Baltimore County and an increase of 2 in 
Anne Arundel. There were 2 additional centers in Baltimore 
City. (See Table 177.) 



Faculty, Training Centers, Summer Session, Costs 297 

TABLE 177 

Training Centers for Maryland Normal Schools, Fall of 1929 



Number of Number of 

Normal School at County Co-operating Schools Teachers 

Towson Baltimore 8 12 

Anne Arundel 1 4 

Harford 1 2 

Total Counties 10 18 

Baltimore City 8 21 

Campus School 1 12 

Frostburg Allegany 5 5 

Campus School 1 5 

Salisbury Wicomico 7 10 

Somerset 1 1 

Campus School 1 3 



SUMMER SESSION AT FROSTBURG 

There were 102 students in the Frostburg summer school, 54 
from Allegany County, 43 from Garrett, and 48 from elsewhere. 
Of the 80 holding teachers' certificates, all except 9 held first 
grade certificates. There were 18 regular normal school students 
who took advantage of the courses offered. The enrollment was 
9 lower than for the preceding year. There were 10 members 
of the faculty not including the principal. 

For the number of teachers serving in white elementary 
schools in October, 1929, who were reported by superintendents 
as having attended summer school in 1929, see Table 33, page 
54. 

COST PER NORMAL SCHOOL STUDENT 
Costs at Towson 

Expenditures at Towson for the regular session were about 
$1,000 more than the corresponding amount expended the pre- 
ceding year. The receipts from students for the regular session 
were $11,555 lower than in 1928 because of a reduction of 84 in 
the average number of day and of 43 in the average number of 
resident students. Since there was no summer session at Tow- 
son, there were no receipts and expenditures for this purpose. 

The average expenditure for instruction of a student at Tow- 
son was $289, which meant a cost to the State of $269 per 
student, after the $20 contributed in fees per student is deducted. 
In calculating this cost per normal school student there is in- 
cluded the entire amount required for the instruction of 239 
pupils in the elementary training school needed for observation, 
demonstration and practice by the normal school students. There 
was also a resident physician who gave physical examinations 



298 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



and health instruction to all normal and elementary school pupils. 
The total dormitory cost of a resident student was $340. Since 
the average student paid *$154 toward the cost of food, the 
State's contribution toward the dormitory expense of the aver- 
age resident student was $186. The average day student at 
Towson, therefore, cost the State $269, and the average resident 
student required an expenditure by the State of $455. (See first 
two columns in Table 178.) 

Costs at Frostburji 

At Frostburg contributions of each student toward student 
activities have been eliminated from receipts and expenditures. 
This means that the receipts and expenditures for 1928 and 1929 
are not comparable. The number of day students at Frostburg 
was 16 fewer in 1929 than in 1928. The total cost per day stu- 
dent at Frostburg was $323. To State expenditures made direct- 
ly to the Frostburg Normal School have been added the expendi- 
tures by Allegany County for the elementary school enrolling 
116 pupils who were in the normal school for observation, demon- 
stration and practice work by normal school students. Since the 
amount of the Equalization Fund paid to Allegany was more 
than Allegany County expended for the Frostburg Demonstra- 
tion School, it may be assumed that the State paid for this par- 
ticular elementary school. Deducting students' fees made the 
State's expenditure for instruction per student $306 as compared 
with $269 at Towson. The dormitory cost at Frostburg based on 
the 79 students who were residents required a contribution by 
the State of $67 per student. The total cost to the State of edu- 
cating a resident student at Frostburg was $373 or $82 less than 
for the corresponding resident student at Towson. (See col- 
umns 3 and 4 in Tabic 178.) 

Costs at Salisbury 

At Salisbury the cost per student for instruction was lower 
than at Towson or Frostburg. The total cost of instruction per 
student was $278 which required an expenditure by the State for 
the instruction of each student of $263. This amount also in- 
cludes the cost of instructing 63 pupils in the elementary training 
school maintained by the State for the benefit of the normal 
school students for observation, demonstration and practice pur- 
poses. The dormitory expenditures were $252 for each boarding 
student. When the fees paid by each dormitory student are de- 
ducted, the appropriation required from the State was $75. This 
was $111 lower than the corresponding cost at Towson and $8 
higher than the corresponding cost at Frostburg. The cost to 
the State for a day student at Salisbury was $263 and for a res- 
ident student $338. A transfer of $7,000 to the construction ac- 



* students rooming and boarding in the dormitory paid $180 or $5 per week. Men 
students lived in private homes in Towson, but boarded at the school, paving $72 or $2 ner 
week. 



Cost Per Normal School Student 



299 



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300 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



count for purchase of furniture and equipment and $3,449.75 
spent for curtains and equipment for the auditorium stage have 
been deducted from the expenditures shown at SaHsbury since 
expenditures for these items should be considered as capital out- 
lay. (See Columns 7 and 8 in Table 178.) 

The total cost of instruction per student at the three schools 
varied from $263 to $323, Salisbur^^ having the lowest cost and 
Frostburg the highest. For the expenditures for room and board 
for those who lived in the dormitory, the school having the small- 
est number of resident students (Frostburg) had the lowest 
dormitory costs per student, $204, while the school with the 
largest number of resident students, Towson, had the highest 
cost per student, $340. The dormitory cost to the State varied 
from $67 to $186 per resident or boarding student. It must be 
remembered that the dormitory at Towson could have cared for 
more students than were actually in residence with very little 
increase in cost, food being probably the only item which would 
have shown a gain. An increase which brings the number of 
students in residence beyond 100 or 150 probably requires a 
larger proportion of expenditure for overhead as dormitory 
problems become more complex with the size of the group to be 
cared for. The cost of many items of food and especially of ser- 
vice in the vicinity of Baltimore is higher than similar costs in 
the western and southeastern parts of the State. 

The summer session at Frostburg cost the State $41 for each 
day student and $76 for each resident student. (See columns 5 
and 6 in Table 178.) 

The following data show the inventories of the three normal 
schools as of September 30, 1929. 

Inventories of the Normal Schools 
TABLE 179 



Towson Frostburg Salisbury 

Land $98,147 $25,808 $16,000 

Buildings 1,028,004 293,654 693,748 

Equipment 158,794 15,886 54,255 

Livestock 1,174 



Total _ - $1,281,179 $335,408 $760,003 



NEW CONSTRUCTION AT FROSTBURG 

The construction budget approved by the 1929 legislature in- 
cluded provision of $50,000 for an elementary training school 
building and equipment, and for paving at the Frostburg Normal 



Normal School Per Student Cost; Teachers' Retirement System 301 



School. The funds are not to be available until 1930, but con- 
struction will be completed during the summer of 1930 so that 
the building will be ready for use in September. The new build- 
ing will have six classrooms for the six elementaiy gi*ades below 
the junior high school, with additional rooms for smaller group 
teaching, as well as a library room and office. With the comple- 
tion of this building, the State Normal School at Frostburg will 
be splendidly equipped for observation, demonstration, and stu- 
dent teaching. 

THE MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its second year 
of operation received contributions from 4,619 county teachers 
to the amount of $257,899.47, an increase of $17,281.63 over the 
contributions received during 1927-28. In October 1929 more 
than 91 per cent of all county teachers were contributing mem- 
bers of the Teachers' Retirement System. The range in per cent 
of the teaching staff contributing to the Retirement System was 
from 82.6 in Washington, 83.7 in Talbot and 83.9 in Anne Arun- 
del and Wicomico to 95.9 in Allegany and 96.9 in Cecil. In the 
first year of the establishment of the system nine counties had a 
smaller percentage of membership than did the lowest county at 
the beginning of the third year of its operation. (See Table 
180.) 

During 1928-29 the sj^stem carried on its rolls 265 teachers 
retired on the old basis, with a $400 annual pension at a total 
cost of $106,000. There are 82 members who retired on the new 
basis at a cost to the State of $41,271.82 who in addition received 
$268.56 which they themselves had contributed. Of the retire- 
ments on the new basis, 74 were service, and 8 disability retire- 
ments. Six teachers who died in service received in death bene- 
fits $5,456.63 and $775.29 which they had themselves contributed. 
Teachers who left the service withdrew $27,919.42 which they 
had contributed. The expense of administration was $8,406.94. 

For the year ending September 30, 1929 an appropriation of 
$197,000 was available from the Public School and supplemental 
budgets. The 1929 Legislature appropriated funds amounting 
to $424,654 in 1930 and $445,886 for 1931 which covered the 
normal contribution and the accrued liability contribution of the 
State of Maryland on account of the county members of the 
Maryland State Teachers' Retirement System. The law pro- 
vides that the State shall contribute to the City of Baltimore an 
amount equal to what would be required if the teachei-s of Balti- 
more City were members of the Maryland Teachers' Retirement 
System instead of belonging to the Retirement System available 
to all employees of the City of Baltimore. These amounts fixed 



302 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 180 

Contributions and Number Contributing to the Annuity Savings Fund of 
the Teachers' Retirement System of the State of Maryland and 
Per Cent of October, 1929 Staff Who Are Contributors 



Number 

COUNTY OR INSTITUTION ■ 

tributors 
1928-29 

County: 

Allegany 438 

Anne Arundel 244 

Baltimore 508 

Calvert 58 

Caroline 119 

Carroll 240 

Cecil 160 

Charles 106 

Dorchester 158 

Frederick 314 

Garrett 189 

Harford 183 

Howard 97 

Kent 107 

Montgomery 282 

Prince George's 358 

Queen Anne's 90 

St. Mary's 77 

Somerset 150 

Talbot 104 

Washington 330 

\\ icoinico 164 

Worcester 143 

Total Counties 4.619 

Normal School: 

Tow.son 47 

Frost burg 7 

Salisbury 11 

Howie 16 

Total 81 

Department: 

State Department of Education 221 

Md. Public Library Advisory Commission. . . 3 

Md. Teachers' Retirement System 2J 

Total 27 

Other School: 

Md. Training School for Boys 19 

Montrose School 12 

Md. School for the Deaf 27 

Rosewood 6 

Total 64 

Grand Total 4.791 



Amount 
Contributed 
1928-29 



S28.219.42 
13,262.97 
37,796.34 
2,584.45 
5,579.31 
12,969.28 
9,116.03 
4.333.11 
7 . 299 . 92 
17,276.62 
9 , 453 . 06 
9,628.25 
4.865.57 
*5,586.16 
15,884 34 
18,840.40 
5,335.48 
3.137.73 
7,010.86 
5,516.94 
19,267.85 
8,367.68 
6,567.70 



6,317.61 
1.043.65 
1 . 558 . 22 
721.42 



1,465.67 
731.10 

2 , 069 36 
920.47 



Per Cent 
of Oct. 
1929 Staff 
Contribu- 
ting 

95.9 
83.9 
95.5 
94.0 
86.0 
94.2 
96.9 
89.3 
90.2 
93.5 
89.7 
91.2 
84.9 
95.5 
94.7 
95.9 
91.3 
85.2 
95.0 
83.7 
82.6 
83.9 
88.2 



$*257,899.47 91.2 



83.1 
66.7 
88.9 
100.0 



$9,640.90 84.4 
100.0 

4,395.15 100 
100.0 



S4.395.15 100.0 



82.6 
100 
t 

100.0 



S5, 186.60 
$*277,122.12 



* Excludes $721.06 paid in 1929-30 but due in 1928-29. 
t Data not available. 



Teachers' Retirement System 



303 



by the actuary at $411,893 for 1930 and $432,487 for 1931 were 
included in the State Public School Budget. In addition an 
annual appropriation of $7,500 was made to meet the expenses 
of administration of the State Retirement System. 

The decreased turnover in the county schools noted on pages 
55-59 and pages 135-138 can probably be attributed in a small 
degree to the satisfactory operation of the Teachers' Retirement 
System. As the years go on the Retirement System will prove 
more and more effective in holding experienced teachers and 
supervisors in Maryland. This will bring inestimable benefit to 
the children by providing for continuity of policy and by obvia- 
ting the loss which takes place during the time teachers and 
pupils must spend in learning to know each other. 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent 
the Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 
ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physicians at the normal 
schools and colleges give a thorough physical examination to all 
graduates who are planning to take positions in the Maryland 
counties. All entrants into the service who have not had such ex- 
aminations are required to visit the physician in each county ap- 
pointed to examine such teachers. The State Department of 
Education bears the expense of such examination. Reports of 
these examinations are forwarded to the Medical Board of the 
Teachers' Retirement System. Certificates are issued only to 
those teachers, reports of whose physical examination are ap- 
proved by the Medical Board. 



304 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



STATISTICAL TABLES 
No. Subject Page / 

Financial Statements 305 r 

I School Buildings, Classrooms, and Seats 308 

II Number of Schools _ _ „ 309 

III Total Enrollment _ 310 

IV Non-Public School Enrollment 311 

V Number Belonging; Per Cent of Attendance 312 

VI Days in Session; Aggregate Days of Attendance; Aver- 
age Daily Attendance 313 

VII Non-Promotions by Grade and Sex — White Elementary 

Schools - 314 

VIII Number of Teaching Positions _ 315 

IX Certificates of White Elementary Teachers, October, 

1929 31G 

X Certificates of Teachers in White One-Teacher Schools, 

October, 1929 317 

XI Certificates of Teachers in White Two-Teacher Schools, 

October, 1929 318 

XII Certificates of Colored Teachers, October, 1929 319 

XIII Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher, 

1928-29 _ - 320 

XIV Average Salary Per Teacher, 1928-29 321 

XV Badge Tests— White Schools _ 322 

XVI Teams and Entrants— White Schools 323 

XVII White Girls' Relay Teams and Entrants 324 

XVIII Badge Tests— Colored Schools _ _ 325 

XIX Teams and Entrants — Colored Schools «. 326 

XX Receipts From State, 1928-29 327 

XXI Receipts From All Sources, 1928-29 - 328 

XXII Total Di.^bursements, 1928-29 329 

XXIII Disbursements for General Control _ 330 

XXIV Disbursements for In.^truction and Operation 331 

XXV Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies, 

and Fixed Charges 332 

XXVI Disbursements for Debt Service and Capital Outlay 333 

XXVII Di.^bursoments for White Elementary Schools 334 

XXVIII Disbursements for White One-Teacher Schools - 335 

XXIX Disbursements for White Two-Teacher Schools _ 336 

XXX Disbursements for White Graded Schools 337 

XXXI Disbursements for Junior High Schools 336-9 

XXXII Disbursements for White High Schools 340 

XXXIII Disbursements for Colored Elementaiy Schools 341 

XXXIV Disbursements for Colored High Schools 342 

XXXV Enrollment in Commercial Courses in Individual High 

Schools „ - - - 343-5 

XXXVI Enrollment by Subject in Individual High Schools 346-51 

XXXVII Cost, Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates, Normal 
School Entrants, Courses in Individual High 
Schools - 352^57 



Index to Statistical Tables, Financial Statement 



30.1 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1929 



Account 



State 
Appro- 
priation 



Fees and 

Other 
Receipts 



Total 
Available 



Total 
Disburse- 
ments 



$.303,890 


.09 


$303 , 890 . 09 


97,024 


.81 


97,024 81 


79,215 


.67 


79.215 67 


53,914 


.55 


53,914.55 


68,782 


.59 


68 , 782 . 59 


12,354 


.53 


12,. 3.54. 53 


14,105 


57 


14,105 57 


8,719 


.10 


8,719. 10 


15,000 
22,823 


00 

89 


15,000.00 
22 , 823 . 89 


4,000 


00 


4 , 000 00 


1,000 
1,500 


00 
00 


1 , 000 . 00 
1 . 500 . 00 


500 


00 


500 . 00 


468,180. 


00 


468,180.00 


187,100. 


00 


187,100.00 


.30,750. 
200,000. 


00 
00 


30,750 00 
200.000 00 


50,000. 


00 


50,000. (X) 


1,900.000. 
469,882. 


00 
00 


1.900,000 00 
t469,882.00 


.$3,988,742.80 


t$3.988.742.80 



Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Towson 

Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Salis- 
bury 

Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Frost- 
burg 

Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Bowie. 

State Department of 
Education 

Maryland Public Li- 
brary Advisory 
Commission 

Bureau of Educational 
Measurements 

Bureau of Publications 
and Printing 

Physical and Health 
Education 

Vocational Education 

Extension Courses for 
Teachers 

State Board of Educa- 
tion 

Consultant Architect 

Examination and Cer- 
tification 

State Aid to Approved 
High Schools 

Part Payment of Cer- 
tain Salaries 

State Aid to Colored 
Industrial Schools. . 

Free Textbooks 

Materials of Instruc- 
tion 

Census and Attend- 
ance 

Equalization Fund . . . , 

Totals 



$237,0.39.00 

67,885.00 

58,463.00 
38,170.00 
66,900.00 



9,249 

12,000 

7,000 

15,000 
15,000. 



00 

00 

00 

00 
00 



4,000.00 



1,000 
1,500 

500 

468,130. 

187,000. 

30,750. 
200,000. 



00 
00 

00 

00 

00 

00 
00 



50,000.00 



1,900,000. 
469,882. 



00 
00 



.$3,839,468.00 



$66,851.09 

29,139.81 

20,752.67 
15,744.55 
1,882.59 

3,105.53 
2,105.57 
1,719.10 



7,823.89 



50.00 
100.00 



$149,274.80 



t Includes $8,662.15 transferee! by budget amendment to the Eiiualization Fund for the 
year 1929-30. 



306 



1929 



Report of State Department of Education 





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Enrollmp:nt in Public and Parochial and Privatk Schools 311 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, School Year Ending June 30, 1929 



County 


WHITE 


COLORED 


No. 
of 

Schools 


Enrollment 


No. 

of 

Teachers 


Elemen- 
tary 


Commer- 
cial 
and 

Secondary 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enroll- 
ment 


No. 
of 

Teachers 


tCATHOLic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of 1928 


Allegany 


8 
1 

12 
1 
2 
2 
7 
1 
2 
4 
2 
4 

10 
1 


2,145 
310 

1,980 
27 
195 
303 
565 
76 
323 
447 
101 
584 
915 
380 


113 


58 
6 
75 
12 
6 
11 
47 
4 
8 
14 
18 
16 
36 
8 








Anne Arundel 


1 


104 


2 


Baltimore 


58 
23 


Caroline 








Carroll 








Charles 




1 

2 


118 

28 


2 

2 




120 


Harford 










Howard 




1 


39 


1 


Montgomery 


109 


Prince George's 


1 

2 


94 
175 


2 
6 


St. Mary's 

Washington 


iy2 


Total Counties 

Baltimore City 

Total State 










57 
67 


8,351 
28,274 


525 
2,491 


319 
734 


8 
9 


558 
"1,147 


15 
48 


124 


36,625 


3,016 


1,053 


17 


1,705 


63 



♦Private Schools 



Allegany 


1 
2 
4 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 


24 
53 
153 


18 
107 
277 
7 

175 
35 
a 140 


Full 

Time 


Part 
Time 






7 
12 
47 

1 

43 
3 

b20 
3 
9 
11 


2 
2 
16 


Anne Arundel 






Baltimore 






Carroll 






Cecil 


262 
11 
19 
14 


1 
4 
625 






Howard 






Montgomery 






Prince George's 






St. Mary's 


153 
66 


6 






Washington 


31 






Total Counties 








18 

9 


567 
1,312 


978 
604 


156 
152 


56 
32 






♦Baltimore City 






Total State 






27 


1 ,879 


1 ,582 


308 


88 













t Fitfures furnished by courtesy of Father John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic 
Schools. 

° Includes 16 secondary pupils. 

♦ Figures furni.shed by principals of schools; in four cases 1928 fijoires were used, 
a Includes 37 in junior or college departments in Chevy Chase School and excludes 
the junior oolletre at National Park. 

b Includes the faculty of the junior college at Chevy Chase. 



312 



1929 Report of State Department of Education 



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